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diabetes OR polycystic OR muscle

Joanne E Taylor, Lesley V Campbell, Lulu Zhang, Jerry R Greenfield
We conducted three single-day point type 2 diabetes prevalence surveys of all inpatient clinical records in November 2013, 2014 and 2016. The prevalence of diabetes was 19.7-25.3%. The majority (63.4-76%) had type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one percent (n = 21) in 2013, 12% (n = 9) in 2014 and 22.6% (n = 21) in 2016 were diagnosed with diabetes during hospital admission; 41.8% (n = 41) in 2013, 46.7% (n = 35) in 2014 and 51.6% (n = 48) in 2016 required insulin. The high prevalence of diabetes among inpatients mandates active detection and specialist management of diabetes during the admission...
December 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Thomas Morville, Tine Dohlmann, Anja B Kuhlman, Tine Monberg, Mimmi Torp, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst, Steen Larsen, Jørn W Helge, Flemming Dela
Background Statins are widely used to lower cholesterol concentrations in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. The treatment increases the risk of muscle pain (myalgia) and of type 2 diabetes. However, the underlying mechanisms remain disputed. Methods We investigated whether statin induced myalgia is coupled to impaired glucose homeostasis using oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) and the hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. We performed a cross-sectional study of statin users without CVD (primary prevention) stratified into a statin myalgic (M; n=25) and a non-myalgic (NM; n=39) group as well as a control group (C; n=20) consisting of non-statin users...
December 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Emma J Ridley
Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). In this issue, See and colleagues provide new, preliminary evidence of the prevalence of malnutrition in a small group of HBOT outpatients treated in an Australian hospital, reporting that approximately one-third of patients receiving HBOT were at risk of malnutrition...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Ilana E Green, Shareena A Rahman, Debra L Owens, Michèle M Sale, Lillian J Currie, Keith L Keene, Bradford B Worrall, Andrew M Southerland
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The majority of published data in cervical artery dissection (CeAD), a common cause of stroke in young adults, derive from populations of European ancestry (EA), including a recent genome-wide study identifying an association with the rs9349379 polymorphism of the PHACTR1 gene. Little is known about CeAD in individuals of African ancestry (AA) despite robust epidemiological data showing increased risk of stroke at younger ages. We hypothesize that AA patients with CeAD have different epidemiology and clinical profiles compared to those of EA, and a different genetic architecture related to rs9349379 of the PHACTR1 gene...
December 5, 2018: Cerebrovascular Diseases
Karen M Van de Velde-Kossmann
Renal failure patients have an increased risk of infection, including skin and soft tissue infections. This increased susceptibility is multifactorial, due to the conditions causing the renal failure as well as complications of treatment and renal failure's innate effects on patient health. These infections have a significant impact on patient morbidity, increased hospital and procedural demands, and the cost of health care. Many renal failure patients are seen regularly by their nephrology clinic caregivers due to the need for frequent dialysis and transplant monitoring...
December 5, 2018: Blood Purification
Simone Tassani, Josep M Font-Llagunes, Miguel Ángel González Ballester, Jérôme Noailly
BACKGROUND: Muscular co-contraction is a strategy commonly used by elders with the aim to increase stability. However, co-contraction leads to stiffness which in turns reduces stability. Some literature seems to suggest an opposite approach and to point out relaxation as a way to improve stability. Teaching relaxation is therefore becoming the aim of many studies letting unclear whether tension or relaxation are the most effective muscular strategy to improve stability. Relaxation is a misleading concept in our society...
November 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Kim A Connelly, Deepak L Bhatt, Subodh Verma
Heart failure and renal disease remain significant complications in people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recent outcome studies with sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors have provided increasing insights, with the latest reporting trial DECLARE-TIMI 58 (Wiviott et al., 2018), pointing toward a role for these agents in the primary prevention of cardio-renal complications in T2D.
