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Prostate Cancer Risk Factors

Kenta Onishi, Nobumichi Tanaka, Makito Miyake, Yasushi Nakai, Satoshi Anai, Kazumasa Torimoto, Kaori Yamaki, Isao Asakawa, Masatoshi Hasegawa, Tomomi Fujii, Noboru Konishi, Kiyohide Fujimoto
Purpose: To investigate chronological changes in lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients who received iodine-125 brachytherapy (BT) for prostate cancer. Methods: We enrolled 706 patients who received BT. Of these, 265 (38%) received BT combined with external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). An International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS), IPSS quality of life (IPSS-QOL) score, and overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) were recorded before BT (baseline, BL), and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months after BT...
January 2019: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Takeo Kosaka, Hiroshi Hongo, Ryuichi Mizuno, Mototsugu Oya
Patient characteristics before administering the first cycle of cabazitaxel for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) were collected to assess prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis revealed that prostate-specific antigen (PSA) ≥100 ng/ml prior to cabazitaxel treatment, visceral metastasis, and low absolute monocyte count were independent prognostic indicators for OS. The aim of the present study was to investigate prognostic biomarkers in patients treated with cabazitaxel among Japanese metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) patients...
December 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Wei Jiang, Lijin Zhang, Bin Wu, Zhenlei Zha, Hu Zhao, Yuan Jun, Yuefang Jiang
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies have shown that lymphovascular invasion (LVI) is linked to biochemical recurrence (BCR) in prostate cancer (PCa) patients following radical prostatectomy (RP). However, the actual clinicopathological impacts of LVI remain unclear. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the pathologic and prognostic impacts of LVI in PCa patients. METHODS: Following the guidance of the PRISMA statement, relevant studies were collected systematically from the PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases to identify relevant studies published before June 2018...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Aleyamma Mathew, Preethi Sara George, Jagathnath Krishna K M, Durga Vasudevan, Francis V James
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: An assessment of transition of cancer in India during the past 30 years, according to changes in demographic and epidemiologic risk factors was undertaken. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cancer registry data (, (population coverage <10%), was compared with transition in life-expectancy and prevalence on smoking, alcohol and obesity. We fitted linear regression to the natural logarithm of the estimated incidence rates of various cancer registries in India...
December 8, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
A Hervás, J Pastor, C González, J Jové, A Gómez, M Casaña, E Villafranca, J L Mengual, V Muñoz, I Henriquez, J Muñoz, E Collado, J Clemente
PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess outcomes and to identify prognostic factors in patients diagnosed with intermediate-risk (IR) prostate cancer (PCa) treated with primary external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the multi-institutional Spanish RECAP database, a population-based prostate cancer registry in Spain. All IR patients (NCCN criteria) who underwent primary EBRT were included. The following variables were assessed: age; prostate-specific antigen (PSA); Gleason score; clinical T stage; percentage of positive biopsy cores (PPBC); androgen deprivation therapy (ADT); and radiotherapy dose...
December 10, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Colin Adler, Melissa C Friesen, Edward D Yeboah, Yao Tettey, Richard B Biritwum, Andrew A Adjei, Evelyn Tay, Victoria Okyne, James E Mensah, Ann Truelove, Baiyu Yang, Scott P Kelly, Cindy Ke Zhou, Lauren E McCullough, Larissa Pardo, Robert N Hoover, Ann W Hsing, Michael B Cook, Stella Koutros
OBJECTIVES: Established prostate cancer (PCa) risk factors include age, family history of PCa and African ancestry. Studies, mostly among highly screened, predominantly European ancestral populations, suggest that employment in certain occupations (eg, farming, military) may also have an increased risk for PCa. Here, we evaluated the association between usual adult occupation and PCa risk in Ghanaian men, a population with historically low rates of PCa screening. METHODS: The Ghana Prostate Study is a case-control study of PCa that was conducted from 2004 to 2012 in 749 cases and 964 controls...
December 7, 2018: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Gerson M Struik, Jean-Philippe Pignol, Inger-Karine Kolkman-Deurloo, Jeremy Godart, Gerda M Verduijn, Linetta B Koppert, Erwin Birnie, Ali Ghandi, Taco M Klem
PURPOSE: Accelerated partial breast irradiation is a treatment option for selected patients with early-stage breast cancer. Some accelerated partial breast irradiation techniques lead to skin toxicity with the skin dose as a main risk factor. Biodegradable spacers are effective and safe in prostate brachytherapy to protect the rectum. We hypothesize that a subcutaneous spacer injection reduces the skin dose in breast brachytherapy. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ultrasound-guided spacer injections, either hyaluronic acid (HA) or iodined polyethylene glycol (PEG), were performed on fresh mastectomy specimens...
