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Mirror neuron

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934247/the-extent-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-determines-the-severity-of-cerebral-injury-and-neurobehavioural-deficits-in-rodents
#1
Crystal A Ruff, Stuart D Faulkner, Prakasham Rumajogee, Stephanie Beldick, Warren Foltz, Jennifer Corrigan, Alfred Basilious, Shangjun Jiang, Shanojan Thiyagalingam, Jerome Y Yager, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the most common physical pediatric neurodevelopmental disorder and spastic diplegic injury is its most frequent subtype. CP results in substantial neuromotor and cognitive impairments that have significant socioeconomic impact. Despite this, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms and etiology remain incompletely understood. Furthermore, there is a need for clinically relevant injury models, which a) reflect the heterogeneity of the condition and b) can be used to evaluate new translational therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933662/deficiency-of-serotonin-in-raphe-neurons-and-altered-behavioral-responses-in-tryptophan-hydroxylase-2-knockout-medaka-oryzias-latipes
#2
Satoshi Ansai, Hiroshi Hosokawa, Shingo Maegawa, Kiyoshi Naruse, Youhei Washio, Kenji Sato, Masato Kinoshita
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) is a bioactive monoamine that acts as a neurotransmitter in the central and peripheral nervous system of animals. Teleost fish species have serotonergic neurons in the raphe nuclei of the brainstem; however, the role of 5-HT in the raphe neurons in teleost fish remains largely unknown. Here, we established a medaka (Oryzias latipes) strain with targeted disruption of tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (tph2) gene that is involved in the 5-HT synthesis in the raphe nuclei. Immunohistochemistry and mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the homozygous mutants (tph2(Δ13/Δ13)) lacked the ability to synthesize 5-HT in the raphe neurons...
September 21, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931615/evidence-for-the-representation-of-movement-kinematics-in-the-discharge-of-f5-mirror-neurons-during-the-observation-of-transitive-and-intransitive-actions
#3
Vassilis Papadourakis, Vassilis C Raos
Mirror neurons (MirNs) are sensorimotor neurons that fire both when an animal performs a goal-directed action and when the same animal observes another agent performing the same or a similar transitive action. It has been claimed that the observation of intransitive actions does not activate MirNs in a monkey's brain. Prompted by recent evidence indicating that the discharge of MirNs is modulated also by non object-directed actions, we investigated thoroughly the efficacy of intransitive actions to trigger MirNs' discharge...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929542/visuomotor-effects-of-body-part-movements-presented-in-the-first-person-perspective-on-imitative-behavior
#4
Rui Watanabe, Takahiro Higuchi, Yoshiaki Kikuchi, Masato Taira
Imitative stimuli presented from a first-person perspective (FPP) produce stronger visuomotor effects than those presented from a third-person perspective (TPP) due to the relatively greater response of the mirror neuron system (MNS) to FPP stimuli. Some previous studies utilizing TPP stimuli have reported no differences in MNS activity between moving and static bodies' stimuli. However, few studies have compared visuomotor effects of such stimuli when presented in the FPP. To clarify this issue, we measured cortical activation in 17 participants during a functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imitation task involving three conditions: moving (a lifting finger was presented), static (an "X" appeared on a static finger), and control (an "X" appeared on a button)...
September 20, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928646/cortical-activation-during-action-observation-action-execution-and-interpersonal-synchrony-in-adults-a-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-fnirs-study
#5
Anjana N Bhat, Michael D Hoffman, Susanna L Trost, McKenzie L Culotta, Jeffrey Eilbott, Daisuke Tsuzuki, Kevin A Pelphrey
Introduction: Humans engage in Interpersonal Synchrony (IPS) as they synchronize their own actions with that of a social partner over time. When humans engage in imitation/IPS behaviors, multiple regions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cortices are activated including the putative Mirror Neuron Systems (Iacoboni, 2005; Buxbaum et al., 2014). In the present study, we compared fNIRS-based cortical activation patterns across three conditions of action observation ("Watch" partner), action execution ("Do" on your own), and IPS (move "Together")...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921934/mirror-trends-of-plasticity-and-stability-indicators-in-primate-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Miguel Á García-Cabezas, Mary Kate P Joyce, Yohan J John, Basilis Zikopoulos, Helen Barbas
Research on plasticity markers in the cerebral cortex has largely focused on their timing of expression and role in shaping circuits during critical and normal periods. By contrast, little attention has been focused on the spatial dimension of plasticity-stability across cortical areas. The rationale for this analysis is based on the systematic variation in cortical structure that parallels functional specialization and raises the possibility of varying levels of plasticity. Here we investigated in adult rhesus monkeys the expression of markers related to synaptic plasticity or stability in prefrontal limbic and eulaminate areas that vary in laminar structure...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912300/-18-f-av-1451-binding-in-vivo-mirrors-the-expected-distribution-of-tdp-43-pathology-in-the-semantic-variant-of-primary-progressive-aphasia
