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Sexual functioning

Amy Tinetti, Nicole Weir, Usanee Tangyotkajohn, Angela Jacques, Judith Thompson, Kathy Briffa
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to identify drivers of and barriers to help-seeking behaviour of older women with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) living independently in Australia . METHODS: Women aged ≥55 years were recruited to this cross-sectional study during July and August 2016. Bladder, bowel, pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and sexual dysfunction were assessed with the Australian Pelvic Floor Questionnaire (APFQ). Drivers and barriers were based on the Barriers to Incontinence Care Seeking Questionnaire...
March 19, 2018: International Urogynecology Journal
Friederike Gethöffer, Christiane Pfarrer, Ursula Siebert
Research on reproduction and fertility is an essential fundament of management strategies in European wild boar. Concerning the examination of the reproductive tract, methods still lack conformity and comparability. So far the reproductive status of female wild boar has been assessed by ovarian macroscopic examination. In order to find out if this is a valid method, 21 ovaries of 8-34 months old animals covering (early) follicular phase and cyclic inactivity were evaluated microscopically. Number and dimension of follicles as well as the occurrence of atretic follicles were compared and related to age, weight, ovary weight and size of ovary...
March 2, 2018: Theriogenology
Pia Bornefeld-Ettmann, Regina Steil, Klara A Lieberz, Martin Bohus, Sophie Rausch, Julia Herzog, Kathlen Priebe, Thomas Fydrich, Meike Müller-Engelmann
BACKGROUND: Impairments in sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction are very common in women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). A growing body of literature suggests a high prevalence of sexual distress in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the influence of sexual trauma exposure per se and the influence of PTSD symptoms on impairments in sexual functioning remain unclear. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sexual trauma exposure and PTSD on sexual functioning and sexual satisfaction by comparing 3 groups of women...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Adriana Maggi, Sara Della Torre
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological and clinical studies have largely demonstrated major differences in the prevalence of metabolic disorders in males and females, but the biological cause of these dissimilarities remain to be elucidated. Mammals are characterized by a major change in reproductive strategies and it is conceivable that these changes subjected females to a significant evolutionary pressure that perfected the coupling between energy metabolism and reproduction. SCOPE OF REVIEW: This review will address the plausibility that female liver functions diverged significantly from males given the role of liver in the control of metabolism...
February 27, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Alexandre Bozec, Pierre Demez, Jocelyn Gal, Emmanuel Chamorey, Marie-Yolande Louis, David Blanchard, Dominique De Raucourt, Jean-Claude Merol, Esteban Brenet, Olivier Dassonville, Gilles Poissonnet, José Santini, Frédéric Peyrade, Karen Benezery, Maria Lesnik, Etienne Berta, Pierre Ransy, Emmanuel Babin
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term quality of life (QoL) and psycho-social outcomes, and to determine their predictive factors after oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) surgery and radial forearm free-flap (RFFF) reconstruction. METHODS: Patients who had undergone OPC surgery and RFFF reconstruction who were still alive and disease-free at least 1 year after surgery were enrolled in this prospective multicentric study. Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Core (QLQ-C30) and Head and Neck Cancer (QLQ-H&N35) QoL questionnaires, the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10) questionnaire and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)...
March 2018: Surgical Oncology
Bjorn Bohman, Amir Karton, Gavin R Flematti, Adrian Scaffidi, Rod Peakall
Sexually deceptive orchids attract specific pollinators by mimicking insect sex pheromones. Normally this mimicry is very specific and identical compounds have been identified from orchids and matching females of the pollinators. In this study, we conduct a detailed structure-activity investigation on isomers of the semiochemicals involved in the sexual attraction of the male pollinator of the spider orchid Caladenia plicata. This orchid employs an unusual blend of two biosynthetically unrelated compounds, (S)-β-citronellol and 2-hydroxy-6-methylacetophenone, to lure its Zeleboria sp...
March 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Sa Geng, Ayano Miyagi, James G Umen
Volvocine algae comprise a unique comparative model for investigating the evolution of distinct male and female sexes (oogamy) from an isogamous ancestral state with mating types. The mating-type or sex-determining gene MID encodes a putative RWP-RK family transcription factor, and orthologs of MID are present throughout the volvocine algal lineage in either the MT- or male mating locus of dioecious species. It was previously found that ectopic expression of isogamous Chlamydomonas reinhardtii MID ( CrMID ) in a C...
