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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#1
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720525/motor-resonance-during-action-observation-is-gaze-contingent-a-tms-study
#2
Giorgia D'Innocenzo, Claudia C Gonzalez, Alexander V Nowicky, A Mark Williams, Daniel T Bishop
When we observe others performing an action, visual input to our mirror neuron system is reflected in the facilitation of primary motor cortex (M1), a phenomenon known as 'motor resonance'. However, it is unclear whether this motor resonance is contingent upon our point-of-gaze. In order to address this issue, we collected gaze data from participants as they viewed an intransitive action - thumb abduction/adduction - under four conditions: with natural gaze behaviour (free viewing) and with their gaze fixated on each of three predetermined loci at various distances from the prime mover...
July 15, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716953/a-novel-in-vitro-analog-expressing-learning-induced-cellular-correlates-in-distinct-neural-circuits
#3
Harris A Weisz, Marcy L Wainwright, Riccardo Mozzachiodi
When presented with noxious stimuli, Aplysia exhibits concurrent sensitization of defensive responses, such as the tail-induced siphon withdrawal reflex (TSWR) and suppression of feeding. At the cellular level, sensitization of the TSWR is accompanied by an increase in the excitability of the tail sensory neurons (TSNs) that elicit the reflex, whereas feeding suppression is accompanied by decreased excitability of B51, a decision-making neuron in the feeding neural circuit. The goal of this study was to develop an in vitro analog coexpressing the above cellular correlates...
August 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705258/fate-bias-during-neural-regeneration-adjusts-dynamically-without-recapitulating-developmental-fate-progression
#4
Jeremy Ng Chi Kei, Peter David Currie, Patricia Regina Jusuf
BACKGROUND: Regeneration of neurons in the central nervous system is poor in humans. In other vertebrates neural regeneration does occur efficiently and involves reactivation of developmental processes. Within the neural retina of zebrafish, Müller glia are the main stem cell source and are capable of generating progenitors to replace lost neurons after injury. However, it remains largely unknown to what extent Müller glia and neuron differentiation mirror development. METHODS: Following neural ablation in the zebrafish retina, dividing cells were tracked using a prolonged labelling technique...
July 13, 2017: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687313/two-different-mirror-neuron-networks-the-sensorimotor-hand-and-limbic-face-pathways
#5
REVIEW
P F Ferrari, M Gerbella, G Coudé, S Rozzi
The vast majority of functional studies investigating mirror neurons (MNs) explored their properties in relation to hand actions, and very few investigated how MNs respond to mouth actions or communicative gestures. Since hand and mouth MNs were recorded in two partially overlapping sectors of the ventral precentral cortex of the macaque monkey, there is a general assumption that they share a same neuroanatomical network, with the parietal cortex as a main source of visual information. In the current review, we challenge this perspective and describe the connectivity pattern of mouth MN sector...
July 4, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684759/social-coordination-information-in-dynamic-chase-modulates-eeg-mu-rhythm
#6
Jun Yin, Xiaowei Ding, Haokui Xu, Feng Zhang, Mowei Shen
Understanding actions plays an impressive role in our social life. Such processing has been suggested to be reflected by EEG Mu rhythm (8-13 Hz in sensorimotor regions). However, it remains unclear whether Mu rhythm is modulated by the social nature of coordination information in interactive actions (i.e., inter-dependency). This study used a novel manipulation of social coordination information: in a computer-based task, participants viewed a replay of two chasers chasing a common target coordinately (coordinated chase) or independently (solo chase)...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673921/two-social-brains-neural-mechanisms-of-intersubjectivity
#7
REVIEW
Kai Vogeley
It is the aim of this article to present an empirically justified hypothesis about the functional roles of the two social neural systems, namely the so-called 'mirror neuron system' (MNS) and the 'mentalizing system' (MENT, also 'theory of mind network' or 'social neural network'). Both systems are recruited during cognitive processes that are either related to interaction or communication with other conspecifics, thereby constituting intersubjectivity. The hypothesis is developed in the following steps: first, the fundamental distinction that we make between persons and things is introduced; second, communication is presented as the key process that allows us to interact with others; third, the capacity to 'mentalize' or to understand the inner experience of others is emphasized as the fundamental cognitive capacity required to establish successful communication...
