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Pulmonary immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112673/clinical-manifestation-of-hyper-ige-syndrome-including-otitis-media
#1
REVIEW
Jing Wu, Li Hong, Tong-Xin Chen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The hyper IgE syndromes (HIES) comprise a group of rare primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDDs), which are characterized by extremely high serum IgE levels, eczema, recurrent skin and pulmonary infections. Both autosomal dominant (AD) HIES due to STAT3 mutations and autosomal recessive (AR) HIES due to PGM3, SPINK5, DOCK8 and TKY2 mutations have been reported. Here, we aim to summarize and compare the major clinical manifestations of different subtypes of HIES. We will also discuss otitis media, which usually do not get enough attention in HIES...
August 15, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30112621/associations-of-sport-participation-with-self-perception-exercise-self-efficacy-and-quality-of-life-among-children-and-adolescents-with-a-physical-disability-or-chronic-disease-a-cross-sectional-study
#2
Saskia J Te Velde, Kristel Lankhorst, Maremka Zwinkels, Olaf Verschuren, Tim Takken, Janke de Groot
BACKGROUND: Little evidence is available about how sports participation influences psychosocial health and quality of life in children and adolescents with a disability or chronic disease. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the association of sports participation with psychosocial health and with quality of life, among children and adolescents with a disability. METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, 195 children and adolescents with physical disabilities or chronic diseases (11% cardiovascular, 5% pulmonary, 8% metabolic, 8% musculoskeletal/orthopaedic, 52% neuromuscular and 9% immunological diseases and 1% with cancer), aged 10-19 years, completed questionnaires to assess sports participation, health-related quality of life (DCGM-37), self-perceptions and global self-worth (SPPC or SPPA) and exercise self-efficacy...
August 15, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110122/pleiotropic-effect-of-vitamin-d-in-cystic-fibrosis
#3
Teresa Grzelak, Klaudia Mikołajczyk
Cystic fibrosis - CF - is the most common recessively autosomally and inherited disorder in the Caucasian population. It is incurable, multi-systemic disease with progressive course. CF is caused by CFTR gene mutation, the product of which is Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). CF patients are exposed to fat-soluble vitamins deficiency, including vitamin D. It is due to the fat malabsorption (caused by exacerbation exocrine pancreatic insufficiency), decreased sun exposure (caused by receiving antibiotics photophobia), reduction of adipose tissue and insufficient supply with food...
August 15, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102653/hiv-persistence-in-mucosal-cd4-t-cells-within-the-lungs-of-adults-receiving-long-term-suppressive-antiretroviral-therapy
#4
Cecilia T Costiniuk, Syim Salahuddin, Omar Farnos, Ron Olivenstein, Amélie Pagliuzza, Marianna Orlova, Erwin Schurr, Christina De Castro, Jean Bourbeau, Jean-Pierre Routy, Petronela Ancuta, Nicolas Chomont, Mohammad-Ali Jenabian
BACKGROUND: The lungs were historically identified as one of the major anatomic sites for HIV replication in the pre-ART era. However, their contribution to HIV persistence in individuals under suppressive ART remains understudied. DESIGN: We assessed HIV persistence and comprehensively characterized pulmonary mucosal CD4 T-cells in HIV individuals receiving long-term suppressive ART versus uninfected participants. METHODS: Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), bronchial biopsies and matched peripheral blood were obtained from n=24 HIV-infected adults receiving long-term suppressive ART (median: 9 years) and n = 8 healthy volunteers without respiratory symptoms...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101907/elevated-levels-of-intelectin-1-a-pathogen-binding-lectin-in-the-bal-fluid-of-patients-with-chronic-eosinophilic-pneumonia-and-hypersensitivity-pneumonitis
#5
Tsutomu Shinohara, Shoutaro Tsuji, Yoshio Okano, Hisanori Machida, Nobuo Hatakeyama, Fumitaka Ogushi
