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microbiota AND ("intensive care unit" OR ICU)

David D Leedahl, Heather A Personett, Avish Nagpal, Erin F Barreto
The incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) remain high across intensive care units in the United States despite national efforts to decrease this escalating health care burden. Most published literature and guidelines address treatment rather than prevention, yet this approach may be too downstream to limit morbidity and mortality from the disease and its complications. Mechanisms to successfully prevent CDI include reducing modifiable risk factors and minimizing horizontal transmission of C...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Shenhai Gong, Zhengzheng Yan, Zhanguo Liu, Mengwei Niu, Heng Fang, Na Li, Chenyang Huang, Lei Li, Guiming Chen, Haihua Luo, Xiaojiao Chen, Hongwei Zhou, Jingjuan Hu, Wei Yang, Qiaobing Huang, Bernd Schnabl, Ping Chang, Timothy R Billiar, Yong Jiang, Peng Chen
Sepsis-induced liver injury is recognized as a key problem in intensive care units (ICUs). The gut microbiota has been touted as an important mediator of liver disease development; however, the precise roles of gut microbiota in regulating sepsis-induced liver injury are unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of the gut microbiota in sepsis-induced liver injury and the underlying mechanism. Cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) was employed to induce polymicrobial sepsis and related liver injury. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) was used to validate the roles of gut microbiota in these pathologies...
December 1, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
You-Dong Wan, Rui-Xue Zhu, Zi-Qian Wu, Shao-Yan Lyu, Lian-Xing Zhao, Zhong-Jun Du, Xin-Ting Pan
BACKGROUND The composition of the intestinal microbiota and its effect on septic shock patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is unknown. In the present study we explored the hypothesis that bacterial diversity is decreased in septic shock patients and that this diversity may be improved by use of probiotics or enteral nutrition. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 15 stool samples were collected prospectively from septic shock patients in the ICU, while 15 samples from healthy subjects served as controls. Bacterial DNA was submitted for 16S rDNA gene sequencing...
November 29, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Leónides Fernández, Lorena Ruiz, Josué Jara, Belén Orgaz, Juan M Rodríguez
Studies carried in the last years have revealed that human milk contains a site-specific microbiota and constitutes a source of potentially beneficial bacteria to the infant gut. Once in the infant gut, these bacteria contribute to the assembly of a physiological gut microbiota and may play several functions, contributing to infant metabolism, protection against infections, immunomodulation or neuromodulation. Many preterm neonates are fed with pasteurized donor's human milk (DHM) or formula and, therefore, are devoid of contact with human milk microbes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jing Lu, Erika C Claud
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome in preterm infants predisposes the neonate to various major morbidities including neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis in the neonatal intensive care unit, and adverse neurological outcomes later in life. There are parallel early developmental windows for the gut microbiota and the nervous system during prenatal to postnatal of life. Therefore, preterm infants represent a unique population in which optimization of initial colonization and microbiota development can affect brain development and enhance neurological outcomes...
November 20, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Melinda M Pettigrew, Janneane F Gent, Yong Kong, Alison Laufer Halpin, Lisa Pineles, Anthony D Harris, J Kristie Johnson
Background: Carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CRPA) can colonize the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of intensive care unit (ICU) patients and CRPA colonization puts patients at increased risk of CRPA infection. Prior studies have not examined relationships between the microbiota, medications, and CRPA colonization-acquisition. Methods: Data and peri-rectal swabs were obtained from a cohort of ICU patients at the University of Maryland Medical Center. Patients (N=109) were classified into three groups by CRPA colonization-acquisition status and antimicrobial exposure...
November 1, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Birte Staude, Frank Oehmke, Tina Lauer, Judith Behnke, Wolfgang Göpel, Michael Schloter, Holger Schulz, Susanne Krauss-Etschmann, Harald Ehrhardt
Preterm birth poses a global challenge with a continuously increasing disease burden during the last decades. Advances in understanding the etiopathogenesis did not lead to a reduction of prematurely born infants so far. A balanced development of the host microbiome in early life is key for the maturation of the immune system and many other physiological functions. With the tremendous progress in new diagnostic possibilities, the contribution of microbiota changes to preterm birth and the acute and long-term sequelae of prematurity have come into the research focus...
