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cell replacement

Behnaz Aghaei-Ghareh-Bolagh, Juan Guan, Yiwei Wang, Adam D Martin, Rebecca Dawson, Suzanne M Mithieux, Anthony S Weiss
Damaged corneas can lead to blindness. Due to the worldwide shortage of donor corneas there is a tremendous unmet demand for a robust corneal replacement that supports growth of the major corneal cell types. Commercial artificial corneas comprise plastic polymers that do not adequately support diverse cell growth. We present a new class of protein elastomer-dominated synthetic corneas with attractive performance that intimately couple biologically active tropoelastin to mechanically robust and durable protein silk...
October 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Chunyang Zhai, Jiayue Hu, Lixi Zeng, Nianqing Fu, Yukou Du, Mingshan Zhu
Fuel cells hold great potential of replacing traditional fossil fuel to alleviate the energy crisis and increasing environmental concerns. Although great progresses have been achieved over decades, the sluggish reaction kinetics and poor durability of electrocatalysts in fuel cells have been the decisive bottleneck that limited their practical applications. Herein, we focus on the design and development of cost-efficient anode electrocatalysts for fuel cells and report the successful creation of an advanced class of N-doped graphene (NG) supported binary PdAg nanocapsules (PdAg NCPs)...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Helen Levey Bernie, Marc Goldstein
As men age, serum testosterone levels decrease. This reduction in testosterone levels may cause symptoms leading to hypogonadism. In addition, the presence of a varicocele can impair Leydig cell function, resulting in decreased testosterone production in men. Varicocelectomy and testosterone replacement therapy are both viable treatment options for hypogonadism in elderly male patients. The correct modality of treatment will vary for each patient, but education is essential in order to help men understand their options...
October 10, 2018: European Urology Focus
(no author information available yet)
Although there is currently no definitive evidence linking West Nile virus (WNV) transmission with reproductive cells, it is recommended that practitioners defer gamete donors who have confirmed or suspected WNV infections. This document replaces the previously published document of the same name, last published in 2016 (Fertil Steril 2016;105:e9-10).
October 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Fitz-Roy E Curry
There has been rapid progress over the past decade to extend the concept that a quasiperiodic inner endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL, <300 nm thick, with key components associated with the endothelial cell membrane) forms the primary molecular filter between circulating blood and the body tissues. The EGL is common to both continuous and fenestrated microvessels. The revised Starling Principle describing steady-state fluid exchange across the EGL describes new ways to understand transvascular exchange of water and plasma proteins in microvessels in both normal and disturbed states such as hemorrhage and fluid replacement during surgery...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Chao Liu, Jing Zhao, Jiao Liu, Xuan Guo, Deming Rao, Haiping Liu, Ping Zheng, Jibin Sun, Yanhe Ma
trans-Proline 4-hydroxylases (trans-P4Hs) hydroxylate free L-proline to trans-4-hydroxy-L-proline (trans-4-Hyp) is a valuable chiral synthon for important pharmaceuticals such as carbapenem antibiotics. However, merely few microbial trans-P4Hs have been identified, and trans-4-Hyp fermentations using engineered Escherichia coli strains expressing trans-P4Hs are usually performed at temperatures below 37 °C, which is likely due to poor stability and low activities. In the present study, a new trans-P4H from uncultured bacterium esnapd13 (UbP4H) with potential in the fermentative production of trans-4-Hyp at 37 °C was reported...
October 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Sae Ashikawa, Norihito Tarumoto, Kazuo Imai, Jun Sakai, Masahiro Kodana, Toru Kawamura, Kenji Ikebuchi, Takashi Murakami, Kotaro Mitsutake, Shigefumi Maesaki, Takuya Maeda
PURPOSE: Bloodstream infections are major causes of morbidity and mortality that lead to prolonged hospital stays and higher medical costs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the MinION nanopore sequencer for the identification of the most dominant pathogens in positive blood culture bottles. METHODOLOGY: 16S and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA genes were amplified by PCR reactions with barcoded primers using nine clinical isolates obtained from positive blood bottles and 11 type strains, including five types of Candida species...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Wei Wei, Jianhui Luo
Cell therapy has emerged as a promising new treatment in medicine, which is expected to be able to cure diseases by repairing, replacing, and regenerating tissues, as well as immune-modulation. However, challenges remain in ensuring consistent quality, clinical efficacy and safety profiles because of the diversity of cell types and clinical indications for cell therapy products (CTPs), as well as different and complex manufacturing process. Therefore, scientific consensus and regulatory measurements are urgently warranted to promote the translation of the latest scientific advances and innovative manufacturing technologies into clinical application...
