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Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Paraskevi A Farazi, Mohammad Siahpush, Shannon Maloney, Danae Dinkel, Arthur Michalek, Rahama John, Olabode Oluwole
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among Nigerian men. The prevalence of PCa varies within Nigeria, with the highest prevalence of 1046 per 100,000 in men over the age of 40 reported in Lagos. Unfortunately, 40% of these men are diagnosed with locally advanced disease and 35% with metastatic disease. Given the ability to screen for PCa among high-risk individuals, late stage diagnosis of PCa could be potentially reduced through education of men so that they seek screening. Along these lines, it is important to assess a population's knowledge and awareness on PCa and screening...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Krzysztof Czaderny
INTRODUCTION: This study investigates spatial distribution and future trends in prostate cancer mortality in Poland. Since detection of prostate cancer is based on patients’ requests (not an invitation system), hypothesis of self-selection of patients was also verified MATERIAL AND METHODS: Age-period-cohort model was estimated to assess mortality trends. A spatial analysis was performed by Kulldorff’s and Moran’s tests. Structural equation model was fitted to identify factors influencing decision on participation in prostate cancer screening...
2018: Przegla̧d Epidemiologiczny
Aliya Alimujiang, Graham A Colditz, Jane D Gardner, Yikyung Park, Catherine S Berkey, Siobhan Sutcliffe
PURPOSE: To begin to explore the possible roles of childhood diet and growth in prostate cancer (PCa) development, we investigated these exposures in relation to two known/suspected PCa risk factors, earlier pubertal timing and greater attained height, in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Health and Development. METHODS: We used biannual/annual height, weight, and dietary history data to investigate childhood diet, body mass index (BMI), birth length, and childhood height in relation to PCa risk factors (age at peak height velocity (APHV), height at age 13, and adult height) for 64 Caucasian American boys...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
Leonardo L Monteiro, J Alfred Witjes, Piyush K Agarwal, Christopher B Anderson, Trinity J Bivalacqua, Bernard H Bochner, Joost L Boormans, Sam S Chang, Jose L Domínguez-Escrig, James M McKiernan, Colin Dinney, Guilherme Godoy, Girish S Kulkarni, Paramananthan Mariappan, Michael A O'Donnell, Cyrill A Rentsch, Jay B Shah, Eduardo Solsona, Robert S Svatek, Antoine G van der Heijden, F Johannes P van Valenberg, Wassim Kassouf
PURPOSE: To provide a summary of the Third International Consultation on Bladder Cancer recommendations for the management of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). METHODS: A detailed review of the literature was performed focusing on original articles for the management of NMIBC. An international committee assessed and graded the articles based on the Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine system. The entire spectrum of NMIBC was covered such as prognostic factors of recurrence and progression, risk stratification, staging, management of positive urine cytology with negative white light cystoscopy, indications of bladder and prostatic urethral biopsies, management of Ta low grade (LG) and high risk tumors (Ta high grade [HG], T1, carcinoma in situ [CIS]), impact of BCG strain and host on outcomes, management of complications of intravesical therapy, role of alternative therapies, indications for early cystectomy, surveillance strategies, and new treatments...
August 14, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Zhenlang Guo, Shu Gan, Yuan Li, Chiming Gu, Songtao Xiang, Jianfu Zhou, Leiliang Gong, Franky Leung Chan, Shusheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Whether the diagnosis of prostate cancer is a contributory psychological stress that causes excess risk of suicide among affected men remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis of previous studies to investigate suicide incidence and associated risk factors among men diagnosed with prostate cancer. METHODS: The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and PsycINFO databases were searched to identify eligible studies published before April 2018. The inverse variance method with random-effects modeling was used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and their associated 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Tracy M Layne, Barry I Graubard, Xiaomei Ma, Susan T Mayne, Demetrius Albanes
BACKGROUND: There are few prospective studies comparing race-specific associations between diet, nutrients, and health-related parameters, and prostate cancer risk. METHODS: Race-specific prostate cancer risk associations were examined among men in the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study. We identified 1417 cases among black men (209 advanced), and 28,845 among white men (3898 advanced). Cox proportional hazards regression models estimated hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 14, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Konrad H Stopsack, Amparo G Gonzalez-Feliciano, Samuel F Peisch, Mary K Downer, Riley A Gage, Stephen Finn, Rosina T Lis, Rebecca E Graff, Andreas Pettersson, Claire H Pernar, Massimo Loda, Philip W Kantoff, Thomas U Ahearn, Lorelei A Mucci
BACKGROUND: In a case-control study, aspirin use was associated with a lower risk of a common prostate cancer molecular subtype, the TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion. We sought to validate this finding in a prospective cohort. METHODS: In the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, 49,395 men reported on aspirin use on biennial questionnaires and were followed for prostate cancer incidence over 23 years. TMPRSS2:ERG status was assessed by immunohistochemistry for presence of ERG on archival tumor specimens for 912 prostate cancer patients, of whom 48% were ERG-positive...
