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Takuya Fuchigami, Yumi Shikauchi, Ken Nakae, Manabu Shikauchi, Takeshi Ogawa, Shin Ishii
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) acquisitions include a great deal of individual variability. This individuality often generates obstacles to the efficient use of databanks from multiple subjects. Although recent studies have suggested that inter-regional connectivity reflects individuality, conventional three-dimensional (3D) registration methods that calibrate inter-subject variability are based on anatomical information about the gray matter shape (e.g., T1-weighted). Here, we present a new registration method focusing more on the white matter structure, which is directly related to the connectivity in the brain, and apply it to subject-transfer brain decoding...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Benjamin C K Tee, Jianyong Ouyang
Flexible/stretchable electronic devices and systems are attracting great attention because they can have important applications in many areas, such as artificial intelligent (AI) robotics, brain-machine interfaces, medical devices, structural and environmental monitoring, and healthcare. In addition to the electronic performance, the electronic devices and systems should be mechanically flexible or even stretchable. Traditional electronic materials including metals and semiconductors usually have poor mechanical flexibility and very limited elasticity...
August 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Eduardo López-Larraz, Carlos Escolano, Luis Montesano, Javier Minguez
Chronic spinal cord injury (SCI) patients present poor motor cortex activation during movement attempts. The reactivation of this brain region can be beneficial for them, for instance, allowing them to use brain-machine interfaces for motor rehabilitation or restoration. These brain-machine interfacess generally use electroencephalography (EEG) to measure the cortical activation during the attempts of movement, quantifying it as the event-related desynchronization (ERD) of the alpha/mu rhythm. Based on previous evidence showing that higher tonic EEG alpha power is associated with higher ERD, we hypothesized that artificially increasing the alpha power over the motor cortex of these patients could enhance their ERD (ie, motor cortical activation) during movement attempts...
August 7, 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
E López-Larraz, A Sarasola-Sanz, N Irastorza-Landa, N Birbaumer, A Ramos-Murguialday
BACKGROUND: Motor paralysis after stroke has devastating consequences for the patients, families and caregivers. Although therapies have improved in the recent years, traditional rehabilitation still fails in patients with severe paralysis. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) have emerged as a promising tool to guide motor rehabilitation interventions as they can be applied to patients with no residual movement. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the efficiency of BMI technologies to facilitate neuroplasticity and motor recovery after stroke...
2018: NeuroRehabilitation
Ryohei Fukuma, Takufumi Yanagisawa, Hiroshi Yokoi, Masayuki Hirata, Toshiki Yoshimine, Youichi Saitoh, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Haruhiko Kishima
Objective: Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are useful for inducing plastic changes in cortical representation. A BMI first decodes hand movements using cortical signals and then converts the decoded information into movements of a robotic hand. By using the BMI robotic hand, the cortical representation decoded by the BMI is modulated to improve decoding accuracy. We developed a BMI based on real-time magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals to control a robotic hand using decoded hand movements. Subjects were trained to use the BMI robotic hand freely for 10 min to evaluate plastic changes in the cortical representation due to the training...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Dong Liu, Weihai Chen, Kyuhwa Lee, Ricardo Chavarriaga, Fumiaki Iwane, Mohamed Bouri, Zhongcai Pei, Jose Del R Millan
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have been used to incorporate the user intention to trigger robotic devices by decoding movement onset from electroencephalography (EEG). Active neural participation is crucial to promote brain plasticity thus to enhance the opportunity of motor recovery. This study presents the decoding of lower-limb movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) with continuous classification and asynchronous detection.We executed experiments in a customized gait trainer where 10 healthy subjects performed self-initiated ankle plantar flexion...