March 16, 2018: Development
Annesa Flentje, Kord Kober, Adam Carrico, Torsten B Neilands, Elena Flowers, Nicholas Heck, Bradley Aouizerat
Sexual minority (i.e., non-heterosexual) individuals experience poorer mental and physical health, accounted for in part by the additional burden of sexual minority stress occurring from being situated in a culture favoring heteronormativity. Informed by previous research, the purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between sexual minority stress and leukocyte gene expression related to inflammation, cancer, immune function, and cardiovascular function. Sexual minority men living with HIV who were on anti-retroviral medication, had viral load <200 copies/mL, and had biologically confirmed, recent methamphetamine use completed minority stress measures and submitted blood samples for RNA sequencing on leukocytes...
March 13, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Thomas W Gaither, Mohannad A Awad, Gregory P Murphy, Ian Metzler, Thomas Sanford, Michael L Eisenberg, Siobhan Sutcliffe, E Charles Osterberg, Benjamin N Breyer
BACKGROUND: Bicycle riding has become an increasingly popular mode of transportation and exercise, especially among women, and previous studies have demonstrated a relationship between cycling and sexual dysfunction, albeit using non-validated questionnaires. AIM: We aimed to explore the relationship between cycling and sexual and urinary dysfunction. METHODS: Cyclists were recruited to complete a survey through Facebook advertisements and outreach to sporting clubs across 5 English-speaking countries...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Bertine de Vries, Jooske T van Busschbach, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, André Aleman, Jan J M van Dijk, Paul H Lysaker, Johan Arends, Saskia A Nijman, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg
Psychotic disorders often have been linked with violence. However, studies have shown that people with a psychotic disorder are more often victim than perpetrator of violence. The objective of this meta-analysis was to review prevalence rates for different types of victimization and to identify risk factors associated with victimization. Based on a search in MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Web of Science, 27 studies were found with samples consisting of adults with a psychotic disorder and possible victimization occurring during adulthood and data on "violent victimization," "sexual victimization," "non-violent victimization," and/or "victimization not otherwise specified...
March 14, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Maartje Dijkstra, Rik H W Van Lunsen, Katherine W Kooij, Udi Davidovich, Rosan A Van Zoest, Ferdinand W M N Wit, Maria Prins, Peter Reiss, Maarten F Schim Van Der Loeff
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) more often experience sexual dysfunctions than the general population. We assessed associations between HIV-1 status and decreased sexual functioning among MSM. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 399 HIV-1-infected MSM mostly on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and 366 HIV-1-uninfected MSM aged ≥45 years participating in the AGEhIV Cohort Study. The study questionnaire included questions on erectile function, sexual satisfaction, and sexual desire...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
Thomas Joshua Pasvol, Caroline Foster, Sarah Fidler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Successful roll-out of paediatric antiretroviral therapy (ART) has led to a significant increase in survival of adolescents and young people growing up with HIV. Those on suppressive ART since childhood represent a unique group particularly well positioned to interrupt ART and achieve post-treatment control (PTC), or HIV remission. This maybe a consequence of early and sustained treatment since infancy, the small size of the HIV reservoir, the presence of a functioning thymus and a more 'flexible' immune system better able to respond to novel immune therapeutic interventions when compared with adults who acquired HIV at a time of immunological maturity and thymic involution...
March 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Sophie Laffont, Eve Blanquart, Jean-Charles Guéry
Allergic asthma is a chronic pulmonary inflammatory disease initiated by exposure to normally harmless allergens and marked by bronchial hyperreactivity. It affects more than 300 million people worldwide. Asthma often starts in childhood. Epidemiological studies show that there are sexual disparities in the prevalence and severity of asthma. Before the age of 10, the disease is more common in boys. This tendency reverses at puberty suggesting a regulating role of the sex hormones. In this synthesis, we summarize current knowledge on the role of sex hormones in allergic inflammation, with a particular focus on the impact of androgens on the development and function of recently introduced group 2 innate lymphoid cell subsets (ILC2) as critical actors in the initiation of allergic responses...
