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Mirror neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335794/effect-of-a-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-binding-l-rna-aptamer-on-neuronal-activity-in-the-rat-spinal-trigeminal-nucleus
#1
Michael J M Fischer, Jakob Schmidt, Stanislav Koulchitsky, Sven Klussmann, Axel Vater, Karl Messlinger
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays a major role in the pathogenesis of migraine and other primary headaches. Spinal trigeminal neurons integrate nociceptive afferent input from trigeminal tissues including intracranial afferents, and their activity is thought to reflect facial pain and headache in man. CGRP receptor inhibitors and anti-CGRP antibodies have been demonstrated to be therapeutically effective in migraine. In parallel, CGRP receptor inhibition has been shown to lower spinal trigeminal neuron activity in animal models of meningeal nociception...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306056/subclinical-maternal-depressive-symptoms-modulate-right-inferior-frontal-response-to-inferring-affective-mental-states-of-adults-but-not-of-infants
#2
Koji Shimada, Ryoko Kasaba, Takashi X Fujisawa, Nobuko Sakakibara, Shinichiro Takiguchi, Akemi Tomoda
BACKGROUND: Being a mother of young children increases the risk of depression characterised by deficits in inferring what a person is feeling, i.e., affective theory of mind (aToM). Despite the adverse consequences for mothers, children, families, and society as a whole, little is known of how the brain functions underlying aToM ability are affected by subclinical maternal depressive symptoms, and act as a risk indicator for major depressive disorders (MDD). METHODS: Thirty healthy mothers with varying levels of depressive symptoms underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing mind-reading tasks based on the emotional expressions of adult eyes and infant faces...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299691/knowing-left-from-right-asymmetric-functional-connectivity-during-resting-state
#3
Mathijs Raemaekers, Wouter Schellekens, Natalia Petridou, Nick F Ramsey
The functional organization of left and right hemispheres is different, and hemispheric asymmetries are thought to underlie variations in brain function across individuals. In this study, we assess how differences between hemispheres are reflected in Asymmetric Functional Connectivity (AFC), which provides a full description of how the brain's connectivity structure during resting state differs from that of the same brain mirrored over the longitudinal fissure. In addition, we assess how AFC varies across subjects...
January 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297264/mirror-neurons-modeled-through-spike-timing-dependent-plasticity-are-affected-by-channelopathies-associated-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Gabriela Antunes, Samuel F Faria da Silva, Fabio M Simoes de Souza
Mirror neurons fire action potentials both when the agent performs a certain behavior and watches someone performing a similar action. Here, we present an original mirror neuron model based on the spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) between two morpho-electrical models of neocortical pyramidal neurons. Both neurons fired spontaneously with basal firing rate that follows a Poisson distribution, and the STDP between them was modeled by the triplet algorithm. Our simulation results demonstrated that STDP is sufficient for the rise of mirror neuron function between the pairs of neocortical neurons...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290621/a-gut-brain-axis-regulating-glucose-metabolism-mediated-by-bile-acids-and-competitive-fibroblast-growth-factor-actions-at-the-hypothalamus
#5
Shunmei Liu, Genevieve Marcelin, Clemence Blouet, Jae Hoon Jeong, Young-Hwan Jo, Gary J Schwartz, Streamson Chua
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids have been implicated as important regulators of glucose metabolism via activation of FXR and GPBAR1. We have previously shown that FGF19 can modulate glucose handling by suppressing the activity of hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons. As bile acids stimulate the release of FGF19/FGF15 into the circulation, we pursued the potential of bile acids to improve glucose tolerance via a gut-brain axis involving FXR and FGF15/FGF19 within enterocytes and FGF receptors on hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274848/mirror-neuron-system-activation-in-children-with-developmental-coordination-disorder-a-replication-functional-mri-study
#6
J E Reynolds, J Billington, S Kerrigan, J Williams, C Elliott, A M Winsor, L Codd, M Bynevelt, M K Licari
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesised that abnormal functioning of the mirror neuron system (MNS) may lead to deficits in imitation and the internal representation of movement, potentially contributing to the motor impairments associated with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). AIMS: Using fMRI, this study examined brain activation patterns in children with and without DCD on a finger adduction/abduction task during four MNS activation states: observation; motor imagery; execution; and imitation...