July 11, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Kejia Hu, Mohsen Jamali, Ziev B Moses, Carlos A Ortega, Gabriel N Friedman, Wendong Xu, Ziv M Williams
Motor deficit is among the most debilitating aspects of injury to the central nervous system. Despite ongoing progress in brain-machine interface (BMI) development and in the functional electrical stimulation of muscles and nerves, little is understood about how neural signals in the brain may be used to potentially control movement in one's own unconstrained paralyzed limb. We recorded from high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) electrode arrays in the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) of a rhesus macaque and used real-time motion tracking techniques to correlate spatial-temporal changes in neural activity with arm movements made towards objects in three-dimensional space at millisecond precision...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takufumi Yanagisawa, Ryohei Fukuma, Ben Seymour, Koichi Hosomi, Haruhiko Kishima, Takeshi Shimizu, Hiroshi Yokoi, Masayuki Hirata, Toshiki Yoshimine, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Youichi Saitoh
A brachial plexus root avulsion (BPRA) causes intractable pain in the insensible affected hands. Such pain is partly due to phantom limb pain, which is neuropathic pain occurring after the amputation of a limb and partial or complete deafferentation. Previous studies suggested that the pain was attributable to maladaptive plasticity of the sensorimotor cortex. However, there is little evidence to demonstrate the causal links between the pain and the cortical representation, and how much cortical factors affect the pain...
July 12, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Sung-Won Park, Jejung Kim, Minpyo Kang, Wonho Lee, Byong Seo Park, Hansung Kim, Se-Young Choi, Sungchil Yang, Jong-Hyun Ahn, Sunggu Yang
Penetrating electronics have been used for treating epilepsy, yet their therapeutic effects are debated largely due to the lack of a large-scale, real-time, and safe recording/stimulation. Here, the proposed technology integrates ultrathin epidural electronics into an electrocorticography array, therein simultaneously sampling brain signals in a large area for diagnostic purposes and delivering electrical pulses for treatment. The system is empirically tested to record the ictal-like activities of the thalamocortical network in vitro and in vivo using the epidural electronics...
June 27, 2018: Small
Madhur Mangalam
How patterns of covariance in motor output and neural activity emerge over the course of learning is a topic of ongoing investigation. Vaidya et al. (J Neurophysiol 119: 1291-1304, 2018) investigate the emergence of patterns of covariance in the motor output and neural activity in chronically amputated macaques learning reach-to-grasp movements with a brain-machine interface. The authors' findings have implications for uncovering general principles of how neural coordination unfolds while learning a different motor behavior...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Brian Lee, Daniel Kramer, Michelle Armenta Salas, Spencer Kellis, David Brown, Tatyana Dobreva, Christian Klaes, Christi Heck, Charles Liu, Richard A Andersen
Sensory feedback is a critical aspect of motor control rehabilitation following paralysis or amputation. Current human studies have demonstrated the ability to deliver some of this sensory information via brain-machine interfaces, although further testing is needed to understand the stimulation parameters effect on sensation. Here, we report a systematic evaluation of somatosensory restoration in humans, using cortical stimulation with subdural mini-electrocorticography (mini-ECoG) grids. Nine epilepsy patients undergoing implantation of cortical electrodes for seizure localization were also implanted with a subdural 64-channel mini-ECoG grid over the hand area of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1)...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
A Yin, P H Tseng, S Rajangam, M A Lebedev, M A L Nicolelis
Primary motor (M1), primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (PMd) cortical areas of rhesus monkeys previously have been associated only with sensorimotor control of limb movements. Here we show that a significant number of neurons in these areas also represent body position and orientation in space. Two rhesus monkeys (K and M) used a wheelchair controlled by a brain-machine interface (BMI) to navigate in a room. During this whole-body navigation, the discharge rates of M1, S1, and PMd neurons correlated with the two-dimensional (2D) room position and the direction of the wheelchair and the monkey head...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yoshio Sakurai, Yuma Osako, Yuta Tanisumi, Eriko Ishihara, Junya Hirokawa, Hiroyuki Manabe
In this review article we focus on research methodologies for detecting the actual activity of cell assemblies, which are populations of functionally connected neurons that encode information in the brain. We introduce and discuss traditional and novel experimental methods and those currently in development and briefly discuss their advantages and disadvantages for the detection of cell-assembly activity. First, we introduce the electrophysiological method, i.e., multineuronal recording, and review former and recent examples of studies showing models of dynamic coding by cell assemblies in behaving rodents and monkeys...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Alex H Williams, Tony Hyun Kim, Forea Wang, Saurabh Vyas, Stephen I Ryu, Krishna V Shenoy, Mark Schnitzer, Tamara G Kolda, Surya Ganguli
Perceptions, thoughts, and actions unfold over millisecond timescales, while learned behaviors can require many days to mature. While recent experimental advances enable large-scale and long-term neural recordings with high temporal fidelity, it remains a formidable challenge to extract unbiased and interpretable descriptions of how rapid single-trial circuit dynamics change slowly over many trials to mediate learning. We demonstrate a simple tensor component analysis (TCA) can meet this challenge by extracting three interconnected, low-dimensional descriptions of neural data: neuron factors, reflecting cell assemblies; temporal factors, reflecting rapid circuit dynamics mediating perceptions, thoughts, and actions within each trial; and trial factors, describing both long-term learning and trial-to-trial changes in cognitive state...
