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DNase And Cancer

Yasser Hussein Eissa Mohammed, Shaukath Ara Khanum
In modern biology, one of the major topics of importance is progress in anti-cancer drugs with specific targets. The angiopreventive and in vitro tumor inhibition activities of novel synthetic benzophenone analogs have been investigated intensively and explored in a very systematic way. Novel benzophenone analogs ( 9a-d and 10a-d ) substituted with methyl, chloro and fluoro groups at different positions on an identical chemical backbone and incorporating variations in the number of substituents have been synthesized in a multistep process and characterized...
April 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Marcello Monti, Viviana De Rosa, Francesca Iommelli, Maria Vincenza Carriero, Cristina Terlizzi, Rosa Camerlingo, Stefania Belli, Rosa Fonti, Giovanni Di Minno, Silvana Del Vecchio
Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), in addition to their function as a host defense mechanism, play a relevant role in thrombus formation and metastatic dissemination of cancer cells. Here we screened different cancer cell lines endogenously expressing a variety of integrins for their ability to bind to NETs. To this end, we used NETs isolated from neutrophil-like cells as a substrate for adhesion assays of HT1080, U-87 MG, H1975, DU 145, PC-3 and A-431 cells. Levels of α5, αIIb, αv, β1, β3 and β5 chains were determined by western blot analysis in all cell lines and levels of whole integrins on the plasma membrane were assessed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis...
August 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lee A Hadwiger, Kiwamu Tanaka
Over the last decades, medical research has utilized DNA altering procedures in cancer treatments with the objective of killing cells or suppressing cell proliferation. Simultaneous research related to enhancing disease resistance in plants reported that alterations in DNA can enhance defense responses. These two opposite perspectives have in common their effects on the center for gene transcription, the nuclear chromatin. A review of selected research from both anticancer- and plant defense-related research provides examples of some specific DNA altering actions: DNA helical distortion, DNA intercalation, DNA base substitution, DNA single cleavage by DNases, DNA alkylation/methylation, and DNA binding/exclusion...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Evgenii A Lekchnov, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Ol'ga D Zakharova, Sergey E Sedykh, Valentina N Buneva, Georgy A Nevinsky
OBJECTIVE: Since during pregnancy and lactation women tend to develop autoimmune processes, characterization of placenta immunoglobulins and their possible catalytic functions is a very important step towards understanding the function of placenta. METHODS: ELISA, affinity chromatography, SDS-PAGE and MALDI mass spectrometry were used. RESULTS: It was shown, that ten placentas contain in average 1.1 ± 0.33 mg IgGs/g of placenta and 0...
August 2018: Placenta
Xin Wei, Lili Yu, Xuefei Jin, Lide Song, Yanting Lv, Yuping Han
Prostate cancer is a type of adenocarcinoma arising from the peripheral zone of the prostate gland, and metastasized prostate cancer is incurable with the current available therapies. The present study aimed to identify open chromosomal regions and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with prostate cancer development. The DNase sequencing data (GSE33216) and RNA sequencing data (GSE22260) were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. DNase I hypersensitive sites were detected and analyzed...
August 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yan Gao, Xian Du, Jing Zeng, Ruimin Wu, Yijia Chen, Fuyan Li, Wei Li, Hong Zhou, Yi Yang, Zhijun Pei
The glycoprotein dickkopf 1 (DKK1) is highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines and tissues. Our previous study demonstrated that DKK1 promoter activity is low in lung cancer cell lines. This may be because it lacks the necessary transcriptional regulatory elements (TREs) required for higher activity levels. However, it is difficult to computationally predict functionally significant TREs, as TREs from different locations can affect large segments of distant DNA. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project features multiple integrated technologies and approaches for the discovery and definition of functional elements, including enhancer elements and enhancer-blocking insulators...
