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Pulmonary immunology

Lurdes Planas-Cerezales, Elena G Arias-Salgado, Ivette Buendia-Roldán, Ana Montes-Worboys, Cristina E López, Vanesa Vicens Zygmunt, Patricio L Hernaiz, Roger L Sanuy, Virginia Leiro-Fernandez, Eva B Vilarnau, Ernest S Llinás, Jordi D Sargatal, Rosario P Abellón, Moisés Selman, Maria Molina-Molina
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The abnormal shortening of telomeres is a mechanism linking ageing to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) that could be useful in the clinical setting. The objective of this study was to identify the IPF patients with higher risk for telomere shortening and to investigate the outcome implications. METHODS: Consecutive Spanish patients were included at diagnosis and followed up for 3 years. DNA blood samples from a Mexican cohort were used to validate the results found in Spanish sporadic IPF...
October 15, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Seungwon Ryu, Joon Seok Park, Hye Young Kim, Ji Hyung Kim
Regulation of T cell-mediated immunity in the lungs is critical for prevention of immune-related lung disorders and for host protection from pathogens. While the prevalent view of pulmonary T cell responses is based on peptide recognition by antigen receptors, called T cell receptors (TCR), on the T cell surface in the context of classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, novel pathways involving the presentation of lipid antigens by cluster of differentiation 1 (CD1) molecules to lipid-reactive T cells are emerging as key players in pulmonary immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Anthony M Cadena, Yixuan Ma, Tao Ding, MacKenzie Bryant, Pauline Maiello, Adam Geber, Philana Ling Lin, JoAnne L Flynn, Elodie Ghedin
BACKGROUND: The specific interactions of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), and the lung microbiota in infection are entirely unexplored. Studies in cancer and other infectious diseases suggest that there are important exchanges occurring between host and microbiota that influence the immunological landscape. This can result in alterations in immune regulation and inflammation both locally and systemically. To assess whether Mtb infection modifies the lung microbiome, and identify changes in microbial abundance and diversity as a function of pulmonary inflammation, we compared infected and uninfected lung lobe washes collected serially from 26 macaques by bronchoalveolar lavage over the course of infection...
October 9, 2018: Microbiome
Samuel Ademola Adegoke, Bankole Peter Kuti, Kehinde Oluyori Omole, Olufemi Samuel Smith, Oyeku Akibu Oyelami, Oluwagbemiga Oyewole Adeodu
BACKGROUND: Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) is a chronic inflammatory disorder with multiple organ manifestations including acute and long-term pulmonary dysfunction. AIMS/OBJECTIVES: To assess lung function of children with SCA and determine the possible role of acute chest syndrome (ACS), serum inflammatory cytokines, highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), leucocytes and 25-hydroxyvitamin D on the development of impaired lung function. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lung function of 76 children with SCA was determined by spirometer and classified into normal or impaired...
October 8, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Minsun Kim, Qing Cai, Youngman Oh
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), an alpha globulin glycoprotein, is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. The clinical significance of AAT is highlighted by AAT deficiency. Genetic deficiency of AAT can present as several neutrophilic diseases associated with emphysema, liver cirrhosis, panniculitis, and systemic vasculitis. Recently, animal and human studies have shown that AAT can control inflammatory, immunological, and tissue-protective responses. In addition, AAT treatment can prevent overt hyperglycemia, increase insulin secretion, and reduce cytokine-mediated apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells in diabetes...
September 2018: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Koubun Yasuda, Takumi Adachi, Atsuhide Koida, Kenji Nakanishi
The immune responses against helminths have been investigated individually, and it is well-established that infected hosts develop an immunological memory to resist reinfection by the same pathogen. In contrast, it is poorly understood how the host immune system responds to subsequent infection by unrelated parasites after elimination of the first infection. We previously reported that infection of mice with Strongyloides venezuelensis induces the accumulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) in the lung...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Avneesh Gupta, Jaclyn Furman, Kilak Kesha, Francisco Diaz, Carl J Schmidt
Classic "bread-and-butter" appearance of fibrinous pericarditis had been described in rheumatic disease and other immunologic diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, post-myocardial infarct, uremia, tuberculosis, radiation effects, bacterial, and viral etiology. In most of the described cases, pericarditis occurs as a delayed complication. We present a case of a 21-year-old white woman who was seen in the emergency department to rule out pulmonary embolism for shortness of breath, chest pain, and lightheadedness...
