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diabetes OR polycystic OR muscle

John Mark McLain, Wateen H Alami, Zachary T Glovak, Chris R Cooley, Susan J Burke, J Jason Collier, Helen A Baghdoyan, Michael D Karlstad, Ralph Lydic
Study Objective: This study tested the hypothesis that sleep fragmentation (SF) delays wound healing in obese B6.BKS(D)-Leprdb/J (db/db) mice with impaired leptin signaling and type 2 diabetes compared to wild-type C57BL/6J (B6) mice. Methods: Adult male mice (n=34) were anesthetized and bilateral full-thickness excisional wounds were created on the back of each mouse. Half of the db/db and B6 mice were housed in SF-cages equipped with a bar that moved across the cage floor every 2 min, 12 h/day for 23 days...
August 11, 2018: Sleep
Michael J Cook, Eftychia Bellou, John Bowes, Jamie C Sergeant, Terence W O'Neill, Anne Barton, Suzanne M M Verstappen
Objectives: To compare the prevalence and incidence of chronic co-morbidities in people with inflammatory rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (iRMDs), and to determine whether the prevalent co-morbidities are associated with physical activity levels in people with iRMDs and in those without iRMDs. Methods: Participants were recruited to the UK Biobank; a population-based cohort. Data were collected about demographics, physical activity, iRMDs (RA, PsA, AS, SLE) and other chronic conditions, including angina, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, pulmonary disease, diabetes and depression...
August 9, 2018: Rheumatology
Joao T Alves-Belo, Joao Mangussi-Gomes, Huy Q Truong, Salomon Cohen, Paul A Gardner, Carl H Snyderman, S Tonya Stefko, Eric W Wang, Juan C Fernandez-Miranda
BACKGROUND: The treatment of cerebrospinal fluid leaks of the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus (LRSS) faces difficulties due to the deep location of the osseous defect. When treated with craniotomies, brain retraction is a concern. The endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach (EETA) is a direct and less invasive procedure; however, it may require transection of the vidian nerve (VN). OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility of a lateral transorbital approach (LTOA) as an alternative pathway to the LRSS that avoids VN sacrifice...
August 9, 2018: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
S M Hosseini-Moghaddam, M Shokoohi, G Singh, S F Dufresne, A Boucher, A Jevnikar, G V R Prasad, A Shoker, D Kabbani, M Hebert, H Cardinal, I Houde, A Humar, D Kumar
Background: Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is associated with morbidity and mortality in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. In this case-control study, we determined the association between post-transplant PCP and 3 variables: cytomegalovirus infection, allograft rejection and prophylaxis. Methods: Eight transplantation centers participated. For each case (SOT recipient with PCP), 3-5 controls (SOT recipients without PCP) were included. Controls were matched to the cases based on transplant center, type of allograft and date of transplantation (± 6 months)...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Karlijn A C Meeks, Peter Henneman, Andrea Venema, Juliet Addo, Silver Bahendeka, Tom Burr, Ina Danquah, Cecilia Galbete, Marcel M A M Mannens, Frank P Mockenhaupt, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Charles N Rotimi, Matthias B Schulze, Liam Smeeth, Joachim Spranger, Mohammad H Zafarmand, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles Agyemang
Background: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from a complex interplay between genetics and the environment. Several epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) have found DNA methylation loci associated with T2D in European populations. However, data from African populations are lacking. We undertook the first EWAS for T2D among sub-Saharan Africans, aiming at identifying ubiquitous and novel DNA methylation loci associated with T2D. Methods: The Illumina 450k DNA-methylation array was used on whole blood samples of 713 Ghanaian participants (256 with T2D, 457 controls) from the cross-sectional Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Danilo Henrique Trevisan de Carvalho, Shaun Scholes, Jair Licio Ferreira Santos, Cesar de Oliveira, Tiago da Silva Alexandre
Background: Cross-sectional evidence has shown an association between abdominal obesity and lower muscle strength in older adults. However, no longitudinal findings have confirmed this association. In addition, the impact of abdominal fat on the reduction in muscle strength is not yet fully understood. Methods: We investigated the longitudinal associations between abdominal obesity and handgrip strength in 5,181 older adults from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) over eight years of follow-up...
