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mCRA gene

Zuopeng Lv, Athaydes Francisco Leite, Hauke Harms, Karin Glaser, Jan Liebetrau, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Marcell Nikolausz
Anaerobic digestion of nitrogen-rich substrate often causes process inhibition due to the susceptibility of the microbial community facing ammonia accumulation. However, the precise response of the microbial community has remained largely unknown. To explore the reasons, bacterial communities in ammonia-stressed reactors and control reactors were studied by amplicon pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes and the active methanogens were followed by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analyses of mcrA/mrtA gene transcripts...
October 17, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Fabian Bonk, Denny Popp, Sören Weinrich, Heike Sträuber, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Hauke Harms, Florian Centler
Background: Demand-driven biogas production could play an important role for future sustainable energy supply. However, feeding a biogas reactor according to energy demand may lead to organic overloading and, thus, to process failures. To minimize this risk, digesters need to be actively steered towards containing more robust microbial communities. This study focuses on acetogenesis and methanogenesis as crucial process steps for avoiding acidification. We fed lab-scale anaerobic digesters with volatile fatty acids under various feeding regimes and disturbances...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
H Heidari, M Hadadi, H Sedigh Ebrahim-Saraie, A Mirzaei, A Taji, S R Hosseini, M Motamedifar
INTRODUCTION: Infectious keratitis is a serious ocular infection that can lead to severe visual impairment and blindness. Bacterial pathogens are responsible for nearly half of infectious keratitis cases. This study was performed to determine the virulence factors, antimicrobial resistance patterns, and biofilm formation ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus spp. strains isolated from corneal infections. METHODS: A total of 56 corneal scraping samples were collected over 8 months...
October 3, 2018: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
Susanne Günther, Daniela Becker, Thomas Hübschmann, Susann Reinert, Sabine Kleinsteuber, Susann Müller, Christian Wilhelm
Generating chemical energy carriers and bulk chemicals from solar energy by microbial metabolic capacities is a promising technology. In this long-term study of over 500 days, methane was produced by a microbial community that was fed by the mono-substrate glycolate, which was derived from engineered algae. The microbial community structure was measured on the single cell level using flow cytometry. Abiotic and operational reactor parameters were analyzed in parallel. The R-based tool flowCyBar facilitated visualization of community dynamics and indicated sub-communities involved in glycolate fermentation and methanogenesis...
October 4, 2018: Microorganisms
Daan R Speth, Victoria J Orphan
Over the past years, metagenomics has revolutionized our view of microbial diversity. Moreover, extracting near-complete genomes from metagenomes has led to the discovery of known metabolic traits in unsuspected lineages. Genome-resolved metagenomics relies on assembly of the sequencing reads and subsequent binning of assembled contigs, which might be hampered by strain heterogeneity or low abundance of a target organism. Here we present a complementary approach, metagenome marker gene mining, and use it to assess the global diversity of archaeal methane metabolism through the mcrA gene...
2018: PeerJ
Zhen Wu, Xi Zhang, Yubing Dong, Xin Xu, Zhengqin Xiong
Knowledge about the impacts of fresh and field-aged biochar amendments on greenhouse gas (CH4 , N2 O) emissions is limited. A field experiment was initiated in 2012 to study the effects of fresh and field-aged biochar additions on CH4 and N2 O emissions and the associated microbial activity during the entire rice-growing season in typical rice-wheat rotation system in Southeast China. CH4 and N2 O fluxes were monitored, and the abundance of methanogen (mcrA), methanotrophy (pmoA), ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite reductase (nirS, nirK), N2 O reductase (nosZ), and potential soil enzyme activities related to CH4 and N2 O were simultaneously measured throughout different rice developmental stages...
November 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Zhigang Zhu, Lise Kristensen, Gareth F Difford, Morten Poulsen, Samantha J Noel, Waleed Abu Al-Soud, Søren J Sørensen, Jan Lassen, Peter Løvendahl, Ole Højberg
In the present study, we hypothesized that the rumen bacterial and archaeal communities would change significantly over the transition period of dairy cows, mainly as an adaptation to the classical use of low-grain prepartum and high-grain postpartum diets. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of rumen samples from 10 primiparous Holstein dairy cows revealed no changes over the transition period in relative abundance of genera such as Ruminococcus, Butyrivibrio, Clostridium, Coprococcus, and Pseudobutyrivibrio...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Ana S Salsinha, Lígia L Pimentel, Ana L Fontes, Ana M Gomes, Luis M Rodríguez-Alcalá
SUMMARYConjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) and conjugated linolenic acids (CLNAs) have gained significant attention due to their anticarcinogenic and lipid/energy metabolism-modulatory effects. However, their concentration in foodstuffs is insufficient for any therapeutic application to be implemented. From a biotechnological standpoint, microbial production of these conjugated fatty acids (CFAs) has been explored as an alternative, and strains of the genera Propionibacterium , Lactobacillus , and Bifidobacterium have shown promising producing capacities...
