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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30551043/development-of-methanogens-within-cathodic-biofilm-in-the-single-chamber-microbial-electrolysis-cell
#1
Xiao Li, Cuiping Zeng, Yaobin Lu, Guangli Liu, Haiping Luo, Renduo Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the development of cathodic biofilm and its effect on methane production in a single-chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The MEC with 1 g/L acetate was successfully operated within 31 cycles (∼2400 h). The maximum methane production rate and average current capture efficiency in the MEC reached 93 L/m3 ·d and 82%, respectively. Distinct stratification of Methanobacteriaceae within cathodic biofilm was observed after 9 cycles of operation. The relative abundance of Methanobacteriaceae in the microbial community increased from 45...
December 3, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515146/reduction-in-methane-emissions-from-acidified-dairy-slurry-is-related-to-inhibition-of-methanosarcina-species
#2
Jemaneh Habtewold, Robert Gordon, Vera Sokolov, Andrew VanderZaag, Claudia Wagner-Riddle, Kari Dunfield
Liquid dairy manure treated with sulfuric acid was stored in duplicate pilot-scale storage tanks for 120 days with continuous monitoring of CH4 emissions and concurrent examination of changes in the structure of bacterial and methanogenic communities. Methane emissions were monitored at the site using laser-based Trace Gas Analyzer whereas quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel sequencing were employed to study bacterial and methanogenic communities using 16S rRNA and methyl-coenzyme M Reductase A ( mcrA ) genes/transcripts, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30504215/changes-in-rumen-microbiota-of-cows-in-response-to-dietary-supplementation-with-nitrate-linseed-and-saponin-alone-or-in-combination
#3
Milka Popova, Jessie Guyader, Mathieu Silberberg, Ahmad Reza Seradj, Cristina Saro, Aurélien Bernard, Christine Gérard, Cécile Martin, Diego P Morgavi
Dietary supplementation with linseed, saponins and nitrate is a promising methane mitigation strategy in ruminant production. Here we aimed to assess the effects of these additives on the rumen microbiota in order to understand underlying microbial mechanisms of methane abatement. Two 2 × 2 factorial design studies were conducted simultaneously, which also allowed us to make a broad-based assessment of microbial responses. Eight non-lactating cows were fed diets supplemented with linseed or saponin in order to decrease hydrogen production and nitrate to deviate hydrogen consumption; also, combinations of linseed plus nitrate or saponin plus nitrate were used to explore the interaction between dietary treatments...
November 30, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30498254/exploration-of-deep-terrestrial-subsurface-microbiome-in-late-cretaceous-deccan-traps-and-underlying-archean-basement-india
#4
Avishek Dutta, Srimanti Dutta Gupta, Abhishek Gupta, Jayeeta Sarkar, Sukanta Roy, Abhijit Mukherjee, Pinaki Sar
Scientific deep drilling at Koyna, western India provides a unique opportunity to explore microbial life within deep biosphere hosted by ~65 Myr old Deccan basalt and Archaean granitic basement. Characteristic low organic carbon content, mafic/felsic nature but distinct trend in sulfate and nitrate concentrations demarcates the basaltic and granitic zones as distinct ecological habitats. Quantitative PCR indicates a depth independent distribution of microorganisms predominated by bacteria. Abundance of dsrB and mcrA genes are relatively higher (at least one order of magnitude) in basalt compared to granite...
November 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483220/differentiated-mechanisms-of-biochar-mitigating-straw-induced-greenhouse-gas-emissions-in-two-contrasting-paddy-soils
#5
Ya-Qi Wang, Ren Bai, Hong J Di, Liu-Ying Mo, Bing Han, Li-Mei Zhang, Ji-Zheng He
Straw returns to the soil is an effective way to improve soil organic carbon and reduce air pollution by straw burning, but this may increase CH4 and N2 O emissions risks in paddy soils. Biochar has been used as a soil amendment to improve soil fertility and mitigate CH4 and N2 O emissions. However, little is known about their interactive effect on CH4 and N2 O emissions and the underlying microbial mechanisms. In this study, a 2-year pot experiment was conducted on two paddy soil types (an acidic Utisol, TY, and an alkaline Inceptisol, BH) to evaluate the influence of straw and biochar applications on CH4 and N2 O emissions, and on related microbial functional genes...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30443248/linoleic-acids-overproducing-lactobacillus-casei-limits-growth-survival-and-virulence-of-salmonella-typhimurium-and-enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli
#6
Mengfei Peng, Zajeba Tabashsum, Puja Patel, Cassandra Bernhardt, Debabrata Biswas
Probiotics, particularly lactic acid bacteria, are biologic agents which limit the growth, virulence, and survival/colonization of various enteric bacterial pathogens and serve as potential alternatives to antibiotics. Mechanisms that contribute to this antimicrobial effect include producing bioactive metabolites/acids, increasing nutrient and receptor-mediated competition, and modulating gut microbiome ecology. However, these functions of common probiotic strains are limited due to the finite quantity of metabolites they produce and their total number in the gut ecosystem...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368188/salinity-stress-changed-the-biogeochemical-controls-on-ch-4-and-n-2-o-emissions-of-estuarine-and-intertidal-sediments
#7
Xiaofei Li, Dengzhou Gao, Lijun Hou, Min Liu
Elevated salinity is expected to drive changes in biogeochemical cycling and microbial communities in estuarine and intertidal wetlands. However, limited information regarding the role of salinity in shaping biogeochemical controls and mediating greenhouse gas emissions is currently available. In this study, we used incubation experiment across salinity gradients of the estuarine and intertidal sediments to reveal the underlying interconnections of CH4 and N2 O emissions, biogeochemical controls and salinity gradients...