Objective Human intelectin-1 (hITLN-1) binds to galactofuranosyl residues, which are present in the microbial cell wall, but which are absent in mammalian tissues, and has been suggested to play an immunological role against microorganisms. However, the involvement of hITLN-1 in the pathogenesis of diffuse pulmonary diseases remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the hITLN-1 concentrations in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases. Methods The cell components and concentrations of hITLN-1 were analyzed in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid of 8 patients with idiopathic chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (ICEP), 3 patients with drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia (drug-EP), 4 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), 11 patients with sarcoidosis, 9 patients with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia (COP), and 5 patients with idiopathic fibrosing interstitial pneumonia (fibrosing nonspecific interstitial pneumonia [fNSIP] or usual interstitial pneumonia [UIP]) Results The hITLN-1 concentrations in the BAL fluid of patients with ICEP and HP were higher than in those with other diseases...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095689/a-case-of-allergic-broncopulmonary-aspergillosis-associated-with-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-due-to-chronic-granulomatous-disease
#6
Baris Malbora, Serap Aksoylar, Hamiyet H Ozdemir, Sinem Ozdemir, Savas Kansoy
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis is an immunologic pulmonary disorder caused by hypersensitivity to Aspergillus fumigatus. This disorder is most commonly seen in patients with poorly controlled asthma and cystic fibrosis. It is rarely reported in chronic granulomatous disease patients; however, there are no cases reported with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in the English literature. Herein, we report a patient with chronic granulomatous disease who had hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and subsequently developed allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079068/human-cd49a-lung-natural-killer-cell-cytotoxicity-in-response-to-influenza-a-virus
#7
Grace E Cooper, Kristoffer Ostridge, Salim I Khakoo, Tom M A Wilkinson, Karl J Staples
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a major global public health burden due to its routine evasion of immunization strategies. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate cytotoxic cells with important antiviral activity in the human body, yet the function of these cells in the control of IAV infection is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of lung NK cell cytotoxic responses to IAV. Human lung explants were infected ex vivo with IAV, and lung NK cell activation was analyzed by flow cytometry. Cytotoxic responses of NK cell subsets against IAV-infected macrophages were measured by flow cytometry and ELISA...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078247/-de-novo-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb2-gene-mutation-associated-common-variable-immunodeficiency
#8
M Z Luo, T Xu, X H Xue, Y P Wang, P L Wu, X M Chen, X M Tang, X D Zhao, Z Y Zhang
Objective: To investigate the clinical, immunological, and molecular manifestations of nuclear factor kappa-B subunit 2 (NFκB2) gene mutation associated common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) . Methods: A 14-month-old boy diagnosed with NFκB2-mutated CVID was admitted into Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University in December 2015. The clinical manifestations, biochemical tests, immunological function, molecular features, treatment, and follow-up of the patient were analyzed. The Chinese and PUBMED databases were searched with the key words "NFκB2" and "immune deficiency" and related literatures were reviewed...
August 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065838/multiple-pulmonary-aspergillus-fumigatus-cysts-and-cavities-that-disappeared-with-anti-fungal-agents
#9
Miwako Saitou, Tomoko Suzuki, Katsunao Niitsuma
A 26-year-old man with a 10-year history of asthma was admitted to our hospital with a six-week history of dry cough and slight fever. We observed the left pneumothorax with multiple cysts and cavities and performed partial cystectomy of the left upper lung. Y-shaped mycelia were detected in the resected tissue, and Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured. Pulmonary aspergillosis was diagnosed from the histopathological and bacteriological findings, and the patient demonstrated positive immunological reactions to A...
August 2018: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060326/-2018-chinese-expert-based-consensus-statement-regarding-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-interstitial-lung-disease-associated-with-connective-tissue-diseases
#10
(no author information available yet)
To establish the experts consensus on diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung disease (ILD) associated with connective tissue diseases (CTDs). A multidisciplinary consensus development panel was established. The panel of consensus was composed of 41 experts in rheumatology, pulmonology, radiology, most of whom were members of Group of Pulmonary Vascular and Interstitial Diseases Associated with Rheumatic Diseases. The consensus development panel developed 3 major principles and 7 recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of ILD associated with CTDs...