December 2018: Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews: MMBR
Guang Guo, Yongxing Chen, Fang Tian, Zhenduo Gao, Changxiong Zhu, Chong Liu
Livestock slurry stored in ponds is an important source of methane emission, which is influenced by environmental factors. In this study, the effect of slurry properties and temperature on methane flux and methanogen community composition was investigated. The methanogen community composition in swine slurry was more sensitive to temperature and significantly different from that of cattle slurry (ANOSIM, P < 0.05), especially for the phylotypes affiliated with Methanobrevibacter, Methanocorpusculaceae and Methanocorpusculum...
August 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
Urantulkhuur Battumur, Manhee Lee, Gui Sek Bae, Chang Hyun Kim
Objective: To isolate and identify new methanogens from the rumen of Holstein steers in Korea. Methods: Representative rumen contents were obtained from three ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (793 ± 8 kg). Pre-reduced media were used for the growth and isolation of methanogens. Optimum growth temperature, pH, and sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration as well as substrate utilization and antibiotic tolerance were investigated to determine the physiological characteristics of the isolated strain...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Hiroki Matsui, Tomoyo Ishimoto-Tsuchiya, Sakiko Maekawa, Tomomi Ban-Tokuda
Marker gene analysis was performed to assess the effect of energy level on the diversity and population density of methanogens in pig fecal material. Crossbred pigs were fed high or low energy level diets, a high-energy (HE) diet that satisfied daily gain at 1.2 kg, and a low-energy (LE) diet with amount of 0.6 times of the HE diet. Growth performance and short-chain fatty acid in feces were examined. Diversity of methanogen was analyzed by the α-subunit of methyl coenzyme-M reductase gene (mcrA) clone library from fecal DNA...
July 15, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Chun-Yu Lai, Qiu-Yi Dong, Bruce E Rittmann, He-Ping Zhao
Employing a special anaerobic membrane biofilm batch reactor (MBBR), we demonstrated antimonate (Sb(V)) reduction using methane (CH4 ) as the sole electron donor. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman and photoluminescence (PL) spectra identified that Sb2 O3 microcrystals were the main reduced products. The Sb(V) reduction rate increased continually over the 111-day experiment, which supports the enrichment of the microorganisms responsible for Sb(V) reduction to Sb(III)...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiang-Yu Hu, Qiu-Jie Xiang, Zhi-Jian Mu
In this study, the effects of gypsum (FGD) on CH4 emission and functional microbial community in paddy soil were identified under five treatments, including FGDG0 (0 t·hm-2 ), FGDG1 (2 t·hm-2 ), FGDG2 (4 t·hm-2 ), FGDG3 (8 t·hm-2 ), and FGDG4 (16 t·hm-2 ). The methane flux was determined using static chamber and chromatography. Bacterial community structure and its effect on soil bacterial community structure, and the abundance of methanogenic and methanotrophs were measured via high-throughput sequencing and quantitative PCR...
August 8, 2018: Huan Jing Ke Xue= Huanjing Kexue
Ke Zhang, Hongbing Luo, Zhanyuan Zhu, Wei Chen, Jia Chen, You Mo
To investigate the effects of emergent plants on CH4 efflux and elucidate the key factors responsible for these effects, annual monitoring of CH4 emissions and methanogen community dynamics in a full-scale constructed wetland (CW) was conducted. Five emergent plants (Typha orientalis, Cyperus alternifolius, Arundo domax, Iris pseudacorus, and Thalia dealbata) commonly used in CWs were selected for investigation. The greatest CH4 flux (annual mean 19.4 mg m-2  h-1 ) was observed from I. pseudacorus, while the lowest CH4 flux (7...