2018: BioMed Research International
Audrey Machado Dos Reis, Ana Valéria Fruchtenicht, Sérgio Henrique Loss, Luis Fernando Moreira
To meet the nutritional requirements of patients admitted to intensive care units, it is necessary to establish a diet schedule. Complications associated with enteral nutrition by tube feeding are not uncommon and may reduce the delivery of required nutrient to patients in intensive care units. Research on the osmolality, fat content, caloric intensity and fiber content of formulas are under way, and a substantial number of studies have focused on fiber content tolerability or symptom reduction. We conducted a systematic review of dietary fiber use and safety in critically ill patients in 8 studies based on diarrhea, other gastrointestinal symptoms (abdominal distension, gastric residual volume, vomiting and constipation), intestinal microbiota, length of stay in the intensive care unit and death...
July 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Kentaro Shimizu, Tomoki Yamada, Hiroshi Ogura, Tomoyoshi Mohri, Takeyuki Kiguchi, Satoshi Fujimi, Takashi Asahara, Tomomi Yamada, Masahiro Ojima, Mitsunori Ikeda, Takeshi Shimazu
BACKGROUND: Commensal microbiota deteriorate in critically ill patients. The preventive effects of probiotic/synbiotic therapy on microbiota and septic complications have not been thoroughly clarified in patients with sepsis. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether synbiotics have effects on gut microbiota and reduce complications in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: Sepsis patients who were mechanically ventilated in the intensive care unit (ICU) were included in this randomized controlled study...
September 27, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Ata Mahmoodpoor, Hadi Hamishehkar, Roghaieh Asghari, Ramin Abri, Kamran Shadvar, Sarvin Sanaie
BACKGROUND: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) occurs as a life-threatening complication in critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Probiotic administration may modify the gut microbiota; however, whether this modification could decrease VAP occurrence is not known. METHODS: In this study, 100 adult critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for >48 hours were randomly assigned to either the probiotic or the control group. The patients in the probiotic group received 2 capsules of probiotic preparation containing Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus spp...
August 8, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Maria Cristina Pintus, Milena Lussu, Angelica Dessì, Roberta Pintus, Antonio Noto, Valentina Masile, Maria Antonietta Marcialis, Melania Puddu, Vassilios Fanos, Luigi Atzori
Despite the advancements in medical knowledge and technology, the etiopathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is not yet fully understood although oxidative stress seems to play a role, leading to a very demanding management of these patients by the neonatologist. In this context, metabolomics can be useful in understanding, diagnosing, and treating this illness since it is one of the newest omics science that analyzes the metabolome of an individual through the investigation of biological fluids such as urine and blood...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xiaoling Qi, Hongping Qu, Dandan Yang, Lian Zhou, Ya-Wen He, Yuetian Yu, Jieming Qu, Jialin Liu
BACKGROUND: Probiotics could prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization in lower respiratory tract (LRT) and reduced P. aeruginosa ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rate. Recent studies also suggested that probiotics could improve lung inflammation in mice infected with P. aeruginosa. It seems that microbiota regulation may be a potential therapy for P. aeruginosa VAP patients. However, we know less about the LRT microbial composition and its correlation with prognosis in P. aeruginosa VAP patients...
July 27, 2018: Respiratory Research
Juergen Lohmeyer, Rory E Morty, Susanne Herold
The use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in empirical antimicrobial therapy is a lifesaving strategy for patients in intensive care. At the same time, antibiotics dramatically increase the risk for nosocomial infections, such as hospital‑acquired pneumonia caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and other antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this issue of the JCI, Robak and colleagues identified a mechanism by which depletion of resident gut and lung microbiota by antibiotic treatment results in secondary IgA deficiency and impaired anti-P...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Anna Parra-Llorca, María Gormaz, Cristina Alcántara, María Cernada, Antonio Nuñez-Ramiro, Máximo Vento, Maria C Collado
Preterm microbial colonization is affected by gestational age, antibiotic treatment, type of birth, but also by type of feeding. Breast milk has been acknowledged as the gold standard for human nutrition. In preterm infants breast milk has been associated with improved growth and cognitive development and a reduced risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and late onset sepsis. In the absence of their mother's own milk (MOM), pasteurized donor human milk (DHM) could be the best available alternative due to its similarity to the former...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
W W Zhu, Z L Li
Objective: To investigate the impact of early antibiotics treatment on intestinal microbiota in preterm infants. Methods: The cohort study was performed from January 2015 to June 2015 in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Peking University Third Hospital. A total of 33 preterm infants were enrolled, among whom 25 were antibiotics-exposure group, and 8 were non-exposure group. Serial stool samples were collected on the first day, 14th and 30th days of life and analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. In exposure group, intestinal microbiota was also analyzed at 8 months to 1 year of age...
