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Active design

Zakaria Ismail, Md Maniruzzaman A Aziz, Nik Azmi Nik Mahmood, Shahrul Ismail, Noor Azrimi Umor, Syed Anuar Faua'ad Syed Muhammad
Oleochemicals industry effluence mainly contains a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) in a range of 6000-20,000 ppm. An effective biological wastewater treatment process must be carried out before wastewater is discharged into the environment. In this study, a submerged bed biofilm reactor (SBBR) was adapted to the biological oleochemical wastewater treatment plant observed in the present study. The effect of wastewater flow rate (100-300 mL/min), Cosmoball® percentage in the SBBR system (25-75%), and percentage of activated sludge (0-50%) were investigated in terms of COD reduction...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Jennifer H Shepherd, Daniel Howard, Amie K Waller, Holly Rebecca Foster, Annett Muller, Thomas Moreau, Amanda L Evans, Meera Arumugam, Guénaëlle Bouët Chalon, Eleonora Vriend, Natalia Davidenko, Cedric Ghevaert, Serena M Best, Ruth E Cameron
Platelet transfusions are a key treatment option for a range of life threatening conditions including cancer, chemotherapy and surgery. Efficient ex vivo systems to generate donor independent platelets in clinically relevant numbers could provide a useful substitute. Large quantities of megakaryocytes (MKs) can be produced from human pluripotent stem cells, but in 2D culture the ratio of platelets harvested from MK cells has been limited and restricts production rate. The development of biomaterial cell supports that replicate vital hematopoietic micro-environment cues are one strategy that may increase in vitro platelet production rates from iPS derived Megakaryocyte cells...
August 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Michael R Zile, William T Abraham, JoAnn Lindenfeld, Fred A Weaver, Faiez Zannad, Todd Graves, Tyson Rogers, Elizabeth G Galle
BACKGROUND: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) initiated the Expedited Access Pathway (EAP) to accelerate approval of novel therapies targeting unmet needs for life-threatening conditions. EAP allows for the possibility of initial FDA approval using intermediate end points with postapproval demonstration of improved outcomes. OBJECTIVE: Describe the EAP process using the BeAT-HF trial as a case study. METHODS: BeAT-HF will examine the safety and effectiveness of baroreflex activation therapy (BAT) in heart failure patients with reduced ejection fraction using an Expedited and Extended Phase design...
July 22, 2018: American Heart Journal
J Vilas Boas, V B Oliveira, L R C Marcon, M Simões, A M F R Pinto
Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been receiving an increased attention over the last years due to their potential to combat two global problems: waste pollution and energy demand. Additionally, when a wastewater is used, MFCs can perform its treatment while recovering energy, leading to the possibility of energy-producing wastewater treatment plants, offsetting their operational costs. However, to overcome their current limitations (lower power outputs and higher costs), a clear understanding of the effect of operation and design parameters on its overall performance is mandatory...
August 5, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chandrashekhar Singh, Chandra Prakash, Kavindra Nath Tiwari, Sunil Kumar Mishra, Vijay Kumar
The present study was designed to evaluate the ameliorative effect of ethyl acetate extract of Premna integrifolia L. (EAEPI) leaves in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced hepatic injury in mice. Mice were intoxicated with CP (200 mg/kg b. wt., i.p.) for 5 weeks or EAEPI (400 and 600 mg/kg b. wt., orally) in combination with CP. The results demonstrated that EAEPI exerts protective effect against CP induced hepatotoxicity, as evident from restoration of altered haematological parameters and alleviations of liver marker enzymes in serum...
