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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098365/novel-vaccine-candidates-against-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#1
REVIEW
Saeed Khoshnood, Mohsen Heidary, Mehri Haeili, Michel Drancourt, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Vahid Lohrasbi
Tuberculosis (TB) is now among the top ten causes of mortality worldwide being resulted in 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only available TB vaccine which fails to provide consistent protection against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents despite being efficacious at protecting infants and young children from the most severe, often deadly forms of TB disease. To achieve the goal of global TB elimination by 2050 we will need new interventions including more improved vaccines that are effective in adult individuals who have not been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as latently infected or immunocompromised subjects...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098200/the-corneal-basement-membranes-and-stromal-fibrosis
#2
Carla S Medeiros, Gustavo K Marino, Marcony R Santhiago, Steven E Wilson
Purpose: The purpose of this review was to provide detailed insights into the pathophysiology of myofibroblast-mediated fibrosis (scarring or late haze) after corneal injury, surgery, or infection. Method: Literature review. Results: The epithelium and epithelial basement membrane (EBM) and/or endothelium and Descemet's basement membrane (BM) are commonly disrupted after corneal injuries, surgeries, and infections. Regeneration of these critical regulatory structures relies on the coordinated production of BM components, including laminins, nidogens, perlecan, and collagen type IV by epithelial, endothelial, and keratocyte cells...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098105/labeling-of-phosphatidylinositol-lipid-products-in-cells-via-metabolic-engineering-using-a-clickable-myo-inositol-probe
#3
Tanei Ricks, Chelsi Cassilly, Adam Carr, Daiane Alves, Shahrina Alam, Kathrin Tscherch, Timothy Yokley, Cameron Workman, Jennifer Morrell-Falvey, Francisco Barrera, Todd Reynolds, Michael D Best
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) lipids control critical biological processes and thus aberrant biosynthesis often leads to disease. As a result, the ability to track the production and localization of these molecules in cells is vital for elucidating their complex roles. Herein, we report the design, synthesis and application of clickable myo-inositol probe 1a for bioorthogonal labeling of PI products. To validate this platform, we initially conducted PI synthase assays to show that 1a inhibits PI production in vitro...
August 11, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097029/irinotecan-platinum-combination-therapy-for-previously-untreated-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-patients-a-meta-analysis
#4
Fei Xu, Xiaoli Ren, Yuan Chen, Qianxia Li, Ruichao Li, Yu Chen, Shu Xia
BACKGROUND: There is still a debate regarding whether regimens combining irinotecan with platinum could replace regimens combining etoposide with platinum, as first-line chemotherapy for extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC). We performed a meta-analysis to compare these regimens as first-line chemotherapy for ES-SCLC. METHODS: A literature search for randomized controlled trials was performed using the Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase. The inverse variance method was used to estimate summary hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals for overall survival and progression free survival...
August 10, 2018: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095656/influence-of-different-drug-delivery-methods-for-endostar-combined-with-a-gemcitabine-cisplatin-regimen-in-locally-advanced-or-metastatic-lung-squamous-cell-carcinoma-a-retrospective-observational-study
#5
Difei Yao, Hong Shen, Jianjin Huang, Ying Yuan, Haibin Dai
Continuous endovenous administration of Endostar (CE) gradually replaced drip intravenous administration of Endostar (DE) in lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treatment presently, but the efficacy and safety of CE and DE which is better in advanced lung SCC are yet unclear. To evaluate the feasibility of CE as an alternative to DE with gemcitabine/cisplatin (GP) chemotherapy. Data were collected from patients admitted with locally advanced or metastatic lung SCC from January 2011 to April 2015, including the patients' characteristics, the therapeutic regimen, the treatment effectiveness, and toxicity...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095249/influencing-early-stages-of-neuromuscular-junction-formation-through-glycocalyx-engineering
#6
Mia L Huang, Ember M Tota, Taryn M Lucas, Kamil Godula
Achieving molecular control over the formation of synaptic contacts in the nervous system can provide important insights into their regulation and can offer means for creating well-defined in vitro systems to evaluate modes of therapeutic intervention. Agrin-induced clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) at postsynaptic sites is a hallmark of the formation of the neuromuscular junction, a synapse between motoneurons and muscle cells. In addition to the cognate agrin receptor, LRP4 (low-density lipoprotein receptor related protein-4), muscle cell surface heparan sulfate (HS) glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) have been proposed to contribute to AChR clustering by acting as agrin co-receptors...
