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butyrate AND barrier

Reena Kumari, Senthilnathan Palaniyandi, Gerhard Carl Hildebrandt
Hematopoietic cell transplantation is an intensive therapy used to treat high-risk hematological malignant disorders and other life-threatening hematological and genetic diseases. Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) presents a barrier to its wider application. A conditioning regimen and medications given to patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT) are capable of disturbing the homeostatic crosstalk between the microbiome and the host immune system and of leading to dysbiosis...
December 7, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Marja Vilkman, Kaisa-Leena Väisänen, Pälvi Apilo, Riccardo Po, Marja Välimäki, Mari Ylikunnari, Andrea Bernardi, Tapio Pernu, Gianni Corso, Jani Seitsonen, Santtu Heinilehto, Janne Ruokolainen, Jukka Hast
Understanding the phenomena at interfaces is crucial for producing efficient and stable flexible organic solar cell modules. Minimized energy barriers enable efficient charge transfer, and good adhesion allows mechanical and environmental stability and thus increased lifetime. We utilize here the inverted organic solar module stack and standard photoactive materials (a blend of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) to study the interfaces in a pilot scale large-area roll-to-roll (R2R) process...
November 26, 2018: ACS applied energy materials
L Qian, L Lu, L Huang, Q Wen, J Xie, W Jin, H Li, L Jiang
BACKGROUND: To investigate neonatal maternal separation (NMS) effects on airway inflammation of asthma and potential mechanism using a mouse model. METHODS: 80 Balb/c neonatal male mice were randomly assigned to NMS and non-NMS groups. Feces were collected on PND21, 28, 35 and 42 to analyze microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Non-NMS group were then divided into control (group A) and asthma groups (group B), while NMS group was assigned to NMS+asthma (group C) and NMS+SCFAs+asthma groups (group D)...
November 17, 2018: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
Weiran Li, Yu Zhu, Yiyuan Li, Min Shu, Yang Wen, Xiaolin Gao, Chaomin Wan
AIM: This study explored the gut microbiota of children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: We enrolled 15 cases with HFMD admitted to the West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, China, from July to September 2016 at a median age of three years. The controls were 15 healthy children of a similar age who underwent routine health examinations at the hospital during the same period. Gut microbiota was analysed using high throughput 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing...
November 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Jindong Zhang, Lijin Song, Yujing Wang, Chang Liu, Lu Zhang, Shiwei Zhu, Shuangjiang Liu, Liping Duan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Emerging evidence indicates that psychological stress is involved in the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is characterized by visceral hypersensitivity and may be accompanied by gut dysbiosis. However, how such stress contributes to the development of visceral hypersensitivity is incompletely understood. Here, we aimed to investigate the influence that stress-induced microbial changes exert on visceral sensitivity, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms associated with this effect...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Yukako Okazaki, Tetsuyuki Katayama
We have recently reported that soluble dietary fibre, glucomannan, increased colonic alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression without affecting the small-intestinal activity and that colonic ALP was correlated with gut mucins (index of intestinal barrier function). We speculated that dietary fermentable carbohydrates including oligosaccharides commonly elevate colonic ALP and gene expression as well as increase mucin secretion and microbial fermentation. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 30 % lard with or without 4 % fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS), galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), raffinose (RAF) and lactulose (LAC), which are non-digestible oligosaccharides or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMOS; some digestible oligosaccharides) for 2 weeks...
November 7, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Clara S A Sugizaki, Maria Margareth V Naves
Obesity is a global epidemic chronic condition and is progressing at a rapid rate. This review focuses on the potential prebiotic properties of nuts and edible seeds and the plausible mechanisms that their consumption may help the prevention and the management of overweight and obesity. The literature review was performed by searching papers about the topic in MEDLINE and SCOPUS databases. The healthy attributes of nuts and edible seeds, especially dietary fibers and polyphenols contents, indicate that their mechanism of weight gain prevention may occur through interaction with the gut microbiota, by means of prebiotic effects...