August 10, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Mitsuru Sasaki-Honda, Tatsuya Jonouchi, Meni Arai, Akitsu Hotta, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Ichizo Nishino, Ryoichi Matsuda, Hidetoshi Sakurai
DUX4, the causative gene of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), is ectopically expressed in the skeletal muscle cells of FSHD patients because of chromatin relaxation at 4q35. The diminished heterochromatic state at 4q35 is caused by either large genome contractions (FSHD1) or mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulators, such as SMCHD1 (FSHD2). However, the mechanism by which DUX4 expression is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, using a myocyte model developed from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we determined that DUX4 expression was increased by oxidative stress (OS), a common environmental stress in skeletal muscle, in both FSHD1 and FSHD2 myocytes...
August 9, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Michael Asamoah-Boaheng, Eric Y Tenkorang, Osei Sarfo-Kantanka
Background: Type 2 diabetes affects an increasing number of Ghanaians. The timing of the onset of diabetes is linked to several other co-morbid conditions, yet no study has examined the timing of the onset of type 2 diabetes in Ghana. Methods: To fill this gap in the literature, this study applied logit models to data extracted from the medical records at the Diabetes Clinic of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana. Gender-specific models were also estimated...
August 11, 2018: International Health
Hairong Xu, Shan Lu, Lexi Ding, Liangkun Lyu, Zejun Ma, Qiulun Lu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: In clinical settings, the pulsatility index (PI) has become a widely used tool for monitoring obstetrics or other vascular diseases. It is based on the maximum Doppler shift waveform derived from ultrasonography. However, it remains unclear whether the PI levels are correctly predicted from the perfusion in mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. METHODS: To explore the relationship between PI and perfusion, we generated a unilateral hindlimb ischemia model in 8-week-old C57BL/6 male mice by ligation of the right common iliac artery and femoral artery...
August 14, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Wu Song, Lin Wei, Yanwei Du, Yimei Wang, Shuang Jiang
Though the antidiabetic effect of ginsenoside compound K (CK) has been well studied, the effect of CK on diabetic nephropathy (DN) is not clear. Whether CK would have a protective effect against DN and it could exert the protective effect by inhibiting the oxidative stress, NLRP3 inflammasome and NF-κB/p38 signaling pathway were investigated in this study. Here, the HFD (high fat diet)/STZ (streptozotocin)-induced DN mice model was established to assess the CK effect in vivo. Parallel experiments uncovering the molecular mechanism by which CK prevents from DN was performed in rat glomerular mesangial cell line HBZY-1 exposed to high glucose...
August 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
António Mesquita Montes, Carolina Tam, Carlos Crasto, Cristina Argel de Melo, Paulo Carvalho, Rita Santos, Rui Vilarinho, João Paulo Vilas-Boas
Despite the reported benefits of postures involving leaning the trunk forward with arm support for relieving dyspnea, how those postures influence the mechanics of breathing remains unclear. In response, the aim of the study reported here was to evaluate how posture (i.e., standing and sitting) and leaning the trunk forward with arm support affect the activity of accessory respiratory muscles and thoracoabdominal movement in healthy individuals. Thirty-five volunteers (15 males and 20 females) aged 18-29 years breathed with the same rhythm in standing and sitting positions while upright and while leaning the trunk forward with arm support...
August 11, 2018: Human Movement Science
Patrícia Oliveira, Luís Gabriel Antão Barboza, Vasco Branco, Neusa Figueiredo, Cristina Carvalho, Lúcia Guilhermino
The main objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of a mixture of microplastics and mercury on Corbicula fluminea, the post-exposure recovery, and the potential of microplastics to influence the bioconcentration of mercury by this species. Bivalves were collected in the field and acclimated to laboratory conditions for 14 days. Then, a 14-day bioassay was carried out. Bivalves were exposed for 8 days to clean medium (control), microplastics (0.13 mg/L), mercury (30 µg/L) and to a mixture (same concentrations) of both substances...
August 11, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Buddhika Karunarathne, Tingyi Wang, Richard H Y So, Anna C S Kam, Ray Meddis
The role of auditory efferent feedback from the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS) and the middle-ear-muscle (MEM) reflex in tonal detection tasks for humans in the presence of noise is not clearly understood. Past studies have yielded inconsistent results on the relationship between efferent feedback and tonal detection thresholds. This study attempts to address this inconsistency. Fifteen human subjects with normal hearing participated in an experiment where they were asked to identify an alarm signal in the presence of 80 dBA background (pink) noise...