August 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055859/paradoxical-response-in-a-patient-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-who-received-nivolumab-followed-by-anti-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-agents
#11
So Takata, Genju Koh, Yuki Han, Hiroko Yoshida, Takayuki Shiroyama, Hiromune Takada, Kentarou Masuhiro, Shingo Nasu, Satomu Morita, Ayako Tanaka, Syouji Hashimoto, Kiyoaki Uriu, Hidekazu Suzuki, Yoshitaka Tamura, Norio Okamoto, Takayuki Nagai, Tomonori Hirashima
Anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) agents enhance the antitumor immunoresponse. A number of reports have indicated that patients with malignancies who receive anti-PD-1 agents are at risk for tuberculosis (TB) infection. In this report, we present a patient with non-small cell lung cancer who developed pulmonary tuberculosis while receiving the anti-PD-1 agent nivolumab, and who subsequently demonstrated a paradoxical response (PR) 10 days after initiation of anti-MTB treatment. We suggest that anti-PD-1 agents not only induce the development of pulmonary TB, but also development of PR after anti-MTB treatment, through upregulation of the immune response...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040510/a-new-sight-for-paraquat-poisoning-from-immunology
#12
Qiang Wu, Qinliang Xu, Xiangdong Jian, Huaxue Wang, Xiandi He, Beijun Gao, Ke Wang, Baotian Kan
Paraquat (methyl viologen, PQ) is highly toxic to humans. Pulmonary fibrosis is the most common cause of death after PQ poisoning. However, no effective therapy is available. The current treatment dilemma and pathology suggest that we should reconsider how to treat the poisoning using other methods, such as immunization. Some clues indicate that immune mechanisms may play important roles in the pathology of PQ poisoning. We implemented a simple experiment to test the hypothesis that activated innate immunity was involved in acute lung injury induced by PQ...
July 24, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037849/cigarette-smoke-induced-emphysema-exhausts-early-cytotoxic-cd8-t-cell-responses-against-nascent-lung-cancer-cells
#13
Dimitra Kerdidani, Sophia Magkouta, Panagiotis Chouvardas, Vassiliki Karavana, Konstantinos Glynos, Fani Roumelioti, Spyros Zakynthinos, Els Wauters, Wim Janssens, Diether Lambrechts, George Kollias, Maria Tsoumakidou
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a chronic inflammatory disorder with an increased incidence of lung cancer. The emphysema component of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease confers the greatest proportion to lung cancer risk. Although tumors create inflammatory conditions to escape immunity, the immunological responses that control growth of nascent cancer cells in pre-established inflammatory microenvironments are unknown. In this study, we addressed this issue by implanting OVA-expressing cancer cells in the lungs of mice with cigarette smoke-induced emphysema...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30029905/detection-of-lipoarabinomannan-in-urine-and-serum-of-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-tb-suspects-using-an-improved-capture-enzyme-linked-immuno-absorbent-assay-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#14
Anita G Amin, Prithwiraj De, John S Spencer, Patrick J Brennan, Joshua Daum, Barbara G Andre, Maju Joe, Yu Bai, Lars Laurentius, Marc D Porter, William J Honnen, Alok Choudhary, Todd L Lowary, Abraham Pinter, Delphi Chatterjee
TB diagnosis and treatment monitoring in resource limited regions rely heavily on serial sputum smear microscopy and bacterial culture. These microbiological methods are time-consuming, expensive and lack adequate sensitivity. The WHO states that improved TB diagnosis and treatment is imperative to achieve an end to the TB epidemic by 2030. Commercially available lipoarabinomannan (LAM) detection tools perform at low sensitivity that are highly dependent on the underlying immunological status of the patient; those with advanced HIV infection perform well...
July 2018: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30022363/ppar%C3%AE-agonist-pgz-attenuates-ova-induced-airway-inflammation-and-airway-remodeling-via-rgs4-signaling-in-mouse-model
#15
Xia Meng, Xinrong Sun, Yonghong Zhang, Hongyang Shi, Wenjing Deng, Yanqin Liu, Guizuo Wang, Ping Fang, Shuanying Yang
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonist pioglitazone (PGZ) exhibits potential protective effects in asthma. Recently, regulator of G protein 4 (RGS4) has been reported to be associated with immunological and inflammatory responses. However, no evidence has shown the influence of PPARγ on RGS4 expression in airway disorders. In this study, BALB/c mice received ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization followed by OVA intranasal challenge for 90 days to establish a chronic asthma mouse model. Accompanied with OVA challenge, the mice received administration of PPARγ agonist PGZ (10 mg/kg) intragastrically or RGS4 inhibitor CCG 63802 (0...
