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Joohwee Kim, Vivek Vaish, Mingxiao Feng, Kevin Field, Ioulia Chatzistamou, Minsub Shim
Cyclooxygenase (COX) is a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of prostanoids, lipid signaling molecules that regulate various physiological processes. COX2, one of the isoforms of COX, is highly inducible in response to a wide variety of cellular and environmental stresses. Increased COX2 expression is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. COX2 expression is also reported to be increased in the tissues of aged humans and mice, which suggests the involvement of COX2 in the aging process...
October 7, 2016: Aging
Ana Amić, Zoran Marković, Jasmina M Dimitrić Marković, Svetlana Jeremić, Bono Lučić, Dragan Amić
Free radical scavenging and inhibitory potency against cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by two abundant colon metabolites of polyphenols, i.e., 3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (3-HPAA) and 4-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (4-HPPA) were theoretically studied. Different free radical scavenging mechanisms are investigated in water and pentyl ethanoate as a solvent. By considering electronic properties of scavenged free radicals, hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) mechanisms are found to be thermodynamically probable and competitive processes in both media...
September 23, 2016: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Stephen A Smith, Derek J Roberts, Mark E Lipson, W Donald Buie, Anthony R MacLean
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are commonly used analgesics in colorectal surgery. Controversy exists regarding the potential association between these drugs and anastomotic dehiscence. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether postoperative nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use is associated with intestinal anastomotic dehiscence. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, and references of included articles were searched without date or language restriction...
November 2016: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Zena Huang, Xiaobian Dong, Xiaodong Zhuang, Xun Hu, Lichun Wang, Xinxue Liao
Hyperglycemia serves an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) protects against high glucose‑induced inflammation and cytotoxicity in cardiac cells by inhibiting the p38 mitogen‑activated protein kinase (MAPK)/nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB), cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathways. Rat H9c2 myocardium cells were exposed to 33 mM glucose (high glucose, HG) for 24 h to stimulate HG‑induced cytotoxicity...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jeong-Wook Choi, In-Hye Kim, Young-Min Kim, Min-Kyeong Lee, Youn-Hee Choi, Taek-Jeong Nam
The present study investigated the protective effect of Pyropia yezoensis glycoprotein (PYGP) against chronic ethanol consumption‑mediated hepatotoxicity in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=20; 6 weeks old) were randomly divided into four groups. The rats in each group were treated for 30 days with the following: i) CON group, distilled water only; ii) EtOH group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW; iii) EtOH+150 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 150 mg/kg/BW; iv) EtOH+300 group, 20% ethanol 3.7 g/kg/BW+PYGP 300 mg/kg/BW...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Bo Liu, Fei Li, Jingshan Shi, Danli Yang, Yuanyuan Deng, Qihai Gong
Gastrodin (GAS), which is extracted from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume, has long been used to improve stroke, epilepsy, dizziness and dementia. However, the effects and underlying mechanisms of GAS on subacute phase cerebral ischemia‑reperfusion (I/R) injury remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of GAS on cerebral I/R injury in rats. The rats were pretreated with GAS by gavage for 7 days followed by I/R surgery, and were then treated with GAS for 7 days after I/R surgery...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Jae-Yun Ju, Kyung-Sook Chung, Se-Yun Cheon, Hyo-Jin An
Alternative medicine is a widely accepted therapeutic approach for the management of various diseases. The Korean medicine, musulju (MSJ), has been traditionally used to improve vital energy in men with reduced physical strength and a weakened urinary system. The present study determined the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of MSJ against benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common disorder in elderly men that involves inflammation‑mediated imbalance between cell proliferation and death. MSJ treatment was demonstrated to decrease prostate weight, cell proliferation, and the protein expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen in a rat model of BPH...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yao Lu, Honit Piplani, Stacy L McAllister, Carl M Hurt, Eric R Gross
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that cross talk exists between cellular pathways important for pain signaling and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, the authors address whether the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel, important in pain signaling, is present in cardiac myocytes and regulates cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. METHODS: For biochemical analysis of TRPA1, techniques including quantitative polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunofluorescence were used...