August 10, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095068/release-and-spread-of-wingless-is-required-to-pattern-the-proximo-distal-axis-of-drosophila-renal-tubules
#7
Robin Beaven, Barry Denholm
Wingless/Wnts are signalling molecules, traditionally considered to pattern tissues as long-range morphogens. However, more recently the spread of Wingless was shown to be dispensable in diverse developmental contexts in Drosophila and vertebrates. Here we demonstrate that release and spread of Wingless is required to pattern the proximo-distal (P-D) axis of Drosophila Malpighian tubules. Wingless signalling, emanating from the midgut, directly activates odd skipped expression several cells distant in the proximal tubule...
August 10, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094550/breast-implant-associated-anaplastic-large-cell-lymphoma-immediate-or-delayed-implant-replacement
#8
Julien J Shine, Elie Boghossian, Gabriel Beauchemin, Vasilios W Papanastasiou, Daniel E Borsuk
INTRODUCTION: Breast implant-associated anaplastic large cell lymphoma (BIA-ALCL) is a rare and recently described type of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Fewer than 550 cases have been reported worldwide. Although BIA-ALCL is usually indolent, early diagnosis and treatment have been shown to improve outcome. CASE DESCRIPTION: This case report describes the management of a 50-year-old healthy Caucasian woman presenting with rapid painful enlargement of the left breast...
August 9, 2018: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094205/optimized-alamarblue-assay-protocol-for-drug-dose-response-determination-of-3d-tumor-spheroids
#9
Christoph Eilenberger, Sebastian Rudi Adam Kratz, Mario Rothbauer, Eva-Kathrin Ehmoser, Peter Ertl, Seta Küpcü
The assessment of drug-dose responses is vital for the prediction of unwanted toxicological effects in modern medicine. Three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures techniques can provide in vivo -like spheroids and microtissues that resemble natural tumor function. However, formation of necrotic core and diffusion limitation of chemical compounds within these models can reduce the reproducibility and precision of standard bioassay protocols used to test two-dimensional (2D) cell cultures. Nonetheless, the accurate prediction of detrimental effects of test compounds based on functional bioassays is essential for the development of new efficient therapeutic strategies...
2018: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094086/schiff-bases-and-their-metal-complexes-as-urease-inhibitors-a-brief-review
#10
REVIEW
Ângelo de Fátima, Camila de Paula Pereira, Carolina Raquel Said Dau Gonçalves Olímpio, Breno Germano de Freitas Oliveira, Lucas Lopardi Franco, Pedro Henrique Corrêa da Silva
Schiff bases, an aldehyde- or ketone-like compounds in which the carbonyl group is replaced by an imine or azomethine, are some of the most widely used organic compounds. Indeed, they are widely used for industrial purposes and also exhibit a broad range of biological activities, including anti-urease activity. Ureases, enzymes that catalyze urea hydrolysis, have received considerable attention for their impact on living organisms' health, since the persistence of urease activity in human and animal cells can be the cause of some diseases and pathogen infections...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093941/edaravone-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-thyroiditis-in-rats-through-ho-1-dependent-stat3-pi3k-akt-pathway
#11
Hong Li, Jie Min, Xiaoming Mao, Xueyang Wang, Yucheng Yang, Yuting Chen
Autoimmune thyroiditis is among the most prevalent of all the autoimmunities in population. It is characterized as both cellular immune responses with T, B cells infiltrating to the thyroid gland followed by hypothyroidism as a result of destruction of the thyroid follicles and fibrous replacement of the parenchymal tissue, as well as immune response for TPO and Tg-antibody production. Experimental autoimmune thyroiditis (EAT) has been proven to be an ideal model to study autoimmune thyroiditis. In the present study, we induced an EAT model in rats and examined the effect of edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenging agent, on EAT severity and explored the mechanism...