August 14, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Michael S Leapman, Rong Wang, Henry S Park, James B Yu, Jeffrey C Weinreb, Cary P Gross, Xiaomei Ma
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between prostate MRI and the use of observation for men with low-risk PCa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare database to identify men diagnosed with low-risk PCa during 2010-2013. We assessed the use of prostate MRI and management using claims in period surrounding PCa diagnosis. The relation of clinical and demographic factors to receipt of MRI was evaluated with multivariable logistic regression analysis...
August 11, 2018: Urology
Huihui Ye, Adam G Sowalsky
Clinicopathologic parameters, including Gleason score, remain the most validated prognostic factors for patients diagnosed with localized prostate cancer (PCa). However, patients of the same risk groups have exhibited heterogeneity of disease outcomes. To improve risk classification, multiple molecular risk classifiers have been developed, which were designed to inform beyond existing clinicopathologic classifiers. Alterations affecting tumor suppressors and oncogenes, such as PTEN, MYC, BRCA2, and TP53, which have been long associated with aggressive PCa, demonstrated grade-dependent frequency of alterations in localized PCas...
August 2018: Urologic Oncology
Takumi Shiraishi, Osamu Ukimura
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With the increasing incidence of low-to-intermediate risk of prostate cancer (PCa) by the introduction of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, focal therapy has become one of the promising treatment options in the world. In Asia, same movement are occurring using several technologies including cryoablation, high-intensity focused ultrasound, brachytherapy and irreversible electroporation. However, these are still not common strategies to treat organ-confined PCa...
August 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
W Mohammed, P Hoskin, A Henry, A Gomez-Iturriaga, A Robinson, A Nikapota
AIMS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has historically been considered a risk factor for increased bowel toxicity in patients receiving pelvic external beam radiotherapy. The risk is reduced in intensity-modulated radiotherapy compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy. The effect of brachytherapy has been less extensively researched. Despite the increased dose to the gross tumour volume and decreased dose to organs at risk, previous studies have recommended avoidance of low dose rate (LDR) brachytherapy in patients with IBD, due to increased bowel toxicity...
September 2018: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
Renee Pieroth, Stephanie Paver, Sharon Day, Carolyn Lammersfeld
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research has evaluated the potential impact of folate on cancer risk with conflicting findings. Studies have demonstrated increased risk, no effect, and decreased risk. This review summarizes findings of mixed results between folate intake, serum levels, gene polymorphisms, and cancer risk based on meta-analyses from the past five years. RECENT FINDING: Low or deficient folate status is associated with increased risk of many cancers. Folic acid supplementation and higher serum levels are associated with increased risk of prostate cancer...
August 11, 2018: Current Nutrition Reports
Jordan A Holmes, Roger F Anderson, Leroy G Hoffman, Timothy N Showalter, Mohit Kasibhatla, Sean P Collins, Michael A Papagikos, Brittany D Barbosa, Lori J Stravers, Zahra Mahbooba, Andrew Z Wang, Ronald C Chen
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer survivors who receive androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. They require coordinated care between cancer specialist and primary care physicians (PCPs) to monitor for cancer control and manage cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 103 men receiving ADT with radiotherapy from 7 institutions to assess cardiovascular risk factors and survivorship care. Medical records, fasting labs, and patient-reported outcomes using a validated instrument were assessed at baseline (pre-treatment) and 1 year post-RT...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Changwen Zhang, Chao Lu, Zhen Wang, Guowei Feng, E Du, Yan Liu, Li Wang, Baomin Qiao, Yong Xu, Zhihong Zhang
Antimony, one of the heavier pnictogens, is widely used in industry, and its toxicity has become a major concern. Although previous studies suggested that antimony might be a tumorigenic risk factor in several cancers, the molecular basis underlying antimony-mediated transformation remains unclear. Our results showed that the serum concentration of antimony was higher in prostate cancer specimens relative to that of benign prostate tissues, and this high serum concentration of antimony was closely associated with poorer outcome in prostate cancer patients...