December 5, 2018: Brachytherapy
Tommy Nyberg, Koveela Govindasami, Goska Leslie, Tokhir Dadaev, Elizabeth Bancroft, Holly Ni Raghallaigh, Mark N Brook, Nafisa Hussain, Diana Keating, Andrew Lee, Romayne McMahon, Angela Morgan, Andrea Mullen, Andrea Osborne, Reshma Rageevakumar, Zsofia Kote-Jarai, Rosalind Eeles, Antonis C Antoniou
BACKGROUND: The homeobox B13 (HOXB13) G84E mutation has been recommended for use in genetic counselling for prostate cancer (PCa), but the magnitude of PCa risk conferred by this mutation is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To obtain precise risk estimates for mutation carriers and information on how these vary by family history and other factors. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Two-fold: a systematic review and meta-analysis of published risk estimates, and a kin-cohort study comprising pedigree data on 11983 PCa patients enrolled during 1993-2014 from 189 UK hospitals and who had been genotyped for HOXB13 G84E...
December 7, 2018: European Urology
Christopher Tufts, Daniel Polsky, Kevin G Volpp, Peter W Groeneveld, Lyle Ungar, Raina M Merchant, Arthur P Pelullo
BACKGROUND: Tweets can provide broad, real-time perspectives about health and medical diagnoses that can inform disease surveillance in geographic regions. Less is known, however, about how much individuals post about common health conditions or what they post about. OBJECTIVE: We sought to collect and analyze tweets from 1 state about high prevalence health conditions and characterize the tweet volume and content. METHODS: We collected 408,296,620 tweets originating in Pennsylvania from 2012-2015 and compared the prevalence of 14 common diseases to the frequency of disease mentions on Twitter...
December 6, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Neha Jaiswal, Juber Akhtar, Satya Prakash Singh, Farogh Ahsan
Genistein is the natural isoflavone and a phytoestrogen with a broad range of pharmacological properties, such as tyrosine and topoisomerase inhibition. It also induces apoptosis and cell proliferation inhibition, differentiates cancer cells. Added health benefits include the reduction of osteoporosis by suppressing osteoclasts and lymphocyte functions, decreased the risk of cardiovascular attacks and relieved postmenopausal problems. Genistein traditionally used in Chinese and Ayurvedic medicine and are found to be associated with lower risk of breast, prostate and lung cancer...
December 5, 2018: Drug Research
Lavinia Vija Racaru, Erwan Gabiache, Sebastien Fontaine, Dominique DʼAure, Loic Mourey, Frederic Courbon, Slimane Zerdoud
An 85-year-old man with a 2-year history of prostate cancer, treated with radiotherapy and hormonal therapy, presented increased prostatic-specific antigen levels. F-choline PET/CT showed focal prostatic uptake consistent with known local recurrence, increased uptake of 2 hypodense thyroid nodules and of 2 left cervical lymph nodes, suspected as thyroid cancer. Neck ultrasound confirmed the high risk of malignancy, and a guided biopsy (of a thyroid nodule and cervical lymph node) revealed cellular infiltrates thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) negative and prostatic-specific antigen positive, confirming intrathyroid and cervical lymph node metastases of prostate cancer...
December 3, 2018: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Sonia Villani, Nicoletta Gagliano, Patrizia Procacci, Patrizia Sartori, Manola Comar, Maurizio Provenzano, Evaldo Favi, Mariano Ferraresso, Pasquale Ferrante, Serena Delbue
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common male neoplasms in the Western world. Various risk factors may lead to carcinogenesis, including infectious agents such as polyomavirus BK (BKPyV), which infects the human renourinary tract, establishes latency, and encodes oncoproteins. Previous studies suggested that BKPyV plays a role in PCa pathogenesis. However, the unspecific tropism of BKPyV and the lack of in vitro models of BKPyV-infected prostate cells cast doubt on this hypothesis. The aim of the present study was to determine whether BKPyV could (a) infect normal and/or tumoral epithelial prostate cells and (b) affect their phenotype...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Teppei Okamoto, Shingo Hatakeyama, Shintaro Narita, Masahiro Takahashi, Toshihiko Sakurai, Sadafumi Kawamura, Senji Hoshi, Masanori Ishida, Toshiaki Kawaguchi, Shigeto Ishidoya, Jiro Shimoda, Hiromi Sato, Koji Mitsuzuka, Tatsuo Tochigi, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Yoichi Arai, Tomonori Habuchi, Chikara Ohyama
PURPOSE: To investigate the association between the Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI) and prognosis of patients with metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHNPC) and to design the optimal risk score predicting for prognosis. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed data from the Michinoku Japan Urological Cancer Study Group database, containing information about 656 patients with mHNPC who initially received androgen-deprivation therapy between 2005 and 2017...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Mehdi Dehghani, Saranaz Jangjoo, Ahmad Monabati, Dena Masoomi Bandari, Nasrin Namdari
The standard therapy for thyroid cancer is total or near total thyroidectomy, followed by the administration of radioactive iodine for remnant ablation or residual disease. Patients with radioiodine therapy are predisposed to second malignant neoplasms in organs such as central nervous system (CNS), breast, prostate, kidney, bone marrow, salivary gland, and digestive tract. Exposure to carcinogen including occupational and therapy related hazard, aging and genetic susceptibility are other causes of second primary cancers...