November 3, 2018: Nutrients
Qianqian Li, Xinchen Huang, Guijin Su, Minghui Zheng, Chunhua Huang, Mengjing Wang, Chunyan Ma, Da Wei
The role of regular/persistent free radicals on the catalytic activity of K+ -tuned MnO2 tunnel structures is poorly understood to date. Herein, three MnO2 polymorphs (α-, β-, and δ-MnO2 ) were synthesized and examined toward the degradation of 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (1,2,4-TrCBz) at 300 °C. δ-MnO2 , with a two-dimensional-layered tunnel structure tuned by K+ , exhibited the highest activity among the three MnO2 polymorphs. The electron spin resonance spectroscopy results confirmed that δ-MnO2 featured the most abundant reactive oxygen species (ROS: O2 -• , •OH, and 1 O2 ), followed by α-MnO2 (O2 -• and 1 O2 ), and β-MnO2 (O2 -• ), being supported by the calculated energy barrier...
November 8, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Janice E Drew, Nicole Reichardt, Lynda M Williams, Claus-Dieter Mayer, Alan W Walker, Andrew J Farquharson, Stavroula Kastora, Freda Farquharson, Graeme Milligan, Douglas J Morrison, Tom Preston, Harry J Flint, Petra Louis
Dietary fibers (DF) can prevent obesity in rodents fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Their mode of action is not fully elucidated, but the gut microbiota have been implicated. This study aimed to identify the effects of seven dietary fibers (barley beta-glucan, apple pectin, inulin, inulin acetate ester, inulin propionate ester, inulin butyrate ester or a combination of inulin propionate ester and inulin butyrate ester) effective in preventing diet-induced obesity and links to differences in cecal bacteria and host gene expression...
October 22, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ayaz Anwar, Kavitha Rajendran, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Muhammad Raza Shah, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Central nervous system (CNS) infections caused by free-living amoebae such as Acanthamoeba species and Naegleria fowleri are rare but fatal. A major challenge in the treatment against the infections caused by these amoebae is the discovery of novel compounds that can effectively cross the blood-brain barrier to penetrate the CNS. It is logical to test clinically approved drugs against CNS diseases for their potential antiamoebic effects since they are known for effective blood-brain barrier penetration and affect eukaryotic cell targets...
October 29, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Shengru Wu, Yanli Liu, Yongle Duan, Fangyuan Wang, Fangshen Guo, Fang Yan, Xiaojun Yang, Xin Yang
Background: Limited research has focused on the effect of Lactobacillus on the intestinal toxicity of deoxynivalenol (DON). The present study was conducted to investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) JM113 in protecting against the intestinal toxicity caused by DON. Methods: A total of 144 one-day-old healthy Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed into 3 treatments, including the CON (basal diet), the DON (extra 10 mg/kg deoxynivalenol), and the DL (extra 1 × 109  CFU/ kg L...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Knud Erik Bach Knudsen, Helle Nygaard Lærke, Mette Skou Hedemann, Tina Skau Nielsen, Anne Krog Ingerslev, Ditte Søvsø Gundelund Nielsen, Peter Kappel Theil, Stig Purup, Stine Hald, Anne Grethe Schioldan, Maria L Marco, Søren Gregersen, Kjeld Hermansen
A major challenge in affluent societies is the increase in disorders related to gut and metabolic health. Chronic over nutrition by unhealthy foods high in energy, fat, and sugar, and low in dietary fibre is a key environmental factor responsible for this development, which may cause local and systemic inflammation. A low intake of dietary fibre is a limiting factor for maintaining a viable and diverse microbiota and production of short-chain fatty acids in the gut. A suppressed production of butyrate is crucial, as this short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) can play a key role not only in colonic health and function but also at the systemic level...
October 13, 2018: Nutrients
Canxia He, Lei Huang, Peng Lei, Xiaodong Liu, Baolong Li, Yujuan Shan
SCOPE: Gut microbiota imbalance, inflammation and gut barrier deficiency play an important role in carcinogenesis. Sulforaphane (SFN), an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, has been proven to be highly effective in inhibiting cancer. The objective of this study is to investigate the potential roles of the gut microbiota in the inhibition of BBN-induced bladder cancer by SFN. METHODS AND RESULTS: N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) -nitrosamine was used to induce bladder cancer in male C57BL/6 mice, with or without SFN for 23 weeks...