July 9, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Aurèle Vuillemin, Fabian Horn, André Friese, Matthias Winkel, Mashal Alawi, Dirk Wagner, Cynthia Henny, William D Orsi, Sean A Crowe, Jens Kallmeyer
Ferruginous (Fe-rich, SO4 -poor) conditions are generally restricted to freshwater sediments on Earth today, but were likely widespread during the Archean and Proterozoic Eons. Lake Towuti, Indonesia, is a large ferruginous lake that likely hosts geochemical processes analogous to those that operated in the ferruginous Archean ocean. The metabolic potential of microbial communities and related biogeochemical cycling under such conditions remain largely unknown. We combined geochemical measurements (pore water chemistry, sulfate reduction rates) with metagenomics to link metabolic potential with geochemical processes in the upper 50 cm of sediment...
July 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Xue Ping Chen, Jing Sun, Yi Wang, Heng Yang Zhang, Chi Quan He, Xiao Yan Liu, Nai Shun Bu, Xi-En Long
Methane production by methanogens in wetland is recognized as a significant contributor to global warming. Spartina alterniflora (S. alterniflora), which is an invasion plant in China's wetland, was reported to have enormous effects on methane production. But studies on shifts in the methanogen community in response to S. alterniflora invasion at temporal and spatial scales in the initial invasion years are rare. Sediments derived from the invasive species S. alterniflora and the native species Phragmites australis (P...
July 2018: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Souad Belkacemi, Anthony Mazel, Delphine Tardivo, Patrick Tavitian, Grégory Stephan, Giancarlo Bianca, Elodie Terrer, Michel Drancourt, Gérard Aboudharam
Methanogens have already been described in periodontitis but not in peri-implantitis. Thirty peri-implantitis samples and 28 control samples were collected in 28 consenting peri-implantitis patients. PCR-sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used as a broad-spectrum screening method and results were further confirmed by real-time quantitative PCR targeting the mcrA genes. Results showed a methanogen community dominated by Methanobrevibacter oralis in 31/58 (51%) samples including 16/28 (57%) control samples and 15/30 (50%) peri-implantitis samples...
June 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gui Feng Gao, Peng Fei Li, Zhi Jun Shen, Ying Ying Qin, Xi Min Zhang, Kabir Ghoto, Xue Yi Zhu, Hai Lei Zheng
Mangroves are critical in global carbon budget while vulnerable to exotic plant invasion. Spartina alterniflora, one of typical salt marsh plant grows forcefully along the coast of China, has invaded the native mangrove habitats in Zhangjiang Estuary. However, the effects of S. alterniflora invasion on soil carbon gases (CH4 and CO2 ) emission from mangroves are not fully understood. Accordingly, we conducted a field experiment to investigate the soil CH4 and CO2 emission during growing seasons in 2016 and 2017 at four adjacent wetlands, namely bare mudflat (Mud), Kandelia obovata (KO), Avicennia marina (AM) and S...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Prasant Kumar Jena, Lili Sheng, Nidhi Nagar, Chao Wu, Daniela Barile, David A Mills, Yui-Jui Yvonne Wan
Probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis ( Bifidobacterium infantis ) consumes human milk oligosaccharides (MO) and protects intestinal permeability thereby having anti-inflammatory effects (Underwood et al., 2015; Bode, 2006; Asakuma et al., 2011) [1-3]. Via the gut-liver axis, gut barrier disruption and dysbiosis lead to hepatic inflammation (Sheng et al., 2017; Jena et al., 2017) [4,5,6]. Our published data revealed that butyrate, as well as synbiotics of B. infantis in combination with MO, had protective effects against cancer-prone non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) mouse models, i...
August 2018: Data in Brief
Ting Xie, Qi Yang, Mari K H Winkler, Dongbo Wang, Yu Zhong, Hongxue An, Fei Chen, Fubin Yao, Xiaolin Wang, Jiawei Wu, Xiaoming Li
Perchlorate bioreduction coupled to methane oxidation was successfully achieved without the addition of nitrate or nitrite in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) inoculated with a mixture of freshwater sediments and anaerobic digester sludge as well as return activated sludge. The reactor was operated at different methane pressures (60, 40 and 20 Kpa) and influent perchlorate concentrations (1, 5 and 10 mg/L) to evaluate the biochemical process of perchlorate bioreduction coupled to methane oxidation. Perchlorate was completely reduced with a higher removal flux of 92...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
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