August 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Nandita M deSouza, Clare M Tempany
Recognition of < 3 metastases in < 2 organs, particularly in cancers with a known predisposition to oligometastatic disease (OMD) (colorectal, prostate, renal, sarcoma and lung), offers the opportunity to focally treat the lesions identified and confers a survival advantage. The reliability with which OMD is identified depends on the sensitivity of the imaging technique used for detection and may be predicted from phenotypic and genetic factors of the primary tumour, which determine metastatic risk. Whole-body or organ-specific imaging to identify oligometastases requires optimization to achieve maximal sensitivity...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Young Dong Yu, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
Obesity, often represented by higher body mass index (BMI), is not yet fully understood as a potential risk factor for poor clinical outcomes of prostate cancer (PCa) after radical prostatectomy (RP). This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BMI and biochemical recurrence (BCR)-free survival in RP patients. This study retrospectively reviewed a total of 2.997 PCa patients who underwent RP between 2006 and 2017. The patients were stratified into three BMI groups according to the WHO recommendations for Asian men: normal weight (<23 kg/m2 ), overweight (≥23 to <27...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Arsheed Ganaie, Firdous H Beigh, Matteo Astone, Marina G Ferrari, Raihana Maqbool, Syed Umbreen, Aijaz S Parray, Hifzur R Siddique, Tabish Hussain, Paari Murugan, Colm Morrissey, Shahriar Koochekpour, Yibin Deng, Badrinath R Konety, Luke H Hoeppner, Mohammad Saleem
PURPOSE: Metastasis is the major cause of mortality in prostate cancer (CaP) patients. Factors such as genetic makeup and race play critical role in the outcome of therapies. This study was conducted to investigate the relevance of BMI1 in metastatic CaP disease in Caucasian and African-Americans. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We employed race-specific CaP models, clinical specimens, clinical data mining, gene-microarray, transcription-reporter assay, chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP), immunohistochemistry, transgenic-(tgfl/fl) zebrafish and mouse metastasis models...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Vanessa Y Tan, Kalina M Biernacka, Tom Dudding, Carolina Bonilla, Rebecca Gilbert, Robert C Kaplan, Qibin Qi, Alexander Teumer, Richard M Martin, Claire M Perks, Nicholas J Timpson, Jeff Mp Holly
BACKGROUND: Circulating insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) has been associated with PCa. Preclinical studies found that vitamin D regulates IGFBP-3 expression, although evidence from epidemiological studies are conflicting. METHODS: Mendelian Randomisation analyses (MR) were conducted to reassess associations between IGFBP-3 and Prostate cancer (PCa) risk and advanced PCa using summary statistics from the PRACTICAL consortium (44,825cases;27,904controls)...
August 2, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Benjamin P Nicholson, Amrou M Ali Idris, Sophie J Bakri
PURPOSE: Retrospective cohort study to identify clinical characteristics associated with poor visual acuity in central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Charts of patients in a tertiary referral clinic diagnosed with CSC over a 13-year period were reviewed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the relationship between several clinical characteristics and final visual acuity. RESULTS: Of 353 subjects with CSC, 258 had a minimum of 2 clinical assessments and adequate follow-up...
August 1, 2018: Seminars in Ophthalmology
Mladen Golubić, Dana Schneeberger, Kristin Kirkpatrick, Judi Bar, Adam Bernstein, Fredina Weems, Jane Ehrman, Jim Perko, Jonathan Doyle, Michael Roizen
OBJECTIVES: Healthy lifestyle modifications, including weight management, regular physical activity, prudent diet, and stress relief, have been identified as key components of tertiary cancer prevention. In this study, we evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive, lifestyle medicine intervention, Lifestyle 180® , on chronic disease risk factors and quality of life in cancer survivors. DESIGN: Retrospective subgroup analysis of a clinical program. SETTINGS/LOCATION: An outpatient medical facility...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
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