August 14, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Nina Bono, Chiara Pennetta, Aurora Sganappa, Elisa Giupponi, Francesco Sansone, Alessandro Volonterio, Gabriele Candiani
A promising strategy to design safer and more effective cationic lipids for gene delivery with inherent antibacterial properties is to covalently tether a lipophilic moiety with oligomeric aminoglycosides (AGs), a large family of Gram-negative-active antibiotics. Herein, we reported the development of a new class of multicationic-head AG-based amphiphiles built on the tetramino-tetrahexyloxycalix[4]arene (4A4Hex-calix-calix[4]) scaffold. Three different conjugates, namely 4A4Hex-calix-calix[4]-neomycin, -neamine, and -paromomycin, were synthesized and characterized...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bernd Van Snick, Jens Dhondt, Kenny Pandelaere, Johny Bertels, Roel Mertens, Didier Klingeleers, Giustino Di Pretoro, Jean Paul Remon, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer, Valérie Vanhoorne
In current study a holistic material characterization approach was proposed and an extensive raw material property database was developed including a wide variety of APIs and excipients with different functionalities. In total 55 different materials were characterized and described by over 100 raw material descriptors related to particle size and shape distribution, specific surface area, bulk, tapped and true density, compressibility, electrostatic charge, moisture content, hygroscopicity, permeability, flowability and wall friction...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Ke-Yi Zhang, Wen-Jie Yuan, Ji-Dong Xu, Jin-Xing Wang
The cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR) is a member of the P-type lectin family. As a type I transmembrane glycoprotein, it functions in the delivery of newly synthesized acid hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network to endosomes for their subsequent transfer to the lysosome by binding the mannose-6-phosphate receptor-recognition moieties in the hydrolases. However, the functions of CD-MPR in immune responses are seldom reported. In the present study, we identified a CD-MPR-like molecule in Marsupenaeus japonicus and designed it as MjCD-MPR...
August 14, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Jared B Shaw, Neha Malhan, Yury V Vasil'ev, Nathan I Lopez, Alexander A Makarov, Joseph S Beckman, Valery G Voinov
Compared to traditional collision induced dissociation methods, electron capture dissociation (ECD) provides more comprehensive characterization of large peptides and proteins and preserves labile post-translational modifications. However, ECD experiments are generally restricted to the high magnetic fields of FTICR-MS that enable simultaneous trapping of large polycations and electrons. Here, we demonstrate the use of an electromagnetostatic ECD cell to perform ECD and hybrid ECD methods utilizing 193 nm photons (ECuvPD) or collisional activation (EChcD) in a benchtop quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer...
August 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yating Hu, Yue Wu, John Wang
Of the transition metals, Mn has the greatest number of different oxides, most of which have a special tunnel structure that enables bulk redox reactions. The high theoretical capacitance and capacity results from a greater number of accessible oxidation states than other transition metals, wide potential window, and the high natural abundance make MnOx species promising electrode materials for energy storage applications. Although MnOx electrode materials have been intensely studied over the past decade, their electrochemical performance is still insufficient for practical applications...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Micah J Gaspary, Gregory J Zarow, Michael J Barry, Alexandra C Walchak, Sean P Conley, Paul J D Roszko
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage remains a leading cause of death in both civilian and military settings. Of preventable deaths from hemorrhage, a significant portion occurs from junctional wounds that are not amenable to traditional extremity tourniquets. Junctional tourniquets (JTQs) can potentially provide hemorrhage control by compressing the arteries at the junction of the trunk and extremities. The FDA has cleared 3 JTQ products: The Combat Ready Clamp (CRoC®), the Junctional Emergency Treatment Tool (JETT™), and the SAM® Junctional Tourniquet (SJT)...
August 17, 2018: Prehospital Emergency Care
Ernest Awoonor-Williams, Christopher N Rowley
Targeted covalent-inhibitors (TCIs) have been successfully developed as high-affinity and selective inhibitors of enzymes of the protein kinase family. These drugs typically act by undergoing an electrophilic addition with an active site cysteine residue, so design of a TCI begins with the identification of a "druggable" cysteine. These electrophilic additions generally require the deprotonation of the thiol to form a reactive anionic thiolate, so the acidity of the residue is a critical factor. Few experimental measurements of the pKa's of druggable cysteines have been reported, so computational prediction could prove to be very important in selecting reactive cysteine targets...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Anna C Brezny, Clark R Landis
In the nearly 80 years since catalytic hydroformylation was first reported, hundreds of billions of pounds of aldehyde have been produced by this atom efficient one-carbon homologation of alkenes in the presence of H2 and CO. Despite the economy and demonstrated scalability of hydroformylation, the enantioselective process (asymmetric hydroformylation, AHF) currently does not contribute significantly to the production of chiral aldehydes and their derivatives. Current impediments to practical application of AHF include low diversity of chiral ligands that provide effective rates and selectivities, limited exploration of substrate scope, few demonstrations of efficient flow reactor processes, and incomplete mechanistic understanding of the factors that control reaction selectivity and rate...
August 17, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Koushik Sarkar, Shaik Khasimbi, Souvik Mandal, Parthasarathi Dastidar
Metal-ligand coordination involving hydrogen bond functionalized ligands was employed rationally to get an easy access to a series of metallogelators derived from 3-pyridyl derivatives of non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) [e.g. ibuprofen, sulindac and flurbiprofen designated as 3-pyIBU, 3-pySUL and 3-pyFLR, respectively] and biogenic metal centers [Zn(II), Cu(II), Mn(II) and Ag(I)]. Thirteen metallogels (MG1-MG13) were obtained by allowing the ligands and the metal salts to react in DMSO/water at room temperature...
August 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sidharth S Kar, Varadaraj G Bhat, Vishnu P Shenoy, Indira Bairy, G Gautham Shenoy
In our efforts to develop druggable diphenyl ethers as potential antitubercular agents, a series of novel diphenyl ether derivatives (5a-f, 6a-f) were designed and synthesized. The representative compounds showed promising in vitro activity against drug susceptible, isoniazid resistant and multi drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis with MIC values of 1.56 μg/mL (6b), 6.25 μg/mL (6a-d) and 3.125 μg/mL (6b-c) respectively. All the synthesized compounds exhibited satisfactory safety profile (CC50 > 300 μg/mL) against Vero and HepG2 cells...
August 17, 2018: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
Minsu Gu, Jaewon Choi, Taemin Lee, Minju Park, Ik-Soo Shin, Jinkee Hong, Hyun-Wook Lee, Byeong-Su Kim
Controlling the architecture of hybrid nanomaterial electrodes is critical for understanding their fundamental electrochemical mechanisms and applying these materials in future energy conversion and storage systems. Herein, we report highly tunable electrocatalytic multilayer electrodes, composed of palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) supported by graphene sheets of varying lateral sizes, employing a versatile layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly method. We demonstrate that the electrocatalytic activity is highly tunable through the control of the diffusion and electron pathways within the 3-dimensional multilayer electrodes...
August 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Yueliang Zhao, Xiaoqian Hu, Xinyuan Zuo, Mingfu Wang
Colon cancer is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Dietary phytochemicals have been drawing increasing attention for colon cancer prevention and treatment due to their chemical diversity, biological activity, easy availability, lack of toxic effects, and ability to modulate various signal transduction pathways and cell processes. The chemoprotective effects elicited by phytochemicals include antioxidative and anti-inflammatory activities, induction of phase II enzymes, cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, autophagy, and changes in gut microbiota...
August 17, 2018: Food & Function
Zheng Kun Yang, Cheng-Zong Yuan, An-Wu Xu
The development of low-cost and highly efficient single-atom oxygen reduction catalysts to replace platinum for fuel cells and metal-air cells is highly desirable but remains challenging. Herein, we report the fabrication of isolated single-atom Fe anchored on porous nitrogen-doped carbon from the pyrolysis of a well-designed solely Fe-tetrapyridophenazine coordination complex. The N-rich bridging ligand, tetrapyridophenazine (tpphz) is first employed as a spatial isolation agent of Fe that suppresses its aggregation during high temperature pyrolysis, resulting in highly reactive and stable single-atom Fe ORR catalysts...
August 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Leonidas Dogkas, Thomas Kamalakis, Dimitris Alexandropoulos
We present an analytical model for estimating the spectral properties of an active racetrack resonator/waveguide system. Under reasonable approximations, we show that the transfer function can be approximated by a rational function, the coefficients of which are determined by the parameters of the structure. The model takes into account intracavity reflections that can provide additional degrees of freedom in the design. We identify conditions under which asymmetric transitions around a spectral peak can occur, which are characteristic of Fano-type resonances...
June 10, 2018: Applied Optics
Junghyun Park, Soo Jin Kim
We propose an apparatus that allows for active control of the transmission phase up to 360° through subwavelength-spaced metallic slits partially filled with indium tin oxide (ITO). Incident light is coupled to the guided mode in the metallic slit at one side. After going through the slit with a certain length, light is coupled out to free space at the other side. The transmission phase is governed by the mode index and the slit length. By applying bias to the ITO in the metallic slit, it is possible to control the mode index, which in turn leads to tuning of the transmission phase...
July 20, 2018: Applied Optics
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