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“Stress fracture”

Mahmoud Jabalameli, Hossein A Hadi, Abolfazl Bagherifard, Mohammad Rahbar, Mohammadreza Minator Sajjadi
Background: Presentation of proximal tibia stress fracture is not infrequent among elderly patients due to their poor bone stock. Optimal management of patients with severe gonarthrosis of the knee and concurrent tibial stress fracture is not known yet. In this study we report the outcome of primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using stemmed components in elderly patients. Methods: Between 2009 and 2014, a total of 16 elderly patients with proximal tibial stress fractures and concurrent gonarthrosis were treated with TKA using long stemmed components...
September 2018: Archives of Bone and Joint Surgery
Rathin Maity, Santanu Majumder, Amit Roychowdhury, Subrata Saha
The goal of this finite element study is to reduce the stress shielding effect in tibial fracture fixation. Five different plates with modified geometry have been modeled. The fracture gap is assumed to be filled with callus, which is new born healing tissue. The effect of different plate modifications in four different healing stages has been compared to the nonmodified plate. It has been observed that all the modified models have higher callus stress than the nonmodified model, and the best modified plate has reduced the stress shielding effect by 117% for the first healing stage...
2018: Journal of Long-term Effects of Medical Implants
Dehui Zeng, Pingbo Yao, Hong Zhao
Abundant evidence indicted that P2X7 receptor show a essential role in human health and some human diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, pulmonary inflammation, tuberculosis infection, psychiatric disorders, and cancer. P2X7 receptor also has an important role in some central nervous system diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, more research suggested that P2X7 receptor also plays a crucial role in bone and joint diseases. But the effect of P2X7 receptor on skeletal and joint diseases has not been systematically reviewed...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jan Zajc, Jožef Predan, Nenad Gubeljak, Andrej Moličnik, Samo K Fokter
The authors report on a case of modular femoral neck fracture which appeared 21 months after revision of acetabular component. The revision surgery was performed 8 years after the primary total hip arthroplasty due to aseptic loosening of the acetabular component. During acetabular revision, the primary implanted short (S, - 3.5 mm) femoral head was also exchanged with extra-long (XL, + 7.0 mm) femoral head fitting the modular femoral neck with a longer lever arm. Numerical analysis has shown that this has resulted in a 19...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
Chengliang Luo, Qiang Yang, Yuancai Liu, Shuanhu Zhou, Jiying Jiang, Russel J Reiter, Pallab Bhattacharya, Yongchun Cui, Hongwei Yang, He Ma, Jiemin Yao, Sean E Lawler, Xinmu Zhang, Jianfang Fu, Renato Rozental, Hany Aly, Mark D Johnson, E Antonio Chiocca, Xin Wang
Melatonin is a neurohormone associated with sleep and wakefulness and is mainly produced by the pineal gland in animals. Numerous physiological functions of melatonin have been demonstrated including anti-inflammation, suppressing neoplastic growth, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity as well as its role in regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others. In this review, we summarize the recent advances related to the multiple protective roles of melatonin receptor agonists, melatonin and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in brain injury, liver damage, and bone health...
October 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Domenico Di Rocco
Children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder ADD/ ADHD are often difficult to be treated. If the anterior teeth have to be treated in case of trauma, the patient and the therapist quickly come to their limits. In the present case, with the help of the Cerec and composite partial veneers, an attempt was made to divide the treatment into two relatively short treatment periods for the patient. The two phases were interrupted by a longer construction and grinding phase. The composite partial veneers showed acceptable aesthetics...
October 15, 2018: Swiss Dental Journal
Omar M Albtoush, Marius Horger, Fabian Springer, Jan Fritz
The Segond fracture is a tibial avulsion injury of the insertion of the middle third of the lateral capsular ligament that is typically associated with anterior cruciate ligament and meniscal tears. The classically assigned mechanism of injury is a combination of internal rotation and varus stress. We report two cases of Segond fractures that presented with a variant pattern including osseous avulsion injuries of the medial collateral ligament at the femoral origin, anterior cruciate ligament tear, and pivot shift-type osseous contusion pattern, suggesting an alternative mechanism of injury that includes dominant valgus stress and external rotation components...