#7
W R Bevan-Jones, Thomas E Cope, P Simon Jones, Luca Passamonti, Young T Hong, Tim D Fryer, Robert Arnold, Kieren S J Allinson, Jonathan P Coles, Franklin I Aigbirhio, Karalyn Patterson, John T O'Brien, James B Rowe
INTRODUCTION: Semantic dementia, including the semantic variant of primary progressive aphasia (svPPA), is strongly associated with TAR-DNA binding protein 43 (TDP-43) type C pathology. It provides a useful model in which to test the specificity of in vivo binding of the putative tau ligand [(18)F]AV-1451, which is elevated in frontotemporal lobar degeneration tauopathies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seven patients (five with svPPA and two with 'right' semantic dementia) and 12 healthy controls underwent positron emission tomography brain imaging with [(18)F]AV-1451...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906130/human-movement-responses-to-the-rorschach-and-mirroring-activity-an-fmri-study
#8
Luciano Giromini, Donald J Viglione, Jaime A Pineda, Piero Porcelli, David Hubbard, Alessandro Zennaro, Franco Cauda
It has been suggested that the Rorschach human movement (M) response could be associated with an embodied simulation mechanism mediated by the mirror neuron system (MNS). To date, evidence for this hypothesis comes from two electroencephalogram studies and one repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation study. To provide additional data on this topic, the Rorschach was administered during fMRI to a sample of 26 healthy adult volunteers. Activity in MNS-related brain areas temporally associated with M responses was compared with such activity for other, non-M Rorschach responses...
September 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890691/predicting-intentions-of-a-familiar-significant-other-beyond-the-mirror-neuron-system
#9
Stephanie Cacioppo, Elsa Juan, George Monteleone
Inferring intentions of others is one of the most intriguing issues in interpersonal interaction. Theories of embodied cognition and simulation suggest that this mechanism takes place through a direct and automatic matching process that occurs between an observed action and past actions. This process occurs via the reactivation of past self-related sensorimotor experiences within the inferior frontoparietal network (including the mirror neuron system, MNS). The working model is that the anticipatory representations of others' behaviors require internal predictive models of actions formed from pre-established, shared representations between the observer and the actor...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867516/modelling-the-neuromotor-abnormalities-of-psychotic-illness-putative-mechanisms-and-systems-dysfunction
#10
John L Waddington, Colm M O'Tuathaigh
Limitations in access to antipsychotic-naïve patients and in the incisiveness of studies that can be conducted on them, together with the inevitability of subsequent antipsychotic treatment, indicate an enduring role for animal models that can inform on the pathobiology of neuromotor abnormalities in schizophrenia and related psychotic illness. This review focusses particularly on genetically modified mouse models that involve genes associated with risk for schizophrenia and with mechanisms implicated in the neuromotor abnormalities evident in psychotic patients, as well as developmental models that seek to mirror the trajectory, phenomenology and putative pathophysiology of psychotic illness...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867202/a-neural-basis-for-contagious-yawning
#11
Beverley J Brown, Soyoung Kim, Hannah Saunders, Clarissa Bachmann, Jessica Thompson, Danielle Ropar, Stephen R Jackson, Georgina M Jackson
Contagious yawning, in which yawning is triggered involuntarily when we observe another person yawn, is a common form of echophenomena-the automatic imitation of another's words (echolalia) or actions (echopraxia) [1]. The neural basis for echophenomena is unknown; however, it has been proposed that it is linked to disinhibition of the human mirror-neuron system [1-4] and hyper-excitability of cortical motor areas [1]. We investigated the neural basis for contagious yawning using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)...
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864245/musical-training-increases-functional-connectivity-but-does-not-enhance-mu-suppression
#12
C Carolyn Wu, Jeff P Hamm, Vanessa K Lim, Ian J Kirk
Musical training provides an ideal platform for investigating action representation for sound. Learning to play an instrument requires integration of sensory and motor perception-action processes. Functional neuroimaging studies have indicated that listening to trained music can result in the activity in premotor areas, even after a short period of training. These studies suggest that action representation systems are heavily dependent on specific sensorimotor experience. However, others suggest that because humans naturally move to music, sensorimotor training is not necessary and there is a more general action representation for music...