December 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
David Z I Cherney, Tony K T Lam
Metformin is a first-line glucose-lowering agent in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Recently in Nature Medicine, Sun et al. (2018) reported that short-term metformin therapy decreases gut Bacteroides fragilis, consequently increasing glycoursodexoycholic acid (GUDCA) levels in humans. As an antagonist of FXR, GUDCA may carry therapeutic potential in the treatment of T2D.
December 4, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Eileen R Chasens, Charles W Atwood, Lora E Burke, Mary Korytkowski, Robert Stansbury, Patrick J Strollo, Susan M Sereika
The Diabetes Sleep Treatment Trial (DSTT) is a multi-site, double-blinded, randomized, sham-controlled trial. The study objective is to test whether treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment results in improved glycemic control and diabetes self-management behavior compared to participants on a sham-CPAP (sub-therapeutic) device in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and co-morbid OSA. The purpose of this paper is to describe the premise for the DSTT, the study design, and the methodology used in this on-going trial...
December 2, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Daniela Rojas-Azofeifa, Mahmood Sasa, Bruno Lomonte, Elia Diego-García, Natalia Ortiz, Fabián Bonilla, Renato Murillo, Jan Tytgat, Cecilia Díaz
Venoms of medically important scorpions from Buthidae family have been intensively studied, in contrast to non-buthid venoms, for which knowledge is scarce. In this work, we characterized the venom of a Diplocentridae species, Didymocentrus krausi, a small fossorial scorpion that inhabits the Tropical Dry Forest of Central America. D. krausi venom soluble fraction contains proteases with enzymatic activity on gelatin and casein. Mass spectrometry and venomic analysis confirmed the presence of elastase-like, cathepsin-O-like proteases and a neprilysin-like metalloproteinase...
December 2, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Alisa K Zimmermann, Fiona Barnett
Accredited Exercise Physiologists (AEPs) prescribe exercise and physical activity interventions for people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). During initial consultations, AEPs face the challenge of collecting enough information to facilitate behaviour change and adherence to treatment recommendations. The objective of this research is to explore the initial consultation practices of AEPs with clients living with T2DM and resultant recommendations provided to clients to promote long-term adherence...
December 6, 2018: Australian Journal of Primary Health
Samuel T Orange, Phil Marshall, Leigh A Madden, Rebecca V Vince
This study examined the relationship between sit-to-stand (STS) power and physical function in adults with severe obesity. Thirty-eight adults (age: 44 ± 12 years; body mass index [BMI]: 45.2 ± 7.8 kg/m2 ) completed evaluations of STS power, strength and functional performance. STS power was measured with a wearable inertial sensor, strength was assessed with the isometric mid-thigh pull, and function was measured with the timed up-and-go (TUG), six-minute walk test (6MWT) and 30-s chair STS. Power and strength (normalised to body mass) entered regression models in addition to age, gender, BMI and physical activity (daily step count)...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Paul T Ogink, Frederik R Teunissen, Julie R Massier, Kevin A Raskin, Joseph H Schwab, Santiago A Lozano-Calderon
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Allograft reconstruction of the humerus after resection is preferred by many because of bone stock restoration and biologic attachment of ligaments and muscles to the allograft, theoretically obtaining superior stability and functionality. Our aim was to assess the prevalence of complications and the incidence and etiology for revision surgery in humeral allograft reconstructions. METHODS: We included patients 18 years and older who underwent wide resection and allograft reconstruction of the humerus for primary and metastatic lesions at our institution between 1990 and 2013...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Y T B Bambaradeniya, W A I P Karunaratne, J K Tomberlin, I Goonerathne, R B Kotakadeniya
Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve is the major human myiasis producer in tropical countries, including Sri Lanka. Although of great medical and veterinary importance, only a single study has been published on the development of C. bezziana. This limitation is due in part to the difficulty of maintaining this species in a colony outside of using a living host. In this study, a novel technique that overcomes this limitation is presented along with development data for C. bezziana fed on three different meat types: swine muscle, swine liver, and bovine muscle at two temperature regimes: 35 and 37°C...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Susanna Dunachie, Parinya Chamnan
Four out of five people in the world with diabetes now live in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and the incidence of diabetes is accelerating in poorer communities. Diabetes increases susceptibility to infection and worsens outcomes for some of the world's major infectious diseases such as tuberculosis, melioidosis and dengue, but the relationship between diabetes and many neglected tropical diseases is yet to be accurately characterised. There is some evidence that chronic viral infections such as hepatitis B and HIV may predispose to the development of type 2 diabetes by chronic inflammatory and immunometabolic mechanisms...