October 2, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Sandra Woelke, Eva Valesky, Shahrzad Bakhtiar, Helena Pommerening, L M Pfeffermann, Ralf Schubert, Stefan Zielen
Background: Ataxia telangiectasia (A-T) is a devastating multi-system disorder characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, growth retardation, immunodeficiency, chronic pulmonary disease and chromosomal instability. Cutaneous granulomas are a known phenomenon in A-T but extra-dermal manifestation of granulomas at bone and synovia has not been reported so far. The clinical presentation, immunological findings, the long-term course and treatment options of eight patients with severe granulomas will be reported...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Luis Aj Mur, Sharon A Huws, Simon Js Cameron, Paul D Lewis, Keir E Lewis
The lung microbiome has been shown to reflect a range of pulmonary diseases-for example: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. Studies have now begun to show microbiological changes in the lung that correlate with lung cancer (LC) which could provide new insights into lung carcinogenesis and new biomarkers for disease screening. Clinical studies have suggested that infections with tuberculosis or pneumonia increased the risk of LC possibly through inflammatory or immunological changes...
2018: Ecancermedicalscience
YanLing Ma, Anthony Gal, Michael Koss
Sarcoidosis is a multi-system disease of unknown etiology, usually affecting the respiratory tract and other organs, and is characterized by the formation of nonnecrotizing epithelioid granulomas. The diagnosis depends on a combination of a typical clinicoradiological presentation, the finding of nonnecrotizing epithelioid granulomas in a tissue biopsy, and exclusion of other possible diseases, especially those of infectious etiology. The granulomas contain epithelioid cells, giant cells, CD4+ T cells in their center, and CD8+ T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes at their periphery...
September 24, 2018: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
Lindsay J Celada, Jonathan A Kropski, Jose D Herazo-Maya, Weifeng Luo, Amy Creecy, Andrew T Abad, Ozioma S Chioma, Grace Lee, Natalie E Hassell, Guzel I Shaginurova, Yufen Wang, Joyce E Johnson, Amy Kerrigan, Wendi R Mason, Robert P Baughman, Gregory D Ayers, Gordon R Bernard, Daniel A Culver, Courtney G Montgomery, Toby M Maher, Philip L Molyneaux, Imre Noth, Steven E Mutsaers, Cecilia M Prele, R Stokes Peebles, Dawn C Newcomb, Naftali Kaminski, Timothy S Blackwell, Luc Van Kaer, Wonder P Drake
Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive inflammatory disease with high mortality and limited therapeutic options. Previous genetic and immunologic investigations suggest common intersections between idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), sarcoidosis, and murine models of pulmonary fibrosis. To identify immune responses that precede collagen deposition, we conducted molecular, immunohistochemical, and flow cytometric analysis of human and murine specimens. Immunohistochemistry revealed programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) up-regulation on IPF lymphocytes...
September 26, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
Valentino Le Noci, Simone Guglielmetti, Stefania Arioli, Chiara Camisaschi, Francesca Bianchi, Michele Sommariva, Chiara Storti, Tiziana Triulzi, Chiara Castelli, Andrea Balsari, Elda Tagliabue, Lucia Sfondrini
Pulmonary immunological tolerance to inhaled particulates might create a permissive milieu for lung metastasis. Lung microbiota contribute to pulmonary tolerance; here, we explored whether its manipulation via antibiotic or probiotic aerosolization favors immune response against melanoma metastasis. In lungs of vancomycin/neomycin-aerosolized mice, a decrease in bacterial load was associated with reduced regulatory T cells and enhanced T cell and NK cell activation that paralleled a significant reduction of melanoma B16 lung metastases...
September 25, 2018: Cell Reports
Dawn M E Bowdish
The prevalence of lung conditions, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pulmonary fibrosis, and lung infections such as pneumonia, increase sharply with age. The physiologic, cellular and immunologic changes that occur during aging contribute to the development of lung disease. Studies of age-related changes in physiology and function are not just key to preventing or ameliorating disease, they are essential for understanding healthy aging. Individuals with good lung function live longer, healthier lives, although the mechanisms by which this occurs are not understood...