July 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Suchitra K Hourigan, Poorani Subramanian, Nur A Hasan, Allison Ta, Elisabeth Klein, Nassim Chettout, Kathi Huddleston, Varsha Deopujari, Shira Levy, Rajiv Baveja, Nicole C Clemency, Robin L Baker, John E Niederhuber, Rita R Colwell
Background: There is a growing move to provide care for premature infants in a single family, private room neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in place of the traditional shared space, open bay NICU. The resultant effect on the developing neonatal microbiota is unknown. Study Design: Stool and groin skin swabs were collected from infants in a shared-space NICU (old NICU) and a single-family room NICU (new NICU) on the same hospital campus. Metagenomic sequencing was performed and data analyzed by CosmosID bioinformatics software package...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Matthew K Leroue, J Kirk Harris, Katherine M Burgess, Mark J Stevens, Joshua I Miller, Marci K Sontag, Yamila L Sierra, Brandie D Wagner, Peter M Mourani
Background: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a known complication of mechanically ventilated children in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Endotracheal tube (ETT) biofilms are often implicated in the development of VAP by providing a conduit for pathogens to the lower respiratory tract. Methods: A prospective cohort study from April 2010-March 2011 of children 4 weeks to 18 years of age ventilated for greater than 72 hours to determine the microbiota of ETT biofilms and tracheal aspirates...
December 2017: Advances in Pediatric Research
Daniel J C Berkhout, Britt J van Keulen, Hendrik J Niemarkt, Jet R Bessem, Willem P de Boode, Veerle Cossey, Neil Hoogenes, Christiaan V Hulzebos, Ellen Klaver, Peter Andriessen, Anton H van Kaam, Boris W Kramer, Richard A van Lingen, Aaron Schouten, Johannes B van Goudoever, Daniel C Vijlbrief, Mirjam M van Weissenbruch, Alfian N Wicaksono, James A Covington, Marc A Benninga, Nanne K H de Boer, Tim G J de Meij
Background: The intestinal microbiota has increasingly been considered to play a role in the etiology of late-onset sepsis (LOS). We hypothesize that early alterations in fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs), reflecting intestinal microbiota composition and function, allow for discrimination between infants developing LOS and controls in a preclinical stage. Methods: In 9 neonatal intensive care units in the Netherlands and Belgium, fecal samples of preterm infants born at a gestational age ≤30 weeks were collected daily, up to the postnatal age of 28 days...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Tristan P Lindberg, Melissa J Caimano, James I Hagadorn, Erin M Bennett, Kendra Maas, Elizabeth A Brownell, Adam P Matson
OBJECTIVES: To define gut microbial patterns in preterm infants with and without necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and to characterize clinical factors related to the composition of the preterm intestinal microbiome. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected at one-week intervals from infants with gestational ages <30 weeks at a single level IV neonatal intensive care unit. Using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, the composition and diversity of microbiota were determined in samples collected from five NEC infants and five matched controls...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Saumya Bansal, Jenny P Nguyen, Aleksandra Leligdowicz, Yu Zhang, Kevin C Kain, Daniel R Ricciuto, Bryan Coburn
Commensal microbiota are immunomodulatory, and their pathological perturbation can affect the risk and outcomes of infectious and inflammatory diseases. Consequently, the human microbiota is an emerging diagnostic and therapeutic target in critical illness. In this study, we compared four sample types-rectal, naris, and antecubital swabs and stool samples-for 16S rRNA gene microbiota sequencing in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Stool samples were obtained in only 31% of daily attempts, while swabs were reliably obtained (≥97% of attempts)...
June 13, 2018: MSphere
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