December 20, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249956/the-mirror-neurons-network-in-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-a-functional-mri-study
#7
Elisabetta Farina, Francesca Baglio, Simone Pomati, Alessandra D'Amico, Isabella C Campini, Sonia Di Tella, Giulia Belloni, Thierry Pozzo
The aim of the current study is to investigate the integrity of the Mirror Neurons (MN) network in normal aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Although AD and MCI are considered "cognitive" diseases, there has been increasing recognition of a link between motor function and AD. More recently the embodied cognition hypothesis has also been developed: it postulates that a part of cognition results from the coupling between action and perception representations. MN represent a neuronal population which links perception, action, and cognition, therefore we decided to characterize MN functioning in neurodegenerative cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249002/notch-mediated-lateral-inhibition-is-an-evolutionarily-conserved-mechanism-patterning-the-ectoderm-in-echinoids
#8
Eric M Erkenbrack
Notch signaling is a crucial cog in early development of euechinoid sea urchins, specifying both non-skeletogenic mesodermal lineages and serotonergic neurons in the apical neuroectoderm. Here, the spatial distributions and function of delta, gcm, and hesc, three genes critical to these processes in euechinoids, are examined in the distantly related cidaroid sea urchin Eucidaris tribuloides. Spatial distribution and experimental perturbation of delta and hesc suggest that the function of Notch signaling in ectodermal patterning in early development of E...
December 16, 2017: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243119/action-observation-or-imitation-of-virtual-hand-movement-affect-differently-regions-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-and-the-default-mode-network
#9
Nabila Brihmat, Mohamed Tarri, Yann Quidé, Ketty Anglio, Bernard Pavard, Evelyne Castel-Lacanal, David Gasq, Xavier De Boissezon, Philippe Marque, Isabelle Loubinoux
Virtual reality (VR)-based paradigms use visual stimuli that can modulate visuo-motor networks leading to the stimulation of brain circuits. The aims of this study were to compare the changes in blood-oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal when watching and imitating moving real (RH) and virtual hands (VH) in 11 healthy participants (HP). No differences were found between the observation of RH or VH making this VR-based experiment a promising tool for rehabilitation protocols. VH-imitation involved more the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC) as part of the mirror neuron system (MNS) compared to execution and VH-observation conditions...
December 14, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230518/analysis-of-mirror-neuron-system-activation-during-action-observation-alone-and-action-observation-with-motor-imagery-tasks
#10
Bülent Cengiz, Doğa Vurallı, Murat Zinnuroğlu, Gözde Bayer, Hassan Golmohammadzadeh, Zafer Günendi, Ali Emre Turgut, Bülent İrfanoğlu, Kutluk Bilge Arıkan
This study aimed to explore the relationship between action observation (AO)-related corticomotor excitability changes and phases of observed action and to explore the effects of pure AO and concurrent AO and motor imagery (MI) state on corticomotor excitability using TMS. It was also investigated whether the mirror neuron system activity is muscle-specific. Fourteen healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. EMG recordings were taken from the right first dorsal interosseous and the abductor digiti minimi muscles...
December 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217685/scale-free-amplitude-modulation-of-neuronal-oscillations-tracks-comprehension-of-accelerated-speech
#11
Ana Filipa Teixeira Borges, Anne-Lise Giraud, Huibert D Mansvelder, Klaus Linkenkaer-Hansen
Speech comprehension is preserved up to a three-fold acceleration but rapidly deteriorates at higher speeds. Current models posit that perceptual resilience to accelerated speech is limited by the brain's ability to parse speech into syllabic units using delta/theta oscillations. Here, we ask whether the involvement of neuronal oscillations in processing accelerated speech also relates to their scale-free amplitude modulation as indexed by the strength of long-range temporal correlations (LRTC). We recorded magnetoencephalography (MEG) while 24 human subjects (12 females) listened to radio news uttered at different comprehensible rates, at a mostly unintelligible rate, and at this same speed interleaved with silence gaps...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201543/object-words-modulate-the-activity-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-action-imitation
#12
Haiyan Wu, Honghong Tang, Yue Ge, Suyong Yang, Xiaoqin Mai, Yue-Jia Luo, Chao Liu
Background: Although research has demonstrated that the mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a crucial role in both action imitation and action-related semantic processing, whether action-related words can inversely modulate the MNS activity remains unclear. Methods: Here, three types of task-irrelevant words (body parts, verbs, and manufactured objects) were presented to examine the modulation effect of these words on the MNS activity during action observation and imitation...
November 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198275/emotions-are-rising-the-growing-field-of-affect-neuropsychology
#13
Skye McDonald
Thirty years ago, the neuropsychology of emotion started to emerge as a mainstream topic. Careful examination of individual patients showed that emotion, like memory, language, and so on, could be differentially affected by brain disorders, especially in the right hemisphere. Since then, there has been accelerating interest in uncovering the neural architecture of emotion, and the major steps in this process of discovery over the past 3 decades are detailed in this review. In the 1990s, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans provided precise delineation of lesions in the amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, insula and somatosensory cortex as underpinning emotion disorders...