December 4, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Toshiyuki Kimura, Véronique L Roger, Nozomi Watanabe, Sergio Barros-Gomes, Yan Topilsky, Shun Nishino, Yoshisato Shibata, Maurice Enriquez-Sarano
Aims: Mechanisms of chronic ischaemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) are well-characterized by apically tethered leaflet caused by papillary muscles (PMs) displacement and adynamic mitral apparatus. We investigated the unique geometry and dynamics of the mitral apparatus in first acute myocardial infarction (MI) by using quantified 3D echocardiography. Methods and results: We prospectively performed 3D echocardiography 2.3 ± 1.8 days after first MI, in 174 matched patients with (n = 87) and without IMR (n = 87)...
December 4, 2018: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Yuan Yuan, Qingyun Mai, Jiaxuan Ma, Mingfen Deng, Yanwen Xu, Guanglun Zhuang, Canquan Zhou
STUDY QUESTION: Do human embryos survive long-term cryopreservation (CP) (≥12 years) and implant after frozen embryo transfer (ET)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Human embryos remain usable after long-term CP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several cohort studies have reported the live birth rate or neonatal outcomes of human embryos after CP for up to 5 years. Only a few case reports have described successful live births from human embryos after long-term CP up to 12 years...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Claes Ohlsson, Maria Bygdell, Maria Nethander, Annika Rosengren, Jenny M Kindblom
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the role of change in body mass index (BMI) during puberty, independent of childhood overweight, for the risk of adult type 2 diabetes in men. Study design, population and outcome: We included 36,176 men who had weight and height measured at age 8 (childhood) and 20 (young adult age) available from the BMI Epidemiology Study (BEST) and the Conscription register. Information on type 2 diabetes (n=1,777) was retrieved from the Swedish National Patient Register...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Nanthini Jayabalan, Andrew Lai, Valeska Ormazabal, Stefanie Adam, Dominic Guanzon, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ratana Lim, Thomas Jansson, Harold David McIntyre, Martha Lappas, Carlos Salomon
Context: Molecules produced by adipose tissue (AT) function as an endocrine link between maternal AT and fetal growth by regulating placental function in normal and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Objective: We hypothesised that AT-derived exosomes from women with GDM carry a specific set of proteins that influences glucose metabolism in placenta. Design: Exosomes were isolated from omental AT-conditioned media from pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance (exo-NGT, n=65) and women with GDM (exo-GDM, n=82)...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
David X Liu, Donna L Perry, Lisa Evans DeWald, Yingyun Cai, Katie R Hagen, Timothy K Cooper, Louis M Huzella, Randy Hart, Amanda Bonilla, John G Bernbaum, Krisztina B Janosko, Ricky Adams, Reed F Johnson, Jens H Kuhn, Matthias J Schnell, Ian Crozier, Peter B Jahrling, Juan C de la Torre
Lassa fever (LF) survivors develop various clinical manifestations including polyserositis, myalgia, epididymitis, and hearing loss weeks to months after recovery from acute infection. We demonstrate a systemic lymphoplasmacytic and histiocytic arteritis and periarteritis in guinea pigs more than 2 months after recovery from acute Lassa virus (LASV) infection. LASV was detected in the arterial tunica media smooth muscle cells by immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and transmission electron microscopy...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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