October 10, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yafei Duan, Yun Wang, Hongbiao Dong, Xian Ding, Qingsong Liu, Hua Li, Jiasong Zhang, Dalin Xiong
The intestine barrier serves as the front-line defense in shrimp. Clostridium butyricum (CB) can produce butyric acid that provides energy for the intestine epithelial cells of the host. However, the effects of dietary CB on the intestine microbiome and the digestion and immunity of the host is not clear. In this study, we therefore investigated the composition and metabolic activity of the intestine microbiome, and digestive and immune-related gene expression in Litopenaeus vannamei fed with diets containing different levels of CB: basal diet (control), 2...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Fan Hu, Yanfeng Xue, Changzheng Guo, Junhua Liu, Shengyong Mao
The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in the ruminal fermentation, epithelium-associated microbiota, and ruminal epithelial barrier function in response to severe feed restriction (SFR) in pregnant ewes. Sixteen pregnant ewes (108 d of gestation) were randomly blocked and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: control (CON, n = 8) and SFR (n = 8). Ewes were fed a common diet with a 60:40 forage to concentrate ratio for 7-d baseline period followed by a SFR challenge period. Ewes on the SFR treatment were restricted to 30% of the base for 15 d...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
X Jia, L Jia, L Mo, S Yuan, X Zheng, J He, V Chen, Q Guo, L Zheng, Q Yuan, X Xu, X Zhou
Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is a risk factor for periodontitis, and current therapeutics against PMO prevent the aggravated alveolar bone loss of periodontitis in estrogen-deficient women. Gut microbiota is recognized as a promising therapeutic target for PMO. Berberine extracted from Chinese medicinal plants has shown its effectiveness in the treatment of metabolic diseases such as obesity and diabetes via regulating gut microbiota. Here, we hypothesize that berberine ameliorates periodontal bone loss by improving the intestinal barriers by regulating gut microbiota under an estrogen-deficient condition...
September 10, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Jing Wang, Haifeng Ji, Sixin Wang, Hui Liu, Wei Zhang, Dongyan Zhang, Yamin Wang
Weaning disturbs the intestinal barrier function and increases the risk of infection in piglets. Probiotics exert beneficial health effects, mainly by reinforcing the intestinal epithelium and modulating the gut microbiota. However, the mechanisms of action, and especially, the specific regulatory effects of modulated microbiota by probiotics on the intestinal epithelium have not yet been elucidated. The present study aimed to decipher the protective effects of the probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum strain ZLP001 on the intestinal epithelium and microbiota as well as the effects of modulated microbiota on epithelial function...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jianzhong Ye, Longxian Lv, Wenrui Wu, Yating Li, Ding Shi, Daiqiong Fang, Feifei Guo, Huiyong Jiang, Ren Yan, Wanchun Ye, Lanjuan Li
Butyrate exerts protective effects against non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to investigate the role of butyrate-induced gut microbiota and metabolism in NASH development. Sixty-five C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups ( n = 15-17 per group) and were fed either a methionine-choline-sufficient (MCS) diet or methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet with or without sodium butyrate (SoB; 0.6 g/kg body weight) supplementation for 6 weeks. Liver injury, systematic inflammation, and gut barrier function were determined...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yanhai Feng, Yu Wang, Pei Wang, Yalan Huang, Fengjun Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are the major energy resources of intestinal epithelial cells. It has been reported that SCFAs can repair the dysfunction of intestinal barrier, however, the underlying mechanisms are still not fully understood. Here, we investigated the stimulative and protective effects of SCFAs on intestinal barrier function and the possible mechanisms. METHODS: To investigate the effects of SCFAs on intestinal barrier function, the Caco-2 monolayers were exposed to acetate, propionate, butyrate respectively or simultaneously without or with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Lei Wu, Yuli Bai, Min Liu, Lian Li, Wei Shan, Zhirong Zhang, Yuan Huang
The intestinal epithelium constitutes a major barrier for orally delivered nanoparticles (NPs). Although surface ligand modification can increase cellular uptake of NPs, the transepithelial transport of active targeting NPs is relatively limited. The phenomenon is described as "easy entry, hard transcytosis". However, underlying mechanisms and potential solutions of this phenomenon are unclear. Here, butyrate modified polyethylene glycol coated NPs (Bu-PEG NPs) were chosen as the model active targeting NPs...
September 4, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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