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Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Mack Roach, Jennifer Moughan, Colleen A F Lawton, Adam P Dicker, Kenneth L Zeitzer, Elizabeth M Gore, Young Kwok, Michael J Seider, I-Chow Hsu, Alan C Hartford, Eric M Horwitz, Kosj Yamoah, Christopher U Jones, Jeff M Michalski, W Robert Lee, Thomas M Pisansky, Rachel Rabinovitch, Marvin Rotman, Rodger M Pryzant, Harold E Kim, Charles R Thomas, William U Shipley, Howard M Sandler
BACKGROUND: The NRG/RTOG 9413 study showed that whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) plus neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) improved progression-free survival in patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk localised prostate cancer compared with prostate only radiotherapy (PORT) plus NHT, WPRT plus adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT), and PORT plus AHT. We provide a long-term update after no years of follow-up of the primary endpoint (progression-free survival) and report on the late toxicities of treatment...
October 10, 2018: Lancet Oncology
Juanita M Crook, Peixin Zhang, Thomas M Pisansky, Edouard J Trabulsi, Mahul B Amin, William Bice, Gerard Morton, Nadeem Pervez, Eric Vigneault, Charles Catton, Jeff Michalski, Mack Roach, David Beyer, Ashesh Jani, Eric Horwitz, Viroon Donavanik, Howard Sandler
PURPOSE: Only retrospective data is available for low dose rate (LDR) salvage prostate brachytherapy for local recurrence after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). The primary objective of this prospective Phase II trial (NCT00450411) was to evaluate late gastrointestinal and genitourinary adverse events (AEs) after salvage LDR brachytherapy. MATERIALS/METHODS: Eligible patients had low/intermediate risk prostate cancer prior to EBRT and biopsy-proven recurrence >30 months after EBRT, with PSA <10 ng/mL and no regional/distant disease...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Ning Xu, Yu-Peng Wu, Xiao-Dong Li, Min-Yi Lin, Qing-Shui Zheng, Shao-Hao Chen, Jun-Feng Li, Yong Wei, Xue-Yi Xue
Background: This study compared magnetic resonance imaging-guided biopsy (MRI-GB) and transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy (TRUS-GB) with the final histology of the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen. Methods: Our subjects were 229 patients with prostate cancer (PCa), proven histopathologically using MRI-GB or TRUS-GB, who underwent RP at our center between December 2015 and December 2016. The main group included 92 patients who underwent MRI-GB and the control group included 137 patients who underwent 12-core TRUS-GB...
2018: Journal of Cancer
James Yarmolinsky, Katie Berryman, Ryan Langdon, Carolina Bonilla, George Davey Smith, Richard M Martin, Sarah J Lewis
PURPOSE: Observational studies suggest that dietary and serum calcium are risk factors for prostate cancer. However, such studies suffer from residual confounding (due to unmeasured or imprecisely measured confounders), undermining causal inference. Mendelian randomization uses randomly assigned (hence unconfounded and pre-disease onset) germline genetic variation to proxy for phenotypes and strengthen causal inference in observational studies. We tested the hypothesis that serum calcium is associated with an increased risk of overall and advanced prostate cancer...
October 10, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Jialin Xiao, Pinchas Cohen, Mariana Carla Stern, Folakemi Odedina, John Carpten, Renee Reams
Prostate cancer remains the second most prevalent cancer in men. Its incidence, progression and mortality profiles vary significantly by race and ethnicity, with African-American men having the highest incidence rate and mortality rate in the world. Although these disparities can be partially explained by socioeconomic factors, the underlying molecular causes are complex and require careful research. A considerable amount of literature exists, supporting the association between mitochondrial health and the incidence, aggression and risk of prostate cancer...
October 9, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Claire H Pernar, Ericka M Ebot, Andreas Pettersson, Rebecca E Graff, Francesca Giunchi, Thomas U Ahearn, Amparo G Gonzalez-Feliciano, Sarah C Markt, Kathryn M Wilson, Konrad H Stopsack, Elizaveta Gazeeva, Rosina T Lis, Giovanni Parmigiani, Eric B Rimm, Stephen P Finn, Edward L Giovannucci, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Lorelei A Mucci
BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows that clinical and molecular subtypes of prostate cancer (PCa) have specific risk factors. Observational studies suggest that physical activity may lower the risk of aggressive PCa. To our knowledge, the association between physical activity and PCa defined by TMPRSS2:ERG has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVE: To prospectively examine the association between physical activity and risk of PCa defined by clinical features and TMPRSS2:ERG...
October 6, 2018: European Urology
Antonio B Porcaro, Davide Inverardi, Paolo Corsi, Marco Sebben, Giovanni Cacciamani, Alessandro Tafuri, Tania Processali, Marco Pirozzi, Daniele Mattevi, Davide De Marchi, Nelia Amigoni, Riccardo Rizzetto, Maria A Cerruto, Matteo Brunelli, Salvatore Siracusano, Walter Artibani
BACKGROUND: To evaluate clinical factors associated with the risk of tumour upgrading patterns in low risk prostate cancer (PCA) patients undergoing radical prostatectomy. METHODS: In a period running from January 2013 to December 2016, 245 low risk patients underwent RP. Patients were classified into three groups, which included case with pathology grade group one (no upgrading pattern), two-three (intermediate upgrading pattern), and four-five (high upgrading pattern)...