October 12, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Muhammad Shareef Masoud, Usman Ali Ashfaq, Hina Khalid
The rapid development of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapy dramatically altered the treatment landscape of this disease. The DAA regimen is associated with various advantages including high sustained virological response (SVR) with minimum side effects and low pill load and specific inhibition of viral replication, which lowers dependence on the host cell. This regimen has substantially replaced conventional (interferon) therapy with high cure rates (> 90%) in most HCV populations...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Haiquan Tian, Jing-Bu Su, Song-Song Bao, Mohamedally Kurmoo, Xin-Da Huang, Yi-Quan Zhang, Li-Min Zheng
{Dy5 (EDDC)2 (μ3 -AcO)2 (μ5 -C15 H11 PO3 )(μ4 -C15 H11 PO3 )(μ2 -AcO)2 (AcO)2 (H2 O)(CH3 OH)2 }2 (μ4 -C2 O4 )· x H2 O ( I ), where H2 EDDC is N ', N '', E , N ', N '', E-N ', N ''-(ethane-1,2-diylidene)dipyrazine-2-carbohydrazide and C15 H11 PO3 H2 is 9-anthrylmethylphosphonic acid, is found to undergo two consecutive single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations. The first is under UV irradiation ( λ = 365 nm for 3 d in air) to {Dy5 (EDDC)2 (μ3 -AcO)2 (μ5 -C15 H11 PO3 )2 (μ2 -AcO)2 (AcO)2 (H2 O)3 }2 (μ4 -C2 O4 )· x H2 O ( I-UV ) where the two CH3 OH are replaced by two H2 O and the second by annealing under N2 at 100 °C on a diffractometer or under Ar in a glovebox to {Dy5 (EDDC)2 (μ3 -AcO)2 (μ5 -C15 H11 PO3 )2 (μ2 -AcO)4 (H2 O)}2 (μ4 -C2 O4 ) ( I-A-N2 or I-A-Ar ) where it has lost two H2 O molecules...
August 14, 2018: Chemical Science
Mei Li Ng, Nagendra S Yarla, Mario Menschikowski, Olga A Sukocheva
Balanced sphingolipid signaling is important for the maintenance of homeostasis. Sphingolipids were demonstrated to function as structural components, second messengers, and regulators of cell growth and survival in normal and disease-affected tissues. Particularly, sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) and its product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) operate as mediators and facilitators of proliferation-linked signaling. Unlimited proliferation (self-renewal) within the regulated environment is a hallmark of progenitor/stem cells that was recently associated with the S1P signaling network in vasculature, nervous, muscular, and immune systems...
September 26, 2018: World Journal of Stem Cells
Junichi Tanaka, Miho Ogawa, Hironori Hojo, Yusuke Kawashima, Yo Mabuchi, Kenji Hata, Shiro Nakamura, Rika Yasuhara, Koki Takamatsu, Tarou Irié, Toshiyuki Fukada, Takayoshi Sakai, Tomio Inoue, Riko Nishimura, Osamu Ohara, Ichiro Saito, Shinsuke Ohba, Takashi Tsuji, Kenji Mishima
Organoids generated from pluripotent stem cells are used in the development of organ replacement regenerative therapy by recapitulating the process of organogenesis. These processes are strictly regulated by morphogen signalling and transcriptional networks. However, the precise transcription factors involved in the organogenesis of exocrine glands, including salivary glands, remain unknown. Here, we identify a specific combination of two transcription factors (Sox9 and Foxc1) responsible for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cell-derived oral ectoderm into the salivary gland rudiment in an organoid culture system...
October 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Susan M Watanabe, Gisselle Medina, Gunnar N Eastep, Ruba H Ghanam, Jiri Vlach, Jamil S Saad, Carol Carter
The Gag protein of avian sarcoma virus (ASV) lacks an N-myristoyl (myr) group, but contains structural domains similar to those of HIV-1 Gag. Similarly to HIV-1, ASV Gag accumulates on the plasma membrane (PM) before egress; however, it is unclear whether the phospholipid PI(4,5)P2 binds directly to the matrix (MA) domain of ASV Gag, as is the case for HIV-1 Gag. Moreover, the role of PI(4,5)P2 in ASV Gag localization and budding has been controversial. Here, we report that substitution of residues that define the PI(4,5)P2-binding site in the ASV MA domain (reported in a companion manuscript), interfere with Gag localization to the cell periphery and inhibit the production of virus-like particles (VLPs)...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Mirna Luciano de Gois da Silva, George Laylson da Silva Oliveira, Dayseanny de Oliveira Bezerra, Hermínio José da Rocha Neto, Matheus Levi Tajra Feitosa, Napoleão Martins Argôlo Neto, Marcia Dos Santos Rizzo, Maria Acelina Martins de Carvalho
Cell replacement through neural stem cells has been a promising alternative therapy for neurodegenerative diseases. It was evaluated the possible protect and/or prevent role of neurospheres in experimental models of epilepsy by the use of biomarkers of oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. After 1 h of the epileptic inductions by pilocarpine, pentylenotetrazole and picrotoxin, rats were infused with a suspension of 2 × 106 cells/0.25 mL, marked with Qtracker® 655, via caudal vein. In the control group epilepsy was not induced, but received the cell infusion under the same conditions of other groups...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Choongseong Han, Geun Ho An, Dong-Hun Woo, Jong-Hoon Kim, Hee-Kyung Park
Hyposalivation because of curative radiation therapy in patients with head and neck cancer is a major concern. At present, there is no effective treatment for hyposalivation, highlighting the importance of cell therapy as a new therapeutic approach. To provide functional cells for cell replacement therapy, it is important to overcome the limitations of current in vitro culture methods for isolated salivary gland cells. Here, we suggest an improved culture condition method for the cultivation of isolated salivary gland cells...