September 22, 2018: Chest
Abedelmajeed Nasereddin, Suheir Ereqat
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease is caused by reduced level of the lysosomal enzyme acid sphingomyelinase. Children can survive between 2 and 12 years based on the disease type. Two main types are well known: type A and B. Niemann-Pick disease type A is characterized by severe central nervous system deterioration and hepatosplenomegaly while type B is a progressive hypersplenism accompanied with gradual deterioration of pulmonary function. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe an 11-month-old Palestinian baby boy with hepatosplenomegaly, hypotonia, delayed motor development, laryngomalacia, bilateral cherry-red spots, and failure to thrive...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Steve Turner, Adnan Custovic, Peter Ghazal, Jonathan Grigg, Mindy Gore, John Henderson, Clare M Lloyd, Ben Marsland, Ultan F Power, Graham Roberts, Sejal Saglani, Jurgen Schwarze, Michael Shields, Andrew Bush
Background.   Childhood asthma is a common complex condition whose aetiology is thought to involve gene-environment interactions in early life occurring at the airway epithelium, associated with immune dysmaturation.  It is not clear if abnormal airway epithelium cell (AEC) and cellular immune system functions associated with asthma are primary or secondary.  To explore this, we will (i) recruit a birth cohort and observe the evolution of respiratory symptoms; (ii) recruit children with and without asthma symptoms; and (iii) use existing data from children in established STELAR birth cohorts...
2018: Wellcome Open Research
Astrid Bergmann, Thomas Schilling, Göran Hedenstierna, Kerstin Ahlgren, Anders Larsson, Moritz Kretzschmar, Alf Kozian, Thomas Hachenberg
BACKGROUND: One-lung ventilation (OLV) may result in lung injury due to increased mechanical stress and tidal recruitment. As a result, a pulmonary inflammatory response is induced. The present randomized, controlled, animal experiment was undertaken to assess the effects of remote ischemic preconditioning (RIP) on diffuse alveolar damage and immune response after OLV. METHODS: Fourteen piglets (26 ± 2 kg) were randomized to control (n = 7) and RIP group (n = 7)...
August 31, 2018: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Taru Aggarwal, Ridhima Wadhwa, Noopur Thapliyal, Kanishka Sharma, Varsha Rani, Pawan K Maurya
A large body of evidence indicates that chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) is accompanied by oxidative stress and inflammatory and genetic pathways. Epidemiological studies indicate that COPD is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Recent research development in COPD focuses on accelerated aging and various oxidative stress biomarkers. It involves the clinical manifestation of the disease process and may also contain biochemical, immunological, physiological, morphological, and genetic aspects that add to the progressiveness of the disease...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Esther Merino Gallego, Francisco Gallardo Sánchez, Francisco Javier Gallego Rojo
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent infection worldwide and affects one third of the population, predominantly in developing countries. Intestinal TB (ITB) is the sixth most frequent extra-pulmonary TB infection. Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that arises from the interaction of immunological, environmental and genetic factors. Due to changes in the epidemiology of both diseases, distinguishing CD from ITB is a challenge, particularly in immunocompromised patients and those from areas where TB is endemic...
October 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Anna Christina Biermann, Julia Marzi, Eva Brauchle, Julian Lukas Wichmann, Christophe Theo Arendt, Valentina Puntmann, Eike Nagel, Sherif Abdelaziz, Andreas Gerhard Winter, Kelvin Gordon Mashader Brockbank, Shannon Layland, Katja Schenke-Layland, Ulrich Alfred Stock
OBJECTIVES: Frozen cryopreservation (FC) with the vapour phase of liquid nitrogen storage (-135°C) is a standard biobank technique to preserve allogeneic heart valves to enable a preferable allograft valve replacement in clinical settings. However, their long-term function is limited by immune responses, inflammation and structural degeneration. Ice-free cryopreserved (IFC) valves with warmer storage possibilities at -80°C showed better matrix preservation and decreased immunological response in preliminary short-term in vivo studies...
August 24, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
R F Thudium, J Lundgren, T Benfield, B G Nordestgaard, Á H Borges, J Gerstoft, S D Nielsen, A Ronit
OBJECTIVES: Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is associated with an increased risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and has been related to CD4 T-cell count decline in people living with HIV (PLWH). We determined whether HIV status is associated with AAT concentrations and assessed associations between AAT concentration, pulmonary function and immunological status. METHODS: Alpha-1 antitrypsin was measured and spirometry performed in 1011 PLWH from the Copenhagen Comorbidity in HIV Infection (COCOMO) study and in 11 962 age- and sex-matched uninfected controls...
August 30, 2018: HIV Medicine
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