August 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670296/the-evolution-of-lateralized-brain-circuits
#8
Michael C Corballis
In the vast clade of animals known as the bilateria, cerebral and behavioral asymmetries emerge against the backdrop of bilateral symmetry, with a functional trade-off between the two. Asymmetries can lead to more efficient processing and packaging of internal structures, but at the expense of efficient adaptation to a natural world without systematic left-right bias. Asymmetries may arise through the fissioning of ancestral structures that are largely symmetrical, creating new circuits. In humans these may include asymmetrical adaptations to language and manufacture, and as one or other hemisphere gains dominance for functions that were previously represented bilaterally...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655877/mammalian-empathy-behavioural-manifestations-and-neural-basis
#9
REVIEW
Frans B M de Waal, Stephanie D Preston
Recent research on empathy in humans and other mammals seeks to dissociate emotional and cognitive empathy. These forms, however, remain interconnected in evolution, across species and at the level of neural mechanisms. New data have facilitated the development of empathy models such as the perception-action model (PAM) and mirror-neuron theories. According to the PAM, the emotional states of others are understood through personal, embodied representations that allow empathy and accuracy to increase based on the observer's past experiences...
August 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651628/separability-of-motor-imagery-of-the-self-from-interpretation-of-motor-intentions-of-others-at-the-single-trial-level-an-eeg-study
#10
João Andrade, José Cecílio, Marco Simões, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate the separability of the neural correlates of 2 types of motor imagery, self and third person (actions owned by the participant himself vs. another individual). If possible this would allow for the development of BCI interfaces to train disorders of action and intention understanding beyond simple imitation, such as autism. METHODS: We used EEG recordings from 20 healthy participants, as well as electrocorticography (ECoG) in one, based on a virtual reality setup...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644911/interictal-oscillations-and-focal-epileptic-disorders
#11
Maxime Lévesque, Pariya Salami, Zahra Shiri, Massimo Avoli
Neuronal network oscillations represent a main feature of the brain activity recorded in the EEG under normal and pathological conditions such as epilepsy. Specific oscillations occur between seizures in patients and in animal models of focal epilepsy, and thus they are termed interictal. According to their shape and intrinsic signal frequency, interictal oscillations are classified as spikes and high frequency oscillations (HFOs). Interictal spikes are recorded in the "wideband" EEG signal and consist of large-amplitude events that usually last less than 1 s; HFOs, in contrast, are extracted by amplifying the appropriately filtered EEG signal, and are usually categorized as ripples (80-200 Hz) and fast ripples (250-500 Hz)...
June 23, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642865/spinal-muscular-atrophy-from-defective-chaperoning-of-snrnp-assembly-to-neuromuscular-dysfunction
#12
REVIEW
Maia Lanfranco, Neville Vassallo, Ruben J Cauchi
Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) is a neuromuscular disorder that results from decreased levels of the survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. SMN is part of a multiprotein complex that also includes Gemins 2-8 and Unrip. The SMN-Gemins complex cooperates with the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) complex, whose constituents include WD45, PRMT5 and pICln. Both complexes function as molecular chaperones, interacting with and assisting in the assembly of an Sm protein core onto small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) to generate small nuclear ribonucleoproteins (snRNPs), which are the operating components of the spliceosome...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637919/the-morphological-heterogeneity-of-cricket-flow-sensing-hairs-conveys-the-complex-flow-signature-of-predator-attacks
#13
Thomas Steinmann, Jérôme Casas
Arthropod flow-sensing hair length ranges over more than an order of magnitude, from 0.1 to 5 mm. Previous studies repeatedly identified the longest hairs as the most sensitive, but recent studies identified the shortest hairs as the most responsive. We resolved this apparent conflict by proposing a new model, taking into account both the initial and long-term aspects of the flow pattern produced by a lunging predator. After the estimation of the mechanical parameters of hairs, we measured the flow produced by predator mimics and compared the predicted and observed values of hair displacements in this flow...
June 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627281/mirroring-meaningful-actions-sensorimotor-learning-modulates-imitation-of-goal-directed-actions
#14
Caroline Catmur, Cecilia Heyes
Imitation is important in the development of social and technological skills throughout the lifespan. Experiments investigating the acquisition and modulation of imitation (and of its proposed neural substrate, the mirror neuron system) have produced evidence that the capacity for imitation depends on associative learning in which connections are formed between sensory and motor representations of actions. However, evidence that the development of imitation depends on associative learning has been found only for non-goal-directed actions...