July 2018: Oncology Letters
Chiara Botto, Giuseppa Augello, Erika Amore, Maria Rita Emma, Antonina Azzolina, Gennara Cavallaro, Melchiorre Cervello, Maria Luisa Bondì
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most important causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Gene therapy is a novel approach for treating HCC. A safe and efficient gene delivery method, using viral or non-viral vectors, is a crucial factor for developing a successful HCC gene therapy. Among non-viral vectors, cationic solid lipid nanoparticles (cSLN) have advantages such as biocompatibility and transfection efficiency. In this study, novel cSLN were prepared, characterized and complexed with a plasmid (shNUPR1) capable of inhibiting the expression of the NUPR1 gene, which is involved in HCC growth and chemoresistance...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Eugenia Fraile-Bethencourt, Alberto Valenzuela-Palomo, Beatriz Díez-Gómez, Mar Infante, Mercedes Durán, Germán Marcos, Enrique Lastra, Susana Gómez-Barrero, Eladio A Velasco
PURPOSE: Promoter mutations may affect transcription and can be associated with human diseases. However, the promoters of the breast cancer (BC) genes are not regularly screened. Our goal was to investigate the BRCA2 promoter in order to study a possible correlation between impaired transcription and disease. METHODS: The proximal and core promoter of the BRCA2 gene was sequenced in 95 high-risk BC patients. A BRCA2-promoter insert [- 938 to + 312 from the transcription start site (TSS)] was generated and cloned into the firefly luciferase vector pGL4...
May 15, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Joanna Klim, Arkadiusz Gładki, Roza Kucharczyk, Urszula Zielenkiewicz, Szymon Kaczanowski
Apoptotic cell death is a type of eukaryotic cell death. In animals, it regulates development, is involved in cancer suppression, and causes cell death during pathological aging of neuronal cells in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's. Mitochondrial apoptotic-like cell death, a form of primordial apoptosis, also occurs in unicellular organisms. Here, we ask the question why the apoptosis machinery has been acquired and maintained in unicellular organisms and attempt to answer it by performing ancestral state reconstruction...
May 31, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Woong-Gil Hong, Gyeong-Won Jeong, Jae-Woon Nah
Branched polyethylenimine (bPEI) was well known as high transfection agent, which has many amine group. However, utilization of bPEI was limited due to high toxicity. To solve these problems, bPEI was introduced to low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan (LMWSC) with coupling agent. In addition, hyaluronic acid (HA), one of natural anion polymer, was introduced to binary complex of pDNA/bPEI-grafted LMWSC (LMPEI) to target the specific cancer cell and impart the serum resistant. Ternary complexes of pDNA/LMPEI/HA were prepared by electrostatic charge interaction and their binding affinity and DNase protection assay were conducted by gel retardation assay...
August 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hui Wang, Hui Chen, Zhipeng Huang, Tengda Li, Anmei Deng, Jilie Kong
Exosomes have proved to be an effective cancer biomarker with significant potential, and several cell-specific molecules have been found in colorectal cancer (CRC) exosomes. Nevertheless, it is challenging to use exosomes in clinical lab diagnostics due to their nanoscale and the lack of a convenient and effective detection platform. Here, we developed a DNase I enzyme-aided fluorescence amplification method for CRC exosome detection, based on graphene oxide (GO)-DNA aptamer (CD63 and EpCAM aptamers) interactions...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Jason Pizzollo, William J Nielsen, Yoichiro Shibata, Alexias Safi, Gregory E Crawford, Gregory A Wray, Courtney C Babbitt
Humans experience higher rates of age-associated diseases than our closest living evolutionary relatives, chimpanzees. Environmental factors can explain many of these increases in disease risk, but species-specific genetic changes can also play a role. Alleles that confer increased disease susceptibility later in life can persist in a population in the absence of selective pressure if those changes confer positive adaptation early in life. One age-associated disease that disproportionately affects humans compared with chimpanzees is epithelial cancer...