August 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856044/label-free-optical-detection-of-action-potential-in-mammalian-neurons
#13
Subrata Batabyal, Sarmishtha Satpathy, Loan Bui, Young-Tae Kim, Samarendra Mohanty, Robert Bachoo, Digant P Davé
We describe an optical technique for label-free detection of the action potential in cultured mammalian neurons. Induced morphological changes due to action potential propagation in neurons are optically interrogated with a phase sensitive interferometric technique. Optical recordings composed of signal pulses mirror the electrical spike train activity of individual neurons in a network. The optical pulses are transient nanoscale oscillatory changes in the optical path length of varying peak magnitude and temporal width...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846741/decoding-social-intentions-in-human-prehensile-actions-insights-from-a-combined-kinematics-fmri-study
#14
Maria Grazia Di Bono, Chiara Begliomini, Sanja Budisavljevic, Luisa Sartori, Diego Miotto, Raffaella Motta, Umberto Castiello
Consistent evidence suggests that the way we reach and grasp an object is modulated not only by object properties (e.g., size, shape, texture, fragility and weight), but also by the types of intention driving the action, among which the intention to interact with another agent (i.e., social intention). Action observation studies ascribe the neural substrate of this 'intentional' component to the putative mirror neuron (pMNS) and the mentalizing (MS) systems. How social intentions are translated into executed actions, however, has yet to be addressed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844202/distinct-unfolded-protein-responses-mitigate-or-mediate-effects-of-nonlethal-deprivation-of-c-elegans-sleep-in-different-tissues
#15
Jarred Sanders, Monika Scholz, Ilaria Merutka, David Biron
BACKGROUND: Disrupting sleep during development leads to lasting deficits in chordates and arthropods. To address lasting impacts of sleep deprivation in Caenorhabditis elegans, we established a nonlethal deprivation protocol. RESULTS: Deprivation triggered protective insulin-like signaling and two unfolded protein responses (UPRs): the mitochondrial (UPR(mt)) and the endoplasmic reticulum (UPR(ER)) responses. While the latter is known to be triggered by sleep deprivation in rodent and insect brains, the former was not strongly associated with sleep deprivation previously...
August 28, 2017: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28829994/language-for-action-motor-resonance-during-the-processing-of-human-and-robotic-voices
#16
G Di Cesare, A Errante, M Marchi, V Cuccio
In this fMRI study we evaluated whether the auditory processing of action verbs pronounced by a human or a robotic voice in the imperative mood differently modulates the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNs). The study produced three results. First, the activation pattern found during listening to action verbs was very similar in both the robot and human conditions. Second, the processing of action verbs compared to abstract verbs determined the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit classically involved during the action goal understanding...
August 19, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827180/excitatory-effects-of-the-primary-auditory-cortex-on-the-sound-evoked-responses-in-the-ipsilateral-anterior-auditory-field-in-rat
#17
Guangwei Zhang, Can Tao, Chang Zhou, Sumei Yan, Zhaoqun Wang, Yi Zhou, Ying Xiong
In the neocortex, interaction and cooperation between different areas are important for information processing, which also applies to different areas within one sensory modality. In the temporal cortex of rodents and cats, both the primary auditory cortex (A1) and the anterior auditory field (AAF) have tonotopicity but with a mirrored frequency gradient. However, whether and how A1 modulates the responses in AAF is largely unknown. Here, we functionally identified the locations of A1 and AAF in rats and used an optogenetic approach to manipulate the activity of A1 in vivo...
August 19, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819117/neuronal-encoding-of-self-and-others-head-rotation-in-the-macaque-dorsal-prefrontal-cortex
#18
M Lanzilotto, M Gerbella, V Perciavalle, C Lucchetti
Following gaze is a crucial skill, in primates, for understanding where and at what others are looking, and often requires head rotation. The neural basis underlying head rotation are deemed to overlap with the parieto-frontal attention/gaze-shift network. Here, we show that a set of neurons in monkey's Brodmann area 9/46dr (BA 9/46dr), which is involved in orienting processes and joint attention, becomes active during self head rotation and that the activity of these neurons cannot be accounted for by saccade-related activity (head-rotation neurons)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818270/the-glass-ceiling-a-biological-phenomenon
#19
Tom W J Schulpen
Many brilliant and ambitious young women lose their drive for top careers after childbirth. New maternal impulses are at odds with their original ambitions and for many mothers stress and frustration will be the result as they have to combine child care with workweeks of 60-80h to reach or remain at the top. Pregnancy hormones modify the female's brain as has been demonstrated already for decades in animals. This brain plasticity due to adult neurogenesis in the so called maternal circuitry of the limbic system is long-lasting and perhaps lifelong...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814675/retinal-amyloid-pathology-and-proof-of-concept-imaging-trial-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Yosef Koronyo, David Biggs, Ernesto Barron, David S Boyer, Joel A Pearlman, William J Au, Shawn J Kile, Austin Blanco, Dieu-Trang Fuchs, Adeel Ashfaq, Sally Frautschy, Gregory M Cole, Carol A Miller, David R Hinton, Steven R Verdooner, Keith L Black, Maya Koronyo-Hamaoui
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive detection of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with high specificity and sensitivity can greatly facilitate identification of at-risk populations for earlier, more effective intervention. AD patients exhibit a myriad of retinal pathologies, including hallmark amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposits. METHODS: Burden, distribution, cellular layer, and structure of retinal Aβ plaques were analyzed in flat mounts and cross sections of definite AD patients and controls (n = 37)...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
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