October 3, 2018: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
Lisa Calvocoressi, Edward Uchio, John Ko, Krishnan Radhakrishnan, Mihaela Aslan, John Concato
Older men are more likely to have advanced prostate cancer at time of their diagnosis, but whether prostate tumors are inherently (biologically) more aggressive with advancing age is uncertain. To address this gap in knowledge, we analyzed data from veterans (n=971) diagnosed with prostate cancer during 1991-1995. Factors included age, detection of prostate cancer by screening, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, anatomic stage, and Gleason score. Information on molecular markers obtained from immunohistochemical staining of prostate tissue, included B cell lymphoma-2 (bcl-2), p53, and microvessel density (MVD), each having a previously documented association with disease progression and increased risk of prostate cancer death...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
David M Routman, Ryan K Funk, Bradley J Stish, Lance A Mynderse, Torrence M Wilson, Robert McLaren, W Scott Harmsen, Kristin Mara, Christopher L Deufel, Keith M Furutani, Michael G Haddock, Thomas M Pisansky, C Richard Choo, Brian J Davis
PURPOSE: To report outcomes of patients undergoing low-dose-rate (LDR) brachytherapy and investigate factors associated with biochemical failure and survival. METHODS: Consecutive patients undergoing LDR with I-125 at our institution between 1998 through 2013 for primary intact prostate cancer were examined. Those with low- and intermediate-risk disease receiving LDR with a minimum of 2 years followup and at least one post-LDR prostate-specific antigen (PSA) were included...
October 4, 2018: Brachytherapy
Yann Neuzillet, Jean-Pierre Raynaud, Jean-François Dreyfus, Camélia Radulescu, Mathieu Rouanne, Marc Schneider, Sylvie Krish, Morgan Rouprêt, Sarah J Drouin, Eva Comperat, Marc Galiano, Xavier Cathelineau, Pierre Validire, Vincent Molinié, Jean Fiet, Franck Giton, Thierry Lebret, Henry Botto
Failure rates after first-line treatment of localized prostate cancer (PCa) treatment remain high. Improvements to patient selection and identification of at-risk patients are central to reducing mortality. We aimed to determine if cancer aggressiveness correlates with androgen levels in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy for localized PCa. We performed a prospective, multicenter cohort study between June 2013 and June 2016, involving men with localized PCa scheduled to undergo radical prostatectomy...
October 6, 2018: Hormones & Cancer
Bifeng Chen, Shang Wang, Guangxin Ma, Jin Han, Jingli Zhang, Xiuli Gu, Xianhong Feng
How single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) are involved in cancer susceptibility remains poorly understood. We hypothesized that POLR2E rs3787016 polymorphism, identified in a genome-wide association study of prostate cancer, might be a common genetic risk factor for cancer risk. To address this issue, we here conducted a case-control study to investigate the association of POLR2E rs3787016 polymorphism with risk of liver and lung cancer (including 800 normal controls, 480 liver cancer patients and 550 lung cancer patients), followed by a meta-analysis...
October 5, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Karine Briot, Julien Paccou, Philippe Beuzeboc, Jacques Bonneterre, Béatrice Bouvard, Cyrille B Confavreux, Catherine Cormier, Bernard Cortet, Jean-Michel Hannoun-Lévi, Christophe Hennequin, Rose-Marie Javier, Eric Lespessailles, Didier Mayeur, Pierre Mongiat Artus, Marie-Hélène Vieillard, Françoise Debiais
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate cancer can be achieved surgically or chemically, notably by prescribing LHRH analogs. Major bone loss occurs rapidly in both cases, due to the decrease in testosterone levels, and can increase the fracture risk. The objective of developing these recommendations was to achieve a practical consensus among various scientific societies, based on a literature review, about osteoporosis prevention and treatment in patients on ADT. The following scientific societies contributed to the work: Société Française de Rhumatologie (SFR), Groupe de Recherche et d'Information sur les Ostéoporoses (GRIO), Groupe Européen d'Etudes des Métastases Osseuses (GEMO), Association Francophone pour les SOins de Support (AFSOS), Association Française d'Urologie (AFU), Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique (SFRO)...