November 2018: Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences
Fredrik Jäderling, Olof Akre, Markus Aly, Johan Björklund, Mats Olsson, Christofer Adding, Michael Öberg, Lennart Blomqvist, Tommy Nyberg, Peter Wiklund, Stefan Carlsson
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether preoperative staging using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reduces the risk of positive margins in prostate cancer. We aimed to assess the effect on surgical margins and degree of nerve sparing of a pelvic MRI presented at a preoperative MRI conference. METHODS: Single institution, observational cohort study including 1037 men that underwent robot assisted radical prostatectomy between October 2013 and June 2015. Of these, 557 underwent a preoperative MRI combined with a preoperative MRI conference and 410 did not...
November 30, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Barbra A Dickerman, Edward Giovannucci, Claire H Pernar, Lorelei A Mucci, Miguel A Hernán
The survival impact of adhering to current physical activity guidelines after prostate cancer diagnosis is unknown. We therefore emulated a target trial of guideline-based physical activity interventions and 10-year survival among US men with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. We used observational data on 2,299 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study diagnosed with nonmetastatic prostate cancer from 1998-2010 and free of conditions that might preclude participation at baseline (first post-diagnostic questionnaire)...
November 29, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Dirk Bottke, Detlef Bartkowiak, Alessandra Siegmann, Reinhard Thamm, Dirk Böhmer, Volker Budach, Thomas Wiegel
BACKGROUND: For patients with recurrent prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP), salvage radiotherapy (SRT) offers a second chance of cure. European guidelines (EAU) recommend SRT at a PSA < 0.5 ng/ml. We analyze the efficacy of SRT given according to this recommendation and investigate the predictive power of the post-SRT PSA nadir. METHODS: Between 1998 and 2013, 301 patients of two university hospitals received SRT at a PSA < 0.5 ng/ml (median 0...
November 28, 2018: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
Lauren M Hurwitz, Corinne E Joshu, John R Barber, Anna E Prizment, Mara Z Vitolins, Miranda R Jones, Aaron R Folsom, Misop Han, Elizabeth A Platz
BACKGROUND: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) appear to moderately reduce prostate cancer risk. However, evidence is limited on whether NSAIDs protect against prostate cancer mortality (death from prostate cancer among men without a cancer history) and case-fatality (death from prostate cancer among men with prostate cancer), and whether benefits are consistent in white and black men. This study investigated associations of aspirin and non-aspirin (NA)-NSAID use with prostate cancer incidence, mortality, and case-fatality in a population-based cohort of white and black men...
November 28, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
Rina Tanaka, Masashi Matsuzaka, Yoshihiro Sasaki
Background: Aomori Prefecture has experienced the highest cancer-related mortality rates since the 2000s in Japan. In addition, income of residents in Aomori Prefecture is lower than that of a countrywide average. Aims of this study were to examine the relationships of the incidence and mortality rates of common cancers (stomach, colorectal, liver, lung, breast, cervical, and prostate) with the income levels of residential income area and clarify the factors contributing to the high mortality rates in Aomori prefecture...
November 29, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Turgay Turan, Berrin Güçlüer, Özgür Efiloğlu, Furkan Şendoğan, Ramazan Gökhan Atış, Turhan Çaşkurlu, Asıf Yıldırım
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the factors to predict Gleason score upgrading (GSU) of patients with prostate cancer who were evaluated by using the International Society for Urological Pathology (ISUP) 2014 Gleason grading system. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2008 and December 2015, we retrospectively investigated patients who had undergone radical prostatectomy and followed up in the uro-oncology outpatient clinic. The pathologic specimens of the patients were evaluated based on the ISUP 2014 classification system...
August 17, 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
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