October 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30348104/petroleum-hydrocarbon-rich-oil-refinery-sludge-of-north-east-india-harbours-anaerobic-fermentative-sulfate-reducing-syntrophic-and-methanogenic-microbial-populations
#8
Ajoy Roy, Pinaki Sar, Jayeeta Sarkar, Avishek Dutta, Poulomi Sarkar, Abhishek Gupta, Balaram Mohapatra, Siddhartha Pal, Sufia K Kazy
BACKGROUND: Sustainable management of voluminous and hazardous oily sludge produced by petroleum refineries remains a challenging problem worldwide. Characterization of microbial communities of petroleum contaminated sites has been considered as the essential prerequisite for implementation of suitable bioremediation strategies. Three petroleum refinery sludge samples from North Eastern India were analyzed using next-generation sequencing technology to explore the diversity and functional potential of inhabitant microorganisms and scope for their on-site bioremediation...
October 22, 2018: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334088/microbial-community-shifts-in-biogas-reactors-upon-complete-or-partial-ammonia-inhibition
#9
Zuopeng Lv, Athaydes Francisco Leite, Hauke Harms, Karin Glaser, Jan Liebetrau, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz
Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich substrate often causes process inhibition due to the susceptibility of the microbial community facing ammonia accumulation. However, the precise response of the microbial community has remained largely unknown. To explore the reasons, bacterial communities in ammonia-stressed reactors and control reactors were studied by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and the active methanogens were followed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of mcrA/mrtA gene transcripts...
October 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323859/intermittent-fasting-for-microbes-how-discontinuous-feeding-increases-functional-stability-in-anaerobic-digestion
#10
Fabian Bonk, Denny Popp, Sören Weinrich, Heike Sträuber, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Hauke Harms, Florian Centler
Background: Demand-driven biogas production could play an important role for future sustainable energy supply. However, feeding a biogas reactor according to energy demand may lead to organic overloading and, thus, to process failures. To minimize this risk, digesters need to be actively steered towards containing more robust microbial communities. This study focuses on acetogenesis and methanogenesis as crucial process steps for avoiding acidification. We fed lab-scale anaerobic digesters with volatile fatty acids under various feeding regimes and disturbances...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30292385/characterization-of-virulence-factors-antimicrobial-resistance-patterns-and-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-spp-strains-isolated-from-corneal-infection
#11
H Heidari, M Hadadi, H Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, A Mirzaei, A Taji, S R Hosseini, M Motamedifar
INTRODUCTION: Infectious keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can lead to severe visual impairment and blindness. Bacterial pathogens are responsible for nearly half of infectious keratitis cases. This study was performed to determine the virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and biofilm formation ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated from corneal infections. METHODS: A total of 56 corneal scraping samples were collected over 8 months...
October 3, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30287755/long-term-biogas-production-from-glycolate-by-diverse-and-highly-dynamic-communities
#12
Susanne Günther, Daniela Becker, Thomas Hübschmann, Susann Reinert, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Susann Müller, Christian Wilhelm
Generating chemical energy carriers and bulk chemicals from solar energy by microbial metabolic capacities is a promising technology. In this long-term study of over 500 days, methane was produced by a microbial community that was fed by the mono-substrate glycolate, which was derived from engineered algae. The microbial community structure was measured on the single cell level using flow cytometry. Abiotic and operational reactor parameters were analyzed in parallel. The R-based tool flowCyBar facilitated visualization of community dynamics and indicated sub-communities involved in glycolate fermentation and methanogenesis...