October 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196811/cortical-and-subcortical-connections-of-parietal-and-premotor-nodes-of-the-monkey-hand-mirror-neuron-network
#14
Stefania Bruni, Marzio Gerbella, Luca Bonini, Elena Borra, Gino Coudé, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Leonardo Fogassi, Monica Maranesi, Francesca Rodà, Luciano Simone, Francesca Ugolotti Serventi, Stefano Rozzi
Mirror neurons (MNs) are a class of cells originally discovered in the monkey ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). They discharge during both action execution and action observation and appear to play a crucial role in understanding others' actions. It has been proposed that the mirror mechanism is based on a match between the visual description of actions, encoded in temporal cortical regions, and their motor representation, provided by PMv and IPL. However, neurons responding to action observation have been recently found in other cortical regions, suggesting that the mirror mechanism relies on a wider network...
December 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196182/peripheral-5-ht3-mediates-mirror-image-pain-by-a-cross-talk-with-acid-sensing-ion-channel-3
#15
Yeu-Shiuan Su, Hao-Ruei Mei, Chun-Hung Wang, Wei-Hsin Sun
Mirror-image pain (MIP), which occurs along with complex regional pain syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and chronic migraine, is characterized by increased pain sensitivity of healthy body regions other than the actual injured or inflamed sites. A high level of peripheral inflammation may activate central or peripheral glia, triggering mirror-image pain. However, which receptors mediate inflammatory signals to contribute glial activation remains unclear. Intraplantarly injecting mice with 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or acidic buffer (proton) caused only unilateral hyperalgesia, but co-injection of 5-HT/acid induced bilateral hyperalgesia (MIP)...
November 28, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178660/motion-contrast-in-primary-visual-cortex-a-direct-comparison-of-single-neuron-and-population-encoding
#16
Sergio A Conde-Ocazionez, Tiago S Altavini, Thomas Wunderle, Kerstin E Schmidt
Features from outside the classical receptive field (CRF) can modulate the stimulus-driven activity of single cells in the primary visual cortex. This modulation, mediated by horizontal and feedback networks, has been extensively described as a variation of firing rate and is considered the basis of processing features as, for example, motion contrast. However, surround influences have also been identified in pairwise spiking or local field coherence. Yet, evidence about co-existence and integration of different neural signatures remains elusive...
November 27, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167022/does-apraxia-support-spatial-and-kinematic-or-mirror-neuron-approaches-to-social-interaction-a-commentary-on-binder-et%C3%A2-al-2017
#17
Arran T Reader, Matteo Candidi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164372/hippocampal-neurogenesis-in-the-c57bl-6j-mice-at-early-adulthood-following-prenatal-alcohol-exposure
#18
Oladiran I Olateju, Muhammad A Spocter, Nina Patzke, Amadi O Ihunwo, Paul R Manger
We examined the effect of chronic prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) on the process of adult neurogenesis in C57BL/6J mice at early adulthood (PND 56). Pregnant mice, and their in utero litters, were exposed to alcohol, through oral gavage, on gestational days 7-16, with recorded blood alcohol concentrations averaging 184 mg/dL (CA group). Two control groups, sucrose (CAc) and non-treated (NTc) control groups were also examined. The brains of pups at PND 56 from each experimental group were sectioned in a sagittal plane, and stained for Nissl substance with cresyl violet, and immunostained for Ki-67 which labels proliferative cells and doublecortin (DCX) for immature neurons...
November 21, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162978/exploring-the-interaction-of-drosophila-tdp-43-and-the-type-ii-voltage-gated-calcium-channel-cacophony-in-regulating-motor-function-and-behavior
#19
Kayly M Lembke, David B Morton
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult onset motor neurodegenerative disease. The cause of the disease remains obscure, and as such there is no effective treatment or cure. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other neurodegenerative diseases are frequently characterized by dysfunction of the RNA-binding protein, TDP-43. Using model systems to understand the mechanisms underlying TDP-43 dysfunction should accelerate identification of therapeutic targets. A recent report has shown that motor defects caused by the deletion of the Drosophila TDP-43 ortholog, tbph, are not driven by changes in the physiology at the neuromuscular junction...
2017: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151094/glossolalia-and-aphasia-related-but-different-worlds
#20
Leila Chouiter, Jean-Marie Annoni
The word glossolalia, also referred to as "speaking in tongues," originates from the Greek "glossa" which means "language" and "Lalia" which means "speak." It simply means to talk language. On a linguistic perspective, glossolalia is characterized by almost no recognizable words or semantic content, apart from biblical words and phrases, with an overrepresentation of a small phonemes number, accelerated speech output, and modification of accents and melody. Its phonemic properties have been said to resemble those of the language(s) of the speaker...
2018: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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