2018: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093839/tryptase-as-a-marker-of-severity-of-aortic-valve-stenosis
#12
Laura M Losappio, Corrado Mirone, Michel Chevallard, Laura Farioli, Fabrizio De Luca, Elide A Pastorello
Background: Severe aortic valve stenosis is one of the most common cause of mortality in adult patients affected with metabolic syndrome, a condition associated with an active inflammatory process involving also mast cells and their mediators, in particular tryptase. The aim of this study was to characterize the possible long-term prognostic role of tryptase in severe aortic valve stenosis. Case presentation: The baseline serum tryptase was measured in 5 consecutive patients admitted to our Hospital to undergo aortic valve replacement for severe acquired stenosis...
2018: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093682/isolation-and-characterisation-of-alveolar-type-ii-pneumocytes-from-adult-bovine-lung
#13
Diane Frances Lee, Francisco Javier Salguero, Duncan Grainger, Robert James Francis, Kirsty MacLellan-Gibson, Mark Andrew Chambers
Alveolar type II (ATII) cells play a key role as part of the distal lung epithelium, including roles in the innate immune response and as self-renewing progenitors to replace alveolar type I (ATI) cells during regeneration of the alveolar epithelium. Their secretion of surfactant protein helps to maintain homeostasis in the distal lung and exert protective, antimicrobial properties. Despite the cell's crucial roles, they remain difficult to study, in part due to inefficient and expensive isolation methods, a propensity to differentiate into alveolar type I cells in culture and susceptibility to fibroblast overgrowth from primary isolations...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093669/small-molecule-inhibitors-of-ras-effector-protein-interactions-derived-using-an-intracellular-antibody-fragment
#14
Camilo E Quevedo, Abimael Cruz-Migoni, Nicolas Bery, Ami Miller, Tomoyuki Tanaka, Donna Petch, Carole J R Bataille, Lydia Y W Lee, Phillip S Fallon, Hanna Tulmin, Matthias T Ehebauer, Narcis Fernandez-Fuentes, Angela J Russell, Stephen B Carr, Simon E V Phillips, Terence H Rabbitts
Targeting specific protein-protein interactions (PPIs) is an attractive concept for drug development, but hard to implement since intracellular antibodies do not penetrate cells and most small-molecule drugs are considered unsuitable for PPI inhibition. A potential solution to these problems is to select intracellular antibody fragments to block PPIs, use these antibody fragments for target validation in disease models and finally derive small molecules overlapping the antibody-binding site. Here, we explore this strategy using an anti-mutant RAS antibody fragment as a competitor in a small-molecule library screen for identifying RAS-binding compounds...
August 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093631/compatibility-of-runx1-eto-fusion-protein-modules-driving-cd34-human-progenitor-cell-expansion
#15
Linping Chen-Wichmann, Marina Shvartsman, Caro Preiss, Colin Hockings, Roland Windisch, Enric Redondo Monte, Georg Leubolt, Karsten Spiekermann, Jörn Lausen, Christian Brendel, Manuel Grez, Philipp A Greif, Christian Wichmann
Chromosomal translocations represent frequent events in leukemia. In t(8;21)+ acute myeloid leukemia, RUNX1 is fused to nearly the entire ETO protein, which contains four conserved nervy homology regions, NHR1-4. Furthermore RUNX1/ETO interacts with ETO-homologous proteins via NHR2, thereby multiplying NHR domain contacts. As shown recently, RUNX1/ETO retains oncogenic activity upon either deletion of the NHR3 + 4 N-CoR/SMRT interaction domain or substitution of the NHR2 tetramer domain. Thus, we aimed to clarify the specificities of the NHR domains...