June 19, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626439/attentive-observation-is-essential-for-the-misattribution-of-agency-to-self-performance
#15
Shiho Kashihara, Noriaki Kanayama, Makoto Miyatani, Takashi Nakao
Recent studies have repeatedly demonstrated a false memory phenomenon in which people falsely remember having performed an action by oneself when in fact they have only observed the action by another person. We investigated the attentional effect to the action itself on the observation inflation. Fifty-four participants first performed and read actions (Phase 1); then, they observed the action video that showed another's actions (Phase 2), some of which they had not performed in Phase 1. In the Phase 2, they were required to focus on either the actor's performance (i...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623837/abnormal-asymmetry-in-benign-epilepsy-with-unilateral-and-bilateral-centrotemporal-spikes-a-combined-fmri-and-dti-study
#16
Weifang Cao, Yaodan Zhang, Changyue Hou, Fei Yang, Jinnan Gong, Sisi Jiang, Yue Huang, Ruhui Xiao, Cheng Luo, Xiaoming Wang, Dezhong Yao
Benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS) is the most common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy associated with either unilateral or bilateral epileptic discharge. Asymmetry as an important characteristic of the human brain is beneficial for brain functions. However, little is known about on asymmetry of BECTS patients with different epileptic spikes pattern. In the present study, we investigated functional and structural asymmetries in unilateral spikes BECTS (U_BECTS) patients and bilateral spikes BECTS (B_BECTS) patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance images and diffusion tensor imaging...
June 8, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622282/towards-a-neurobiological-understanding-of-alexithymia
#17
REVIEW
Nicolás Meza-Concha, Marcelo Arancibia, Felicia Salas, Rosa Behar, Germán Salas, Hernán Silva, Rocío Escobar
Although the specialized literature on the etiology of alexithymia is controversial, neurobiological research has shown relevant advances. The aim of this review is to analyze the available evidence regarding the neurophysiological bases of alexithymia. A comprehensive review of available articles from Medline/PubMed, EBSCO and SciELO was conducted. Previously, alexithymia was linked to a reduced interhemispheric brain connection. From a childhood traumatic perspective, the right prefrontal cortex and the default mode network would experience alterations, first hypermetabolic (dopaminergic and glutamatergic dysregulation) and then hypometabolic-dissociative (serotonergic and opioid dysregulation), resulting in a distorted interoceptive and emotional awareness...
May 29, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606110/a-c9orf72-bac-mouse-model-recapitulates-key-epigenetic-perturbations-of-als-ftd
#18
Rustam Esanov, Gabriela Toro Cabrera, Nadja S Andrade, Tania F Gendron, Robert H Brown, Michael Benatar, Claes Wahlestedt, Christian Mueller, Zane Zeier
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and progressive neurodegenerative disorder with identified genetic causes representing a significant minority of all cases. A GGGGCC hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) mutation within the C9ORF72 gene has recently been identified as the most frequent known cause of ALS. The expansion leads to partial heterochromatinization of the locus, yet mutant RNAs and dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) are still produced in sufficient quantities to confer neurotoxicity...
June 12, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592282/the-role-of-virtual-reality-in-improving-motor-performance-as-revealed-by-eeg-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Margherita Russo, Antonino Leo, Rosaria De Luca, Tina Balletta, Antonio Buda, Gianluca La Rosa, Alessia Bramanti, Placido Bramanti
BACKGROUND: Many studies have demonstrated the usefulness of repetitive task practice by using robotic-assisted gait training (RAGT) devices, including Lokomat, for the treatment of lower limb paresis. Virtual reality (VR) has proved to be a valuable tool to improve neurorehabilitation training. The aim of our pilot randomized clinical trial was to understand the neurophysiological basis of motor function recovery induced by the association between RAGT (by using Lokomat device) and VR (an animated avatar in a 2D VR) by studying electroencephalographic (EEG) oscillations...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577989/hemicholinium-3-sensitive-choline-transport-in-human-t-lymphocytes-evidence-for-use-as-a-proxy-for-brain-choline-transporter-cht-capacity
#20
Ajeesh Koshy Cherian, Vinay Parikh, Qi Wu, Yang Mao-Draayer, Qin Wang, Randy D Blakely, Martin Sarter
The synaptic uptake of choline via the high-affinity, hemicholinium-3-dependent choline transporter (CHT) strongly influences the capacity of cholinergic neurons to sustain acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and release. To advance research on the impact of CHT capacity in humans, we established the presence of the neuronal CHT protein in human T lymphocytes. Next, we demonstrated CHT-mediated choline transport in human T cells. To address the validity of T cell-based choline uptake as a proxy for brain CHT capacity, we isolated T cells from the spleen, and synaptosomes from cortex and striatum, of wild type and CHT-overexpressing mice (CHT-OXP)...
September 2017: Neurochemistry International
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