September 11, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Shelby R Smith, Nirav K Patel, Alex E White, Christopher J Hadley, Christopher C Dodson
Background: Stress fractures of the elbow are rare in throwing athletes and present a challenge from both a management and rehabilitation perspective. Although the incidence of stress fractures of the elbow is increasing, there is a lack of data in the literature focused on throwers. Purpose: To evaluate studies regarding the management and outcomes of stress fractures of the elbow in throwing athletes. Study Design: Systematic review; Level of evidence, 4...
October 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Morten Schultz Larsen, Hagen Schmal
Atypical femoral fractures (AFF) are stress or 'insufficiency' fractures, often complicated by the use of bisphosphonates or other bone turnover inhibitors. While these drugs are beneficial for the intact osteoporotic bone, they probably prevent a stress fracture from healing which thus progresses to a complete fracture.Key features of atypical femoral fractures, essential for the diagnosis, are: location in the subtrochanteric region and diaphysis; lack of trauma history and comminution; and a transverse or short oblique configuration...
September 2018: EFORT Open Reviews
Zhong-Shi Xu, Feng Dai, Ji Chen, Meng Lv, Ji-Wu Cheng, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Bo-Wen Lin
Background: Evidence has shown that endogenous H2 S plays an important role in the physiological and pathophysiological processes of many organs. The study aimed to explore whether exogenous H2 S has a potential therapeutic effect on a rat ovariectomy-induced model of osteoporosis. Methods: The OVX osteoporosis model was established in female Sprague-Dawley rats by full bilateral ovariectomy. The rats were randomly divided into four groups, with the two experimental groups receiving an intraperitoneal injection of GYY4137 or sodium alendronate...
2018: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
Leonardo Diniz Correa Pinto, Cláudia Helena Ribeiro da Silva, Pedro Marcos Silva E Gonçalves, Roberto José Valadares
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ultrasound-guided upper limb blocks may provide great benefits to patients with serious diseases. Patients with Steinert's disease have muscle weakness and risk of triggering myotomy or malignant hyperthermia due to the use of anesthetic agents and surgical stress. The objective of this report was to demonstrate a viable alternative for clavicle fracture surgery with upper trunk and supraclavicular nerve block, thus reducing the spread of local anesthetic to the phrenic nerve in a patient with muscular dystrophy...
October 6, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
Thomas Breuer, Christian S Bruells, Klemens Horst, Christoph Thiele, Frank Hildebrand, Stephan Linnartz, Tom Siegberg, Nadine Frank, Ghislaine Gayan-Ramirez, Lukas Martin, Dirk H Ostareck, Gernot Marx, Tim-Philipp Simon
INTRODUCTION: Mechanical ventilation is known to activate oxidative stress and proteolytic pathways in the diaphragm. Trauma by inducing inflammation and activating proteolytic pathways may potentiate the effects of mechanical ventilation on the diaphragm. In a blunt chest trauma with concomitant injuries we tested the hypothesis that trauma via inflammation further activates the proteolytic pathways and worsens atrophy in the diaphragm. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Piglets were separated into 2 groups and underwent 72hrs of mechanical ventilation...
October 8, 2018: Shock
Yi Deng, Min Huang, Dan Sun, Yi Hou, Yubao Li, Taosheng Dong, Xiaohong Wang, Li Zhang, Weizhong Yang
Chemically linked Double network (DN) hydrogels display extraordinary mechanical attributes but mostly suffer from poor self-healing property and unsatisfactory biocompatibility due to the irreversible breaks in their chemical-linked networks and the use of toxic chemical crosslinking agents. To address these limitations, we developed a novel κ-carrageenan/polyacrylamide (KC/PAM) DN hydrogel through a dual physical-crosslinking strategy, with the ductile, hydrophobically associated PAM being the first network, and the rigid potassium ion (K+) cross-linked KC being the second network...