October 4, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30245936/metabolic-marker-gene-mining-provides-insight-in-global-mcra-diversity-and-coupled-with-targeted-genome-reconstruction-sheds-further-light-on-metabolic-potential-of-the-methanomassiliicoccales
#13
Daan R Speth, Victoria J Orphan
Over the past years, metagenomics has revolutionized our view of microbial diversity. Moreover, extracting near-complete genomes from metagenomes has led to the discovery of known metabolic traits in unsuspected lineages. Genome-resolved metagenomics relies on assembly of the sequencing reads and subsequent binning of assembled contigs, which might be hampered by strain heterogeneity or low abundance of a target organism. Here we present a complementary approach, metagenome marker gene mining, and use it to assess the global diversity of archaeal methane metabolism through the mcrA gene...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30194577/microbial-explanations-for-field-aged-biochar-mitigating-greenhouse-gas-emissions-during-a-rice-growing-season
#14
Zhen Wu, Xi Zhang, Yubing Dong, Xin Xu, Zhengqin Xiong
Knowledge about the impacts of fresh and field-aged biochar amendments on greenhouse gas (CH4 , N2 O) emissions is limited. A field experiment was initiated in 2012 to study the effects of fresh and field-aged biochar additions on CH4 and N2 O emissions and the associated microbial activity during the entire rice-growing season in typical rice-wheat rotation system in Southeast China. CH4 and N2 O fluxes were monitored, and the abundance of methanogen (mcrA), methanotrophy (pmoA), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite reductase (nirS, nirK), N2 O reductase (nosZ), and potential soil enzyme activities related to CH4 and N2 O were simultaneously measured throughout different rice developmental stages...
November 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172409/changes-in-rumen-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-over-the-transition-period-in-primiparous-holstein-dairy-cows
#15
Zhigang Zhu, Lise Kristensen, Gareth F Difford, Morten Poulsen, Samantha J Noel, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Søren J Sørensen, Jan Lassen, Peter Løvendahl, Ole Højberg
In the present study, we hypothesized that the rumen bacterial and archaeal communities would change significantly over the transition period of dairy cows, mainly as an adaptation to the classical use of low-grain prepartum and high-grain postpartum diets. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of rumen samples from 10 primiparous Holstein dairy cows revealed no changes over the transition period in relative abundance of genera such as Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Coprococcus, and Pseudobutyrivibrio...
November 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158254/microbial-production-of-conjugated-linoleic-acid-and-conjugated-linolenic-acid-relies-on-a-multienzymatic-system
#16
REVIEW
Ana S Salsinha, Lígia L Pimentel, Ana L Fontes, Ana M Gomes, Luis M Rodríguez-Alcalá
Conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLNAs) have gained significant attention due to their anticarcinogenic and lipid/energy metabolism-modulatory effects. However, their concentration in foodstuffs is insufficient for any therapeutic application to be implemented. From a biotechnological standpoint, microbial production of these conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) has been explored as an alternative, and strains of the genera Propionibacterium , Lactobacillus , and Bifidobacterium have shown promising producing capacities...
December 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30134773/effects-of-livestock-manure-properties-and-temperature-on-the-methanogen-community-composition-and-methane-production-during-storage
#17
Guang Guo, Yongxing Chen, Fang Tian, Zhenduo Gao, Changxiong Zhu, Chong Liu
Livestock slurry stored in ponds is an important source of methane emission, which is influenced by environmental factors. In this study, the effect of slurry properties and temperature on methane flux and methanogen community composition was investigated. The methanogen community composition in swine slurry was more sensitive to temperature and significantly different from that of cattle slurry (ANOSIM, P < 0.05), especially for the phylotypes affiliated with Methanobrevibacter, Methanocorpusculaceae and Methanocorpusculum...
August 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056662/isolation-and-characterization-of-a-new-methanoculleus-bourgensis-strain-kor-2-from-the-rumen-of-holstein-steers
#18
Urantulkhuur Battumur, Manhee Lee, Gui Sek Bae, Chang Hyun Kim
Objective: To isolate and identify new methanogens from the rumen of Holstein steers in Korea. Methods: Representative rumen contents were obtained from three ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (793 ± 8 kg). Pre-reduced media were used for the growth and isolation of methanogens. Optimum growth temperature, pH, and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration as well as substrate utilization and antibiotic tolerance were investigated to determine the physiological characteristics of the isolated strain...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009395/diversity-and-population-density-of-methanogens-in-the-large-intestine-of-pigs-fed-diets-of-different-energy-levels
#19
Hiroki Matsui, Tomoyo Ishimoto-Tsuchiya, Sakiko Maekawa, Tomomi Ban-Tokuda
Marker gene analysis was performed to assess the effect of energy level on the diversity and population density of methanogens in pig fecal material. Crossbred pigs were fed high or low energy level diets, a high-energy (HE) diet that satisfied daily gain at 1.2 kg, and a low-energy (LE) diet with amount of 0.6 times of the HE diet. Growth performance and short-chain fatty acid in feces were examined. Diversity of methanogen was analyzed by the α-subunit of methyl coenzyme-M reductase gene (mcrA) clone library from fecal DNA...
October 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001126/bioreduction-of-antimonate-by-anaerobic-methane-oxidation-in-a-membrane-biofilm-batch-reactor
#20
Chun-Yu Lai, Qiu-Yi Dong, Bruce E Rittmann, He-Ping Zhao
Employing a special anaerobic membrane biofilm batch reactor (MBBR), we demonstrated antimonate (Sb(V)) reduction using methane (CH4 ) as the sole electron donor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra identified that Sb2 O3 microcrystals were the main reduced products. The Sb(V) reduction rate increased continually over the 111-day experiment, which supports the enrichment of the microorganisms responsible for Sb(V) reduction to Sb(III)...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
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