July 19, 2018: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018261/biomarker-evaluation-and-toxic-effects-of-an-acute-oral-and-systemic-fumonisin-exposure-of-pigs-with-a-special-focus-on-dietary-fumonisin-esterase-supplementation
#16
Hanna Schertz, Sven Dänicke, Jana Frahm, Dian Schatzmayr, Ilse Dohnal, Gerlinde Bichl, Heidi E Schwartz-Zimmermann, Sonia Colicchia, Gerhard Breves, Jens P Teifke, Jeannette Kluess
The mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a frequent contaminant of feed. It causes a disruption of sphingolipid metabolism and pulmonary, hepatic, and immunological lesions in pigs depending on the exposure scenario. One sensitive biomarker for FB1 exposure is the sphinganine (Sa) to sphingosine (So) ratio in blood. The fumonisin esterase FumD, which can be used as a feed additive, converts FB1 into the much less toxic metabolite hydrolyzed FB1 (HFB1). We conducted a single-dose study with barrows allocated to one of five treatments: (1) control (feed, 0...
July 17, 2018: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30016976/pulmonary-nocardiosis-masquerading-renascence-of-tuberculosis-in-an-immunocompetent-host-a-case-report-from-nepal
#17
Priyatam Khadka, Ramesh Bahadur Basnet, Basista Parsad Rijal, Jeevan Bahadur Sherchand
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary nocardiosis is an opportunistic infection in an immunocompromised patient; however, often neglected in the immunocompetent patient from the diagnosis considerations. CASE PRESENTATIONS: We describe a case of pulmonary nocardiosis masquerading renascence of tuberculosis, in a 51-years-Nepali farmer. After a 6 month of presumed successful antitubercular therapy; the patient develops the clinical presentations and radiological features showing similarities with that of tuberculosis and malignancy...
July 17, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015354/novel-mechanisms-regulating-endothelial-barrier-function-in-the-pulmonary-microcirculation
#18
Szandor Simmons, Lasti Erfinanda, Christoph Bartz, Wolfgang M Kuebler
The pulmonary epithelial and vascular endothelial cell layers provide two sequential physical and immunological barriers that together form a semi-permeable interface and prevent alveolar and interstitial edema formation. In this review, we focus specifically on the continuous endothelium of the pulmonary microvascular bed that warrants strict control of the exchange of gases, fluid, solutes, and circulating cells between the plasma and the interstitial space. The present review provides an overview of emerging molecular mechanisms that permit constant transcellular exchange between the vascular and interstitial compartment, and either cause, prevent, or reverse lung endothelial barrier failure under experimental conditions, yet with a clinical perspective...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30009495/therapeutic-plasma-exchange-outcomes-in-cairo-university-hospitals-6-years-experience
#19
Mohamed Momtaz, Ahmed Fayed, Khaled Marzouk, Amr Shaker
Therapeutic plasma exchange is used in treating different immunological and non-immunological diseases. We analyzed the outcome of 308 patients treated by 1783 membrane plasma exchange sessions from January 2011 until January 2017 at Cairo University Hospital. Thrombotic microangiopathies were the commonest indication [73 (23.7%) patients] with response in 63/73 patients (86.3%), followed by systemic vasculitis with pulmonary-renal involvement [40(13%) patients] with recovery in 32/40 patients (80.0%), Guillain-Barré syndrome [39(12...
July 15, 2018: Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005605/expression-profile-analysis-reveals-that-aspergillus-fumigatus-but-not-aspergillus-niger-makes-type-ii-epithelial-lung-cells-less-immunological-alert
#20
Natalia Escobar, Ivan D Valdes, Esther M Keizer, Soledad R Ordonez, Robin A Ohm, Han A B Wösten, Hans de Cock
BACKGROUND: Aspergillus fumigatus is the main causative agent of aspergillosis. Infections rarely occur in immunocompetent individuals, indicating efficient clearance of conidia by pulmonary defense mechanisms. Other aspergilli like Aspergillus niger also cause infections but to a much lesser extent. Our previous studies showed that A. fumigatus and A. niger have different behavior in the presence of type II alveolar A549 epithelial cells. A. fumigatus conidia are more efficiently internalized by these cells and germination is delayed when compared to A...
July 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
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