October 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
G H Sandmann, U Stöckle, T Freude, F M Stuby
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Fragility fractures of the pelvic ring in the elderly population are a serious problem in orthopaedics. The treatment options range from conservative treatment to diverse operative options. We present a balloon guided new technique of implanting cement augmented screws aiming at improved implant anchorage and reduced cement leakage. MATERIAL AND METHODS We describe a new technique of balloon- guided cement augmented iliosacral screws. After the balloon has been insufflated and contrast medium has been instillated for leakage detection, iliosacral screws can safely be placed with a relevant cement depot...
2018: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
T Z N Sokkar, K A El-Farahaty, M A El-Bakary, M I Raslan, F E Hanash
In this article, we used the opto-mechanical stress testing-device to stretch a monofilament of isotactic Polypropylene, iPP, fibers. This device was used to obtain the mechanical behavior of these fibers by measuring the complete stress-strain curves at different stretching conditions. Using this device, the different regions of iPP fiber where the mechanical deformation takes place was characterized, including the necking region and fracture initiation process. The obtained mechanical behavior of iPP fibers was correlated to the variations of different optical parameters by attaching the device with the Pluta polarizing interference microscope...
October 8, 2018: Microscopy Research and Technique
Mamta Kaushik, Uday Kumar, Roshni Sharma, Neha Mehra, Ajita Rathi
Context: Noncarious cervical lesions may penetrate the pulp and require root canal treatment followed by crown placement. Such teeth may be susceptible to fracture, especially at the cervical area. Aims: To estimate which combination of restorative material and crown resulted in homogenous stress-strain distribution of endodontically treated abfracted mandibular premolar using three-dimensional finite element model (FEM). Settings and Design: A three-dimensional model of mandibular single-rooted premolar along with alveolar bone was created in finite element analysis (FEA) software preprocessor ANSYS rel 14...
September 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Chad Allen, Clark A Meyer, Eunguk Yoo, Jose Aldair Vargas, Ying Liu, Poorya Jalali
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare the stress distributions in the teeth treated through minimally invasive access (MIA) designs to those of the teeth treated through traditional straight-line access and their relationship to the final restoration using three-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA). Materials and Methods: Four FEA models of an extracted mandibular first molar were constructed. An intact model served as the control, whereas the other three were prepared with either an MIA or traditional straight-line access...
September 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Dale L Robinson, Hongyuan Jiang, Qichun Song, Christopher Yates, Peter Vee Sin Lee, John D Wark
Fracture risk assessment using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) frequently fails to diagnose osteoporosis amongst individuals who later experience fragility fractures. Hence, more reliable techniques that improve the prediction of fracture risk are needed. In this study, we evaluated a finite element (FE) modelling framework based on clinical peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) imaging of the tibial epiphysis and diaphysis to predict the stiffness at these locations in compression, shear, torsion and bending...
October 6, 2018: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Siyi Liu, Shengxiang Tao, Jinhai Tan, Xiang Hu, Huiyi Liu, Zonghuan Li
The use of fibular graft for the reconstruction of bone defects has been demonstrated to be a reliable method. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of graft union, functional outcome (hypertrophy of the graft bones) and complications of both non-vascularized and vascularized grafts.From 1981 to 2015, 10 patients were treated using non-vascularized fibular graft or free vascularized fibular graft. The outcomes were bony union time, graft hypertrophy and complications based on radiograph and functional outcomes according to the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) score...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andreas Lipphaus, Ulrich Witzel
Computational simulations of fracture healing are a valuable tool to improve fracture treatment and implants. Several finite element models have been established to predict callus formation due to mechanobiological rules. This work provides a comprehensive simulation for virtual implantation through the combination of callus simulation and finite element structural synthesis (FESS) of (re-) modeling during and after healing based on Pauwel's theory of histogenesis and Wolff's law. The simulation is based on a linear elastic material model and includes generation of fracture hematoma and initial mesenchymal stem cell concentration out of an unspecified solid, cell proliferation, migration and differentiation due to mechanical stimuli and time-dependent axial loading...
October 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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