August 9, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093553/neurog3-dependent-pancreas-dysgenesis-causes-ectopic-pancreas-in-hes1-mutants
#16
Mette C Jørgensen, Kristian H de Lichtenberg, Caitlin A Collin, Rasmus Klinck, Jeppe H Ekberg, Maja S Engelstoft, Heiko Lickert, Palle Serup
Mutations in Hes1 , a target gene of the Notch signalling pathway, lead to ectopic pancreas by a poorly described mechanism. Here we use genetic inactivation of Hes1 combined with lineage tracing and live-imaging to reveal an endodermal requirement for Hes1 and show that ectopic pancreas tissue is derived from the dorsal pancreas primordium. RNA-seq analysis of sorted E10.5 Hes1 +/+ and Hes1 -/- Pdx1-GFP+ cells suggested that upregulation of endocrine lineage genes in Hes1 -/- embryos was the major defect and accordingly early pancreas morphogenesis was normalised, and the ectopic pancreas phenotype suppressed, in Hes1 -/- Neurog3 -/- embryos...
August 9, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093529/characterization-of-tfrc-mutant-mice-with-microcytic-phenotypes
#17
Ashlee J Conway, Fiona C Brown, Gerhard Rank, Benjamin T Kile, Craig J Morton, Stephen M Jane, David J Curtis
To identify novel regulators of erythropoiesis, we performed independent forward genetic screens using the chemical mutagen ENU in mice. Among progeny displaying microcytic red-cell phenotypes, 7 independent mouse strains harboring mutations within the transferrin receptor gene Tfrc were identified. Six of the mutants, including the previously described red blood cell 6 (RBC6) strain, displayed reduced erythroblast CD71 expression and midgestation lethality of homozygotes (E12.5-E14.5), and 1 novel strain, RBC21, displayed a variable phenotype with sustained CD71 expression and late homozygous lethality (E18...
August 14, 2018: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092854/development-and-characterization-of-a-model-for-inducing-fetal-hemoglobin-production-in-cynomolgus-macaques-macaca-fasicularis
#18
Mila C Kundu, Liz R Gore, Sean Maguire, Aidan G Gilmartin
Hydroxyurea induces production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), a tetramer of α and γ globin proteins and corresponding hememolecules, normally found in less than 1% of adult RBC. Increases in circulating HbF are correlated with clinical improvementof patients with hemoglobinopathies, and hydroxyurea, as a daily medication, is the standard treatment for sickle cell anemia.Although olive baboons (Papio anubis) are considered a key model species for HbF induction, cynomolgus macaques (Macacafasicularis) are another species that conserves the ability to produce HbF into maturity...
August 9, 2018: Comparative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092820/adipose-tissue-derived-extracellular-fraction-characterization-biological-and-clinical-considerations-in-regenerative-medicine
#19
Barbara Bellei, Emilia Migliano, Marinella Tedesco, Silvia Caputo, Federica Papaccio, Gianluca Lopez, Mauro Picardo
BACKGROUND: Adipose tissue-derived stem cells are considered to be a promising source in the field of cell therapy and regenerative medicine. In addition to direct cell replacement using adipose tissue or purified stem cells, intercellular molecule exchange by the adipose tissue complex, a vast array of bioactive secretory factors, demonstrated beneficial effects by reducing tissue damage and stimulation of endogenous repair. However, for therapeutic purposes, the use of secretome derivatives, such as full conditioned media or purified exosomes generated in vitro, may present considerable disadvantages for cell manufacturing, storage, product safety, and their potential as a ready-to-go therapeutic product...
August 9, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092717/influence-of-luminosity-carbon-source-and-concentration-of-salts-in-the-physiology-of-chlorella-sorokiniana
#20
Alisson Alves da Silva, Gustavo Graciano Fonseca
Growth studies are important to increase the knowledge about the physiology of microalgae. The development of suitable culture media allows optimum growth to each species. The genus Chlorella has the ability to adapt to various environmental and nutritional conditions. Thus, the aim of this work was to evaluate the physiology of Chlorella sorokiniana CTT 7727 at different growth conditions with Basal Bold (BB) medium. For that, heterotrophic, autotrophic and mixotrophic cultures were carried out. The maximum specific growth rates (µmax ), the maximum biomass concentrations (Xmax ) and cell productivities (PX ) were calculated for each experiment...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Technology
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