October 1, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Emily D Cai, Susan M Swetter, Kavita Y Sarin
BACKGROUND: Genetic and environmental risk factors have been associated with the development of multiple primary melanomas (MPM). We hypothesized that individuals with MPM may have increased predisposition to developing internal malignancies. OBJECTIVE: To identify the risk of subsequent malignancies in MPM patients. METHODS: Multiple primary standardized incidence ratios were analyzed for individuals with ≥1, ≥2 and ≥3 primary melanomas (PM) in the SEER database from 1973-2014...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Kimberly D Miller, Ann Goding Sauer, Ana P Ortiz, Stacey A Fedewa, Paulo S Pinheiro, Guillermo Tortolero-Luna, Dinorah Martinez-Tyson, Ahmedin Jemal, Rebecca L Siegel
HALTHCC =(1.27 ∗TBS)+(1.85 ∗ lnAFP)+(0.26 ∗MELD-Na). Cancer is the leading cause of death among Hispanics/Latinos, who represent the largest racial/ethnic minority group in the United States, accounting for 17.8% (57.5 million) of the total population in the continental United States and Hawaii in 2016. In addition, more than 3 million Hispanic Americans live in the US territory of Puerto Rico. Every 3 years, the American Cancer Society reports on cancer occurrence, risk factors, and screening for Hispanics in the United States based on data from the National Cancer Institute, the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention...
October 4, 2018: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Megan M Marron, Diane G Ives, Robert M Boudreau, Tamara B Harris, Anne B Newman
OBJECTIVES: To understand which causes of death are higher in black than white community-dwelling older adults and determine whether differences in baseline risk factors explain racial differences in mortality. DESIGN: Longitudinal cohort study (Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study). SETTING: Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Memphis, Tennessee. PARTICIPANTS: Black and white men and women aged 70 to 79 during recruitment (N=3,075; 48% men, 42% black) followed for a median of 13 years...
October 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Subhayan Chattopadhyay, Guoqiao Zheng, Otto Hemminki, Asta Försti, Kristina Sundquist, Kari Hemminki
To assess etiological and clinical consequences of second primary cancers (SPCs) in prostate cancer (PC) patients, we followed newly diagnosed patients to identify men who were diagnosed with a SPC and recorded their causes of death. We used the Swedish Family-Cancer Database to assess relative risks (RRs) and causes of death in SPCs until the year 2015 in patients with a PC diagnosis between 2001 and 2010. Among a total of 4.26 million men, 76 614 were diagnosed with PC at the median age of 71 years. Among them, 8659 (11...
October 1, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Yu-Peng Wu, Xiao-Dong Li, Zhi-Bin Ke, Shao-Hao Chen, Ping-Zhou Chen, Yong Wei, Jin-Bei Huang, Xiong-Lin Sun, Xue-Yi Xue, Qing-Shui Zheng, Ning Xu
Objective: To explore risk factors of infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSPB). Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 1,203 patients with suspected prostate cancer who underwent TRUSPB at our center between December 2012 and December 2016. Demographics, clinical characteristics, and data regarding complications were collected, and then univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent risk factors for infectious complications after prostate biopsy...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Farhad Pishgar, Erfan Amini, Kimiya Gohari, Arya Aminorroaya, Ali Sheidaei, Yasna Rostamabadi, Hooman Ebrahimi, Moein Yoosefi, Shohreh Naderimagham, Nazila Rezaei, Mitra Modirian, Alireza Namazi Shabestari, Farzad Kompani, Farshad Farzadfar
PURPOSE: To study trends of urological cancers mortalities in Iran between 1990 and 2015 as a part of a larger project named national and subnational burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors. METHODS: The primary dataset of this project comprises data of national death registration system. Cause-specific mortality fraction for each age, sex, province, and year group was calculated using a two-stage mixed effects and spatiotemporal models, and then these fractions were applied to all-cause mortality rates, obtained from a parallel study to estimate mortality rates attributable to each cause...
October 1, 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Tarek Souaid, Joya-Rita Hindy, Roland Eid, Hampig Raphael Kourie, Joseph Kattan
According to the latest data of the World Cancer Research Fund International (2012), Lebanon has the second highest age-standardized incidence rate of bladder cancer worldwide, both for "men" and "both-sexes" categories. This study was designed to assess bladder cancer knowledge among the Lebanese population. Between November 2017 and January 2018, a cross-sectional study was directed, including patients and visitors of one of the largest university hospitals in the capital Beirut. A face-to-face questionnaire evaluated knowledge regarding, among others, the most important risk factor for bladder cancer and the most frequent revealing symptom...
September 26, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Aleksandra Omari, Paulina Nastały, Sara Stoupiec, Aneta Bałabas, Michalina Dąbrowska, Beata Bielińska, Sebastian Huss, Klaus Pantel, Axel Semjonow, Elke Eltze, Burkhard Brandt, Natalia Bednarz-Knoll
BRCA1 is a pivotal tumor suppressor. Its dysfunction is known to play a role in different tumors. Among others, BRCA1 germline mutations account for higher risk and more aggressive course of prostate cancer (PCa). In addition, somatic BRCA1 gene loss was demonstrated to be a signature of PCa dissemination to lymph nodes and peripheral blood, and indicate worse clinical outcome. In order to substantiate the data for BRCA1 gene loss in PCa and reveal its phenotypical background, BRCA1 gene status was assessed in a large cohort of PCa patients and compared to different molecular factors...
September 28, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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