July 27, 2018: Hearing Research
Erika Koltai, Zoltan Bori, Peter Osvath, Ferenc Ihasz, Szablics Peter, Geza Toth, Hans Degens, Jörn Rittweger, Istvan Boldogh, Zsolt Radak
Regular physical exercise has health benefits and can prevent some of the ageing-associated muscle deteriorations. However, the biochemical mechanisms underlying this exercise benefit, especially in human tissues, are not well known. To investigate, we assessed this using miRNA profiling, mRNA and protein levels of anti-oxidant and metabolic proteins in the vastus lateralis muscle of master athletes aged over 65 years and age-matched controls. Master athletes had lower levels of miR-7, while mRNA or protein levels of SIRT3, SIRT1, SOD2, and FOXO1 levels were significantly higher in the vastus lateralis muscle of master athletes compared to muscles of age-matched controls...
August 7, 2018: Redox Biology
Tianyu Zhao, Xiumei Wei, Jialong Yang, Sheng Wang, Yu Zhang
Galactoside-binding lectin (galectin) is a type of pathogen recognition molecule that occupies an important position in the invertebrate innate immunity system. Our previous study has identified a galectin gene in mollusk Solen grandis (SgGal-1) and illustrated its potential roles in innate immunity. By the functional study using recombinant protein and specific antibody, here, we confirmed the pivotal roles of SgGal-1 in immune defense of S. grandis. SgGal-1 protein was expressed in many tested tissues including gill, mantle, hepatopancreas and gonad, except hemocytes and muscle...
August 11, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Thierry Deltombe, Thierry Lejeune, Thierry Gustin
OBJECTIVE: To discuss the effectiveness, indications, limitations and side effects of botulinum toxin type A and selective neurotomy for treating focal spastic muscle overactivity to help clinicians choose the most appropriate treatment. METHODS: Expert opinion based on scientific evidence and personal experience RESULTS: Botulinum toxin type A can decrease muscle tone in different types of spastic muscle overactivity, which allows for treating a large variety of spastic patterns with several etiologies...
August 11, 2018: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Carlos A Reyes-Ramos, Alma B Peregrino-Uriarte, Keni Cota-Ruiz, Elisa M Valenzuela-Soto, Lilia Leyva-Carrillo, Gloria Yepiz-Plascencia
Hypoxic zones in marine environments are spreading around the world affecting the survival of many organisms. Marine animals have several strategies to respond to hypoxia, including the regulation of gluconeogenesis. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) is a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis. The objective of this work was to study two isoforms of PEPCK, one mitochondrial (PEPKC-M) and one cytosolic (PEPCK-C), from the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and the response to hypoxia. Both PEPCK isoforms are 72 kDa proteins and have 92% identity at the amino acid level...
August 11, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Johannes W Von den Hoff, Paola L Carvajal Monroy, Edwin M Ongkosuwito, Toin H van Kuppevelt, Willeke F Daamen
The healing of skeletal muscle injuries after major trauma or surgical reconstruction is often complicated by the development of fibrosis leading to impaired function. Research in the field of muscle regeneration is mainly focused on the restoration of muscle mass while far less attention is paid to the prevention of fibrosis. In this review, we take as an example the reconstruction of the muscles in the soft palate of cleft palate patients. After surgical closure of the soft palate, muscle function during speech is often impaired by a shortage of muscle tissue as well as the development of fibrosis...
August 11, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
J Galindo, M Contreras, P Maldonado, F Torrealba, N Lagos, J L Valdés
BACKGROUND: Neosaxitoxin (NeoSTX) and related paralytics shellfish toxins has been successfully used as local anesthetic and muscle relaxants to treat a variety of ailments. The primary mechanism of action of these toxins occurs by blocking voltage-gated sodium channels with compounds such as TTX, lidocaine, or derivatives. However, most of these non-classical sodium channel blockers act with a reduced time effect as well as ensuing neurotoxicity. NEW METHOD: In this report, we show that the use of local NeoSTX injections inactivates the hippocampal neuronal activity reversibly with a by long-term dynamics, without neuronal damage...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Carolyn Hurst, Jonathan Rosenberg, Margaret Knowles
Bladder cancers, the majority of which are urothelial carcinoma, are the most common urinary tract cancers. There are two major disease types, muscle-invasive and non-muscle-invasive, with distinct pathogenesis pathways, molecular features, and clinical outcomes. Recent genomic and transcriptomic data have significantly improved tumor sub-classification and prognostication for both patient groups and are informing improved approaches to treatment of muscle-invasive disease. To view this SnapShot, open or download the PDF...
August 13, 2018: Cancer Cell
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