March 2018: Médecine Sciences: M/S
Yu Shi, Wenguang Liu, Maoxian He
Bivalve mollusks exhibit hermaphroditism and sex reversal/differentiation. Studies generally focus on transcriptional profiling and specific genes related to sex determination and differentiation. Few studies on sex reversal/differentiation have been reported. A combination analysis of gonad proteomics and transcriptomics was conducted on Chlamys nobilis to provide a systematic understanding of sex reversal/differentiation in bivalves. We obtained 4258 unique peptides and 93,731 unigenes with good correlation between messenger RNA and protein levels...
March 15, 2018: Marine Biotechnology
Valeria Messina, Mauro Valtieri, Mercedes Rubio, Mario Falchi, Francesca Mancini, Alfredo Mayor, Pietro Alano, Francesco Silvestrini
The gametocytes of Plasmodium falciparum , responsible for the transmission of this malaria parasite from humans to mosquitoes, accumulate and mature preferentially in the human bone marrow. In the 10 day long sexual development of P. falciparum , the immature gametocytes reach and localize in the extravascular compartment of this organ, in contact with several bone marrow stroma cell types, prior to traversing the endothelial lining and re-entering in circulation at maturity. To investigate the host parasite interplay underlying this still obscure process, we developed an in vitro tridimensional co-culture system in a Matrigel scaffold with P...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Fausta Beneventi, Elena Locatelli, Margherita Simonetta, Chiara Cavagnoli, Raffaella Pampuri, Camilla Bellingeri, Irene De Maggio, Beatrice Ruspini, Santina Recupero, Giovanna Giorgiani, Arsenio Spinillo
To study vaginal development and sexual functioning in young women after childhood hemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and radio/chemotherapy. Observational case-control study on 30 young sexually active women survived after HSCT and/or radio/chemotherapy for childhood malignancies or hematologic diseases and 48 controls matched for age. Female Sexual Function Index was lower (median 24.05, IQR = 17.30-28.30 vs. 29.00, IQR = 25.30-31.40, p = 0.001), Female Sexual Distress Scale higher (median 16...
March 15, 2018: Bone Marrow Transplantation
John S Wiener, Dominic C Frimberger, Hadley Wood
Until recently, spina bifida has been regarded a pediatric health issue, and adult consequences of the disorder have not been explored. The congenital neurologic and urologic anomalies, as well as sequelae of bladder management, can have a profound impact on adult male sexual function. Abnormalities in testicular descent, testicular development and function, fertility, penile sensation, erectile function, ejaculatory function, and orgasmic function are common in this population. These adults have substantial gaps in knowledge in normal sexual function and potential dysfunction as it relates to them specifically...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Inger Sundström-Poromaa
From a psychological perspective, the menstrual cycle has been a research topic for more than 50 years. The most recent menstrual cycle research has been driven by an increased interest in sex differences in neuroscience, and the urge to understand sex disparities in prevalence, clinical presentation, and treatment response in psychiatric or neurologic disorders. Indeed, the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. This review summarizes the emotion-related and cognitive findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
Cmg van Driel, A S Stuursma, M J Schroevers, Mje Mourits, G H de Bock
BACKGROUND: During menopause women experience vasomotor and psychosexual symptoms that cannot entirely be alleviated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Besides, HRT is contraindicated after breast cancer. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of psychological interventions in reducing symptoms associated with menopause in natural or treatment-induced menopausal women. SEARCH STRATEGY: Medline/Pubmed, PsycINFO, EMBASE and AMED were searched until June 2017...
March 15, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Nathan J Butterworth, Phillip G Byrne, Paul A Keller, James F Wallman
Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) play an important role as contact pheromones in insects, particularly in flies. However, for many fly taxa our understanding of the importance of CHCs in sexual communication is limited. Within the family Calliphoridae (blowflies), sex-specific differences in CHCs have been reported for several species, but there is no evidence that CHCs facilitate sexual behavior. In order to elucidate the function of CHCs in Calliphoridae, studies combining behavioral and chemical analyses are required...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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