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Pulmonary immunology

Makoto Nakao, Hideki Muramatsu, Sosuke Arakawa, Yusuke Sakai, Yuto Suzuki, Kohei Fujita, Hidefumi Sato
BACKGROUND: Several reports have described the importance of immunological and nutritional factors in the morbidity and/or mortality of patients with tuberculosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between pulmonary cavitation and immunonutritional status, assessed by parameters such as neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and prognostic nutritional index (PNI), in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 137 patients with culture-positive active pulmonary tuberculosis without bacterial pneumonia diagnosed at Kainan Hospital between April 2008 and March 2016...
October 24, 2018: Respiratory Investigation
Daniel M Altmann
Respiratory immunology poses the dual questions of how to grapple with lung infection as one of the greatest unmet global health needs of our time, while also dealing with the growing challenge posed by chronic diseases of excessive or inappropriate lung inflammation and immunity, such as chronic obstructive lung disease and asthma. These separate branches of pulmonary research are linked by the clear observation that, in a tissue as fragile as the lung, protection from microbial attack may come at the cost of chronic inflammatory damage...
January 2019: Immunology
G C Jing, Y Chen, L Wang, D Xu, W J Zheng, M T Li, X F Zeng, F C Zhang
A 45-year-old woman was admitted to the Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, due to weakness of the upper limbs, fever, and blurred vision. She was clinically diagnosed as systemic lupus erythematosus overlapped primary biliary cirrhosis, with renal, retinal, hematological and musculoskeletal involvement, combined with severe pulmonary infection and respiratory failure. Treated with glucocorticoids, ursodeoxycholic acid, antibiotics and respiratory support, the patient got better...
December 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Min Hye Kim, Sang Heon Kim, So Young Park, Ga Young Ban, Joo Hee Kim, Jae Woo Jung, Ji Yong Moon, Woo Jung Song, Hyouk Soo Kwon, Jae Woo Kwon, Jae Hyun Lee, Hye Ryun Kang, Jong Sook Park, Tae Bum Kim, Heung Woo Park, Kwang Ha Yoo, Yeon Mok Oh, Young Il Koh, An Soo Jang, Byung Jae Lee, Young Joo Cho, Sang Heon Cho, Hae Sim Park, Choon Sik Park, Ho Joo Yoon, You Sook Cho
PURPOSE: Although mild to moderate asthma is much more common, the morbidity and mortality of severe asthma are much higher. This study was performed to identify and analyze the clinical characteristics of severe asthma in Korea. METHODS: We registered patients with severe refractory asthma into the Severe Asthma Registry supported by the Severe Asthma Work Group of the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology. Patients were enrolled since 2010 from the 15 university hospitals nationwide in Korea...
January 2019: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Dima A Hammoud, Margaret R Lentz, Abigail Lara, Jordan K Bohannon, Irwin Feuerstein, Louis Huzella, Peter B Jahrling, Matthew Lackemeyer, Joseph Laux, Oscar Rojas, Philip Sayre, Jeffrey Solomon, Yu Cong, Vincent Munster, Michael R Holbrook
Nipah virus (NiV) infection can lead to severe respiratory or neurological disease in humans. Transmission of NiV has been shown to occur through contact with virus contaminated fomites or consumption of contaminated food. Previous results using the African green monkey (AGM) model of NiV infection identified aspects of infection that, while similar to humans, don't fully recapitulate disease. Previous studies also demonstrate near uniform lethality that is not consistent with human NiV infection. In these studies, aerosol exposure using an intermediate particle size (7μm) was used to mimic potential human exposure by facilitating virus deposition in the upper respiratory tract...
November 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Katharina Jandl, Helene Thekkekara Puthenparampil, Leigh M Marsh, Julia Hoffmann, Jochen Wilhelm, Christine Veith, Katharina Sinn, Walter Klepetko, Horst Olschewski, Andrea Olschewski, Matthias Brock, Grazyna Kwapiszewska
In idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH), global transcriptional changes induce a smooth muscle cell phenotype characterized by excessive proliferation, migration and apoptosis resistance. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are key regulators of cellular function. Using a compartment-specific transcriptional profiling approach, we sought to investigate the link between transcriptional reprogramming by lncRNAs and the maladaptive smooth muscle cell phenotype in IPAH. Transcriptional profiling of small remodelled arteries from 18 IPAH patients and 17 controls revealed global perturbations in metabolic, neuronal, proliferative and immunological processes...
November 18, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Mathis Steindor, Vanesa Nkwouano, Anja Stefanski, Kai Stuehler, Thomas Richard Ioerger, David Bogumil, Marc Jacobsen, Colin Rae Mackenzie, Rainer Kalscheuer
The Mycobacterium abscessus complex can cause fatal pulmonary disease, especially in cystic fibrosis patients. Diagnosing M. abscessus complex pulmonary disease is challenging. Immunologic assays specific for M. abscessus are not available. In this study seven clinical M. abscessus complex strains and the M. abscessus reference strain ATCC19977 were used to find species-specific proteins for their use in immune assays. Six strains showed rough and smooth colony morphotypes simultaneously, two strains only showed rough mophotypes, resulting in 14 separate isolates...
November 13, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Martina Vašáková
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) belongs to the most severe and difficult-to-treat lung diseases, with median survival 2-3 years if not treated. The disease arises in genetically disposed individuals of middle and older age based on repeated alveolar injuries. Fibroproliferative healing of these lesions form the pathogenetic background of the disease, leading to the end-stage pulmonary fibrosis. Our knowledge of pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of IPF increases dynamically since the beginning of new millennium...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Cari Stek, Brian Allwood, Naomi F Walker, Robert J Wilkinson, Lutgarde Lynen, Graeme Meintjes
Impaired lung function is common in people with a history of tuberculosis. Host-directed therapy added to tuberculosis treatment may reduce lung damage and result in improved lung function. An understanding of the pathogenesis of pulmonary damage in TB is fundamental to successfully predicting which interventions could be beneficial. In this review, we describe the different features of TB immunopathology that lead to impaired lung function, namely cavities, bronchiectasis, and fibrosis. We discuss the immunological processes that cause lung damage, focusing on studies performed in humans, and using chest radiograph abnormalities as a marker for pulmonary damage...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Wolfgang Angerstein
In about 20 % of the population older than 60 years of age, voice problems (presbyphonia) are manifest, often combined with hearing deficits (presbyacusis), swallowing disorders (presbyphagia), dizziness (presbyvertigo) and/or impaired vision (presbyopia).The singing voice is afflicted more often, earlier and more severely than the speaking voice. But it is not just the vocal quality and capacity that are affected. Due to reduced pulmonary function, the breathing impetus is also weakened. As a result of the descending of the larynx, resonance properties of the vocal tract change in seniors, and there is increased risk of aspiration...
November 2018: Laryngo- Rhino- Otologie
Maria Rotaru, Sanda Marchian, Gyula Laszlo Fekete, Gabriela Mariana Mariana Iancu
Dear Editor, Eczema is an inflammatory dermatitis mediated by cellular immunity, with an etiology in which environmental, immunological, and genetic factors are involved. Skin inflammation through proinflammatory cytokines creates a favorable environment for microbial antigens and optimal conditions for infection (1). In case of underlying immunosuppression, inflammatory features of dermatitis and superimposed infections are more severe. The presence of minor trauma of the skin in the form of fissures can favor both easier inoculation of some bacterial germs, leading to a dermatitis superinfection, and/or the transcutaneous inoculation of atypical mycobacteria, with a possibility of developing localized types of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TLA)...
October 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
Pedro Paulo Teixeira E Silva Torres, Marcelo Fouad Rabahi, Maria Auxiliadora Carmo Moreira, Pablo Rydz Pinheiro Santana, Antônio Carlos Portugal Gomes, Edson Marchiori
Pulmonary fungal infections, which can be opportunistic or endemic, lead to considerable morbidity and mortality. Such infections have multiple clinical presentations and imaging patterns, overlapping with those of various other diseases, complicating the diagnostic approach. Given the immensity of Brazil, knowledge of the epidemiological context of pulmonary fungal infections in the various regions of the country is paramount when considering their differential diagnoses. In addition, defining the patient immunological status will facilitate the identification of opportunistic infections, such as those occurring in patients with AIDS or febrile neutropenia...
September 2018: Radiologia Brasileira
Yusheng Lu, Shu Lian, Yuying Ye, Ting Yu, Haiyan Liang, Yunlong Cheng, Jingjing Xie, Yewei Zhu, Xiaodong Xie, Suhong Yu, Yu Gao, Lee Jia
A perfect microenvironment facilitates the activated circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to spark the adhesion-invasion-extravasation metastatic cascade in their premetastatic niche. Platelet-CTC interaction contributes to the progression of tumor malignancy by protecting CTCs from shear stress and immunological assault, aiding CTCs entrapment in the capillary bed, enabling CTCs to successfully exit the bloodstream and enter the tissue, inducing epithelial-mesenchymal-like transition (EMT), and assisting in the establishment of metastatic foci...
October 23, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Majid Dudha, Zakir Shaikh, Mohammed Bhaiyat, Ishaq J Wadiwala, Zainab-Tasneem Bhaiyat
Echinococcosis, also known as Hydatid disease, is caused by the larvae of the tapeworm Echinococcus. It is globally prevalent and is a major clinical health concern. It is endemic in most underdeveloped regions including Asia, the Mediterranean, South America and Africa. There are four species within the genus Echinococcus, with E. granulosus and E. multilocularis being the most common, causing Cystic Echinococcosis (CE) and Alveolar Echinococcosis (AE). The clinical presentation of the disease is non-specific...
2018: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Delia Goletti, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Thomas J Scriba, Richard Anthony, Daniela Maria Cirillo, Tonino Alonzi, Claudia M Denkinger, Frank Cobelens
Antibiotic treatment of tuberculosis takes ≥6 months, putting a major burden on patients and health systems in large parts of the world. Treatment beyond 2 months is needed to prevent tuberculosis relapse by clearing remaining, drug-tolerant Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli. However, the majority of patients treated for only 2-3 months will cure without relapse and do not need prolonged treatment. Assays that can identify these patients at an early stage of treatment may significantly help reduce the treatment burden, while a test to identify those patients who will fail treatment may help target host-directed therapies...
November 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
Colin M Suen, Ketul R Chaudhary, Yupu Deng, Baohua Jiang, Duncan J Stewart
INTRODUCTION: The ability of the right ventricle (RV) to adapt to increased afterload is the major determinant of survival in patients with pulmonary hypertension. In this study, we explored the effect of genetic background on RV adaptation and survival in a rat model of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). METHODS AND RESULTS: PH was induced by a single injection of SU5416 (SU) in age-matched Sprague-Dawley (SD) or Fischer rats, followed by a 3-week exposure to chronic hypoxia (SUHx)...
October 24, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Sachiko Yamaguchi, Aya Nambu, Takafumi Numata, Takamichi Yoshizaki, Seiko Narushima, Eri Shimura, Yoshihisa Hiraishi, Ken Arae, Hideaki Morita, Kenji Matsumoto, Ichiro Hisatome, Katsuko Sudo, Susumu Nakae
IL-17C, which is a member of the IL-17 family of cytokines, is preferentially produced by epithelial cells in the lung, skin and colon, suggesting that IL-17C may be involved in not only host defense but also inflammatory diseases in those tissues. In support of that, IL-17C was demonstrated to contribute to development of T cell-dependent imiquimod-induced psoriatic dermatitis and T cell-independent dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis using mice deficient in IL-17C and/or IL-17RE, which is a component of the receptor for IL-17C...
October 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yori Gidron, Reginald Deschepper, Marijke De Couck, Julian F Thayer, Brigitte Velkeniers
Global burden of diseases (GBD) includes non-communicable conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These share important behavioral risk factors (e.g., smoking, diet) and pathophysiological contributing factors (oxidative stress, inflammation and excessive sympathetic activity). This article wishes to introduce to medicine and public health a new paradigm to predict, understand, prevent and possibly treat such diseases based on the science of neuro-immunology and specifically by focusing on vagal neuro-modulation...
October 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Calixte Ida Penda, Else Carole Eboumbou Moukoko, Nicolas Policarpe Nolla, Nadia Olivia Abomo Evindi, Paul Koki Ndombo
Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of malnutrition among HIV infected children under five years of age followed up at the Laquintinie Hospital Douala (LHD). Methods: Medical records of children aged 13 days-59 months enrolled at initiation of antiretroviral treatment in the Day Care Unit/LHD, were reviewed for a period of 14 years (from 2002 to 2015). We used standard Z-scores, with cut-off point of <-2 SD to define low height-for-age (HAZ), low weight-for-height (WHZ) and low weight-for-age (WAZ)...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
X Y Guo, H Shao, Y Y Zhao
To investigate the pathophysiology, screening, diagnosis and treatment of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension. Retrospective analysis was made of one case of SLE in pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension in Peking University Third Hospital. Literature was reviewed to investigate the pathophysiology, screening, diagnosis and treatment of the SLE in pregnancy complicated with pulmonary hypertension. SLE is an autoimmune mediated diffuse connective tissue disease characterized by immunological inflammation...
October 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
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