September 30, 2016: Anesthesiology
Vipin Tyagi, M D Mustafa, Tusha Sharma, B D Banerjee, Rafat S Ahmed, A K Tripathi, Kiran Guleria
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Preterm birth (PTB) is an important cause of prenatal death, neonatal morbidity and mortality and adult illness. Increased inflammation occurs in normal parturition, and inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress are found to be higher in PTB cases. The present study was planned to investigate the association of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) with mRNA expression of inflammatory pathway genes such as tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in preterm delivery (PTD) cases...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Gang Wu, Ah-Lim Tsai
Prostaglandin H synthase (PGHS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of PGG2 and PGH2, the precursor of all prostanoids, from arachidonic acid (AA). PGHS exhibits two enzymatic activities following a branched-chain radical mechanism: 1) a peroxidase activity (POX) which utilizes hydroperoxide through heme redox cycles to generate the critical Y385 tyrosyl radical for coupling both enzyme activities; 2) the cyclooxygenase (COX) activity which inserts two oxygen molecules into AA to generate endoperoxide/hydroperoxide PGG2 through a series of radical intermediates...
October 7, 2016: Protein and Peptide Letters
Jing-Jing Tian, Cai-Xia Lei, Hong Ji, Li-Qiao Chen, Zhen-Yu Du
In this study, we explored the function of arachidonic acid (ARA) in adipogenesis in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) using in vivo and in vitro models. An 8-week feeding trial was performed using three isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets: ARA-free, ARA, and ARA + acetylsalicylic acid [ASA, a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor]. Fish were sampled after 4 and 8 weeks of feeding. Results showed that ARA-fed fish had a significantly lower intraperitoneal fat index (IPFI) and smaller adipocytes; these decreases were reversed by ASA after 8 weeks of feeding...
October 17, 2016: Lipids
Kwang-Soo Baek, Young-Su Yi, Young-Jin Son, Sulgi Yoo, Nak Yoon Sung, Yong Kim, Sungyoul Hong, Adithan Aravinthan, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
BACKGROUND: Although Korean Red Ginseng (KRG) has been traditionally used for a long time, its anti-inflammatory role and underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms have been poorly understood. In this study, the anti-inflammatory roles of KRG-derived components, namely, water extract (KRG-WE), saponin fraction (KRG-SF), and nonsaponin fraction (KRG-NSF), were investigated. METHODS: To check saponin levels in the test fractions, KRG-WE, KRG-NSF, and KRG-SF were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Sung-Hee Hwang, Byung-Hwan Lee, Sun-Hye Choi, Hyeon-Joong Kim, Kyung Jong Won, Hwan Myung Lee, Hyewon Rhim, Hyoung-Chun Kim, Seung-Yeol Nah
BACKGROUND: Ginseng extracts are known to have angiogenic effects. However, to date, only limited information is available on the molecular mechanism underlying the angiogenic effects and the main components of ginseng that exert these effects. Human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are used as an in vitro model for screening therapeutic agents that promote angiogenesis and wound healing. We recently isolated gintonin, a novel ginseng-derived lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, from ginseng...
October 2016: Journal of Ginseng Research
Wei Sun, Fei Yang, Yan Wang, Han Fu, Yan Yang, Chun-Li Li, Xiao-Liang Wang, Qing Lin, Jun Chen
Under physiological state, small- and medium-sized dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are believed to mediate nociceptive behavioral responses to painful stimuli. However, recently it has been found that a number of large-sized neurons are also involved in nociceptive transmission under neuropathic conditions. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms that large-sized DRG neurons mediate nociception are poorly understood. In the present study, the role of large-sized neurons in bee venom (BV)-induced mechanical allodynia and the underlying mechanisms were investigated...