June 27, 2018: Neuron
Abdelkader Nasreddine Belkacem, Shuichi Nishio, Takafumi Suzuki, Hiroshi Ishiguro, Masayuki Hirata
To provide multidimensional control, we describe the first reported decoding of bilateral hand movements by using single-trial magnetoencephalography signals as a new approach to enhance a user's ability to interact with a complex environment through a multidimensional brain-machine interface. Ten healthy participants performed or imagined four types of bilateral hand movements during neuromagnetic measurements. By applying a support vector machine (SVM) method to classify the four movements regarding the sensor data obtained from the sensorimotor area, we found the mean accuracy of a two-class classification using the amplitudes of neuromagnetic fields to be particularly suitable for real-time applications, with accuracies comparable to those obtained in previous studies involving unilateral movement...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Yun Miao, Valencia Joyner Koomson
A CMOS-based bidirectional brain machine interface system with on-chip frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS) and transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is designed to enable noninvasive closed-loop brain stimulation for neural disorders treatment and cognitive performance enhancement. The dual channel fdNIRS can continuously monitor absolute cerebral oxygenation during the entire tDCS process by measuring NIR light's attenuation and phase shift across brain tissue. Each fdNIRS channel provides 120 dBΩ transimpedance gain at 80 MHz with a power consumption of 30 mW while tolerating up to 8 pF input capacitance...
June 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Sahika Inal, Jonathan Rivnay, Andreea-Otilia Suiu, George G Malliaras, Iain McCulloch
The emerging field of organic bioelectronics bridges the electronic world of organic-semiconductor-based devices with the soft, predominantly ionic world of biology. This crosstalk can occur in both directions. For example, a biochemical reaction may change the doping state of an organic material, generating an electronic readout. Conversely, an electronic signal from a device may stimulate a biological event. Cutting-edge research in this field results in the development of a broad variety of meaningful applications, from biosensors and drug delivery systems to health monitoring devices and brain-machine interfaces...
June 19, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Nathaniel R Bridges, Michael Meyers, Jonathan Garcia, Patricia A Shewokis, Karen A Moxon
BACKGROUND: Most brain machine interfaces (BMI) focus on upper body function in non-injured animals, not addressing the lower limb functional needs of those with paraplegia. A need exists for a novel BMI task that engages the lower body and takes advantage of well-established rodent spinal cord injury (SCI) models to study methods to improve BMI performance. NEW METHOD: A tilt BMI task was designed that randomly applies different types of tilts to a platform, decodes the tilt type applied and rights the platform if the decoder correctly classifies the tilt type...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
James R Eles, Alberto L Vazquez, Takashi D Y Kozai, X Tracy Cui
Implantable electrode devices enable long-term electrophysiological recordings for brain-machine interfaces and basic neuroscience research. Implantation of these devices, however, leads to neuronal damage and progressive neural degeneration that can lead to device failure. The present study uses in vivo two-photon microscopy to study the calcium activity and morphology of neurons before, during, and one month after electrode implantation to determine how implantation trauma injures neurons. We show that implantation leads to prolonged, elevated calcium levels in neurons within 150 μm of the electrode interface...
August 2018: Biomaterials
Marc W Slutzky
Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have exploded in popularity in the past decade. BMIs, also called brain-computer interfaces, provide a direct link between the brain and a computer, usually to control an external device. BMIs have a wide array of potential clinical applications, ranging from restoring communication to people unable to speak due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or a stroke, to restoring movement to people with paralysis from spinal cord injury or motor neuron disease, to restoring memory to people with cognitive impairment...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
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