October 2018: Tissue & Cell
Giedre Miskinyte, Marita Grønning Hansen, Emanuela Monni, Matti Lam, Johan Bengzon, Olle Lindvall, Henrik Ahlenius, Zaal Kokaia
Human neurodegenerative disorders affect specific types of cortical neurons. Efficient protocols for the generation of such neurons for cell replacement, disease modeling and drug screening are highly warranted. Current methods for the production of cortical neurons from human embryonic stem (ES) cells are often time-consuming and inefficient, and the functional properties of the generated cells have been incompletely characterized. Here we have used transcription factor (TF) programming with the aim to induce rapid differentiation of human ES cells to layer-specific cortical neurons (hES-iNs)...
2018: PloS One
Leyre Sanchez-Rojas, Ulises Gómez-Pinedo, María Soledad Benito-Martin, Gonzalo León-Espinosa, Fernando Rascón-Ramirez, Cristina Lendinez, Cristina Martínez-Ramos, Jorge Matías-Guiu, Manuel Monleón Pradas, Juan A Barcia
Endogenous neurogenesis in stroke is insufficient to replace the lost brain tissue, largely due to the lack of a proper biological structure to let new cells dwell in the damaged area. We hypothesized that scaffolds made of hyaluronic acid (HA) biomaterials (BM) could provide a suitable environment to home not only new neurons, but also vessels, glia and neurofilaments. Further, the addition of exogenous cells, such as adipose stem cells (ASC) could increase this effect. Athymic mice were randomly assigned to a one of four group: stroke alone, stroke and implantation of BM, stroke and implantation of BM with ASC, and sham operated animals...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Rudrax N S Priolkar, Sunil Shingade, Mahesh Palkar, Shivalingrao Mamle Desai
BACKGROUND: According to WHO, in 2017, about 90.5 million of people suffer from cancer and about 8.8 million deaths occurred due to disease. Although the chemotherapeutic agents have decreased the mortality among the cancer patients but high toxicity and non-specific targets are still major drawbacks. Many researchers have identified linomide, a 4-hydroxy-2-quinolone derivative, as a lead molecule for the development of anticancer agents. With this background we thought of the following objective...
October 8, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
Young-Sun Lee, Myung-Ho Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi, So Yeon Kim, Hee-Hoon Kim, Ji Hoon Kim, Jong Eun Yeon, Kwan Soo Byun, Jin-Seok Byun, Won-Il Jeong
The expression of chemokine receptor CX3 CR1 is related to migration and signaling in cells of the monocyte-macrophage lineage. The precise roles of CX3 CR1 in the liver have been investigated but not clearly elucidated. Here, we investigated the roles of CX3 CR1 in hepatic macrophages and liver injury. Hepatic and splenic CX3 CR1low F4/80low monocytes and CX3 CR1low CD16- monocytes were differentiated into CX3 CR1high F4/80high or CX3 CR1high CD16+ macrophages by co-culture with endothelial cells. Moreover, CX3 CL1 deficiency in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) attenuated the expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), whereas recombinant CX3 CL1 treatment reversed this expression in co-cultured monocytes...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuval Lieberman, Lior Rokach, Tal Shay
Single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) is an emerging technology for profiling the gene expression of thousands of cells at the single cell resolution. Currently, the labeling of cells in an scRNA-seq dataset is performed by manually characterizing clusters of cells or by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Both methods have inherent drawbacks: The first depends on the clustering algorithm used and the knowledge and arbitrary decisions of the annotator, and the second involves an experimental step in addition to the sequencing and cannot be incorporated into the higher throughput scRNA-seq methods...
2018: PloS One
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