October 12, 2016: Neuropharmacology
Stephanie Prescott, Jessica Keim-Malpass
BACKGROUND: The incidence of hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) increases with decreasing gestational age and is associated with many common morbidities of extreme prematurity. Controversies remain surrounding the definition of hsPDA, the population of infants requiring treatment, the appropriate timing and method of treatment, and the outcomes associated with PDA and its therapies. PURPOSE: This integrative literature review focuses on diagnostic and treatment recommendations derived from the highest levels of evidence...
October 8, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Fumihiro Kawakita, Masashi Fujimoto, Lei Liu, Fumi Nakano, Yoshinari Nakatsuka, Hidenori Suzuki
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling may play a crucial role in the occurrence of cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The main purpose of this study was to assess if selective blockage of TLR4 on cerebral arteries prevents cerebral vasospasm development and neurological impairments after SAH in mice. One hundred fourteen mice underwent endovascular perforation SAH or sham operation and were randomly divided into the following 6 groups: sham+vehicle, sham+LPS-RS ultrapure 8 μg, sham+LPS-RS ultrapure 40 μg, SAH+vehicle, SAH+LPS-RS ultrapure 8 μg, and SAH+LPS-RS ultrapure 40 μg...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
Laura R Bohrer, Thomas S Chaffee, Pavlina Chuntova, Nicholas J Brady, Patrice M Witschen, Sarah E Kemp, Andrew C Nelson, Bruce Walcheck, Kathryn L Schwertfeger
The presence of inflammatory cells within the tumor microenvironment has been tightly linked to mammary tumor formation and progression. Specifically, interactions between tumor cells and infiltrating macrophages can contribute to the generation of a pro-tumorigenic microenvironment. Understanding the complex mechanisms that drive tumor cell-macrophage cross-talk will ultimately lead to the development of approaches to prevent or treat early stage breast cancers. As described here, we demonstrate that the cell surface protease a disintegrin and metalloproteinase 17 (ADAM17) is expressed by macrophages in mammary tumors and contributes to regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, including inflammatory cytokines and the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2)...
July 2016: Genes & Cancer
Mirka Laavola, Tiina Leppänen, Heikki Eräsalo, Mari Hämäläinen, Riina Nieminen, Eeva Moilanen
Nortrachelogenin is a pharmacologically active lignan found in knot extracts of Pinus sylvestris. In previous studies, some lignans have been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties, which made nortrachelogenin an interesting candidate for our study. In inflammation, bacterial products and cytokines induce the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1. These enzymes synthesize factors, which, together with proinflammatory cytokines, are important mediators and drug targets in inflammatory diseases...
October 13, 2016: Planta Medica
Minju Joy, Kajal Chakraborty, Vamshi Krishna Raola
Marine bivalves occupy a leading share in the total edible molluscs at the coastline regions of south-eastern Asia, and are found to possess significant nutritional and biological potential. Various in vitro evaluation (antioxidant and anti-inflammatory) guided purification of ethyl acetate-methanol (EtOAc-MeOH) extract of bivalve clam, Paphia malabarica characterised two new sterol derivatives as 23-gem-dimethylcholesta-5-en-3β-ol (1) and (22E)-24(1),24(2)-methyldihomocholest-5,22-dien-3β-ol (2) collected from the south-west coast of Arabian Sea...
October 13, 2016: Natural Product Research
Suraj S Pradhan, Kirstie Salinas, Alexis C Garduno, Jenny U Johansson, Qian Wang, Amy Manning-Bog, Katrin I Andreasson
Inflammation is a ubiquitous factor accompanying normal aging and neurodegeneration, and recent studies indicate a major contribution of inducible cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and its downstream prostaglandin signaling pathways in modulating neuroinflammatory responses and neuronal function. We have previously shown that the prostaglandin PGE2 receptor EP4 suppresses innate immune responses in models of systemic inflammation. Here we investigated the role of the EP4 receptor in models of Parkinson's disease (PD)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
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