March 1, 2018: Genome Biology and Evolution
Shenghao Xu, Yongyin Nie, Liping Jiang, Jun Wang, Guiyun Xu, Wei Wang, Xiliang Luo
A novel fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based platform using polydopamine nanospheres (PDANSs) as energy acceptors and dual colored Au NCs as energy donors for simultaneous detection of multiple tumor-related microRNAs with DNase-I-assisted target recycling amplification was developed for the first time. On the basis of monitoring the change of the recovered fluorescence intensity at 445 and 575 nm upon the addition of targets miRNA-21 and let-7a, these two microRNAs (miRNAs) can be simultaneously quantitatively detected, with detection limits of 4...
March 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Rahmi Oklu, Rahul A Sheth, Keith H K Wong, Amin H Jahromi, Hassan Albadawi
Background: A single center, prospective tissue-based study was conducted to investigate an association between neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and venous thromboembolic disease in patients with malignancy. Methods: Plasma was collected from 65 patients in which 27 were cancer patients and 38 were age-matched non-cancer patients. Plasma NETs, circulating free DNA (cfDNA), DNase-1, endonuclease-G, endonuclease activity and thrombin-antithrombin III (TAT) complex levels was quantified...
December 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
Rihito Kanamaru, Hideyuki Ohzawa, Hideyo Miyato, Shiro Matsumoto, Hidenori Haruta, Kentaro Kurashina, Shin Saito, Yoshinori Hosoya, Hironori Yamaguchi, Hiroharu Yamashita, Yasuyuki Seto, Alan Kawarai Lefor, Naohiro Sata, Joji Kitayama
Many types of immune cells appear in peritoneal cavity after abdominal surgery. In patients who underwent laparotomy due to gastric cancer, peritoneal lavages were obtained before and after surgical procedure. Cells were recovered from intermediate layer after Ficoll-Hypaque centrifugation and analyzed for phenotypes and functions, especially focused on low density neutrophils (LDN). The number of CD66b (+) LDN with mature phenotype was markedly elevated in postoperative as compared with preoperative lavages...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
J Wu, Y Cai, G Zhao
Estradiol (E2) is the most potent estrogen and RNA polymerase II (Pol II) regulates a great mass of gene expression. This study was designed to illustrate the mechanisms of estrogen-dependent human breast cancer (BC) through Pol II. ChIP-seq data, DNase-seq data and other sequencing data of human BC MCF-7 cells were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Each of these datasets included one control and one E2 treated sample. Sequence alignment was performed and Pol II factor binding signal was determined...
2018: Neoplasma
Yumi Sunatani, Radhika Pankaj Kamdar, Mukesh Kumar Sharma, Tadashi Matsui, Ryo Sakasai, Mitsumasa Hashimoto, Yasuhito Ishigaki, Yoshihisa Matsumoto, Kuniyoshi Iwabuchi
X-ray repair cross-complementing group 4 (XRCC4), a repair protein for DNA double-strand breaks, is cleaved by caspases during apoptosis. In this study, we examined the role of XRCC4 in apoptosis. Cell lines, derived from XRCC4-deficient M10 mouse lymphoma cells and stably expressing wild-type XRCC4 or caspase-resistant XRCC4, were established and treated with staurosporine (STS) to induce apoptosis. In STS-induced apoptosis, expression of wild-type, but not caspase-resistant, XRCC4 in XRCC4-deficient cells enhanced oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation and the appearance of TUNEL-positive cells by promoting nuclear translocation of caspase-activated DNase (CAD), a major nuclease for oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation...
January 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Ling-Ling Zheng, Ke-Ren Zhou, Shun Liu, Ding-Yao Zhang, Ze-Lin Wang, Zhi-Rong Chen, Jian-Hua Yang, Liang-Hu Qu
Although thousands of pseudogenes have been annotated in the human genome, their transcriptional regulation, expression profiles and functional mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we developed dreamBase ( to facilitate the investigation of DNA modification, RNA regulation and protein binding of potential expressed pseudogenes from multidimensional high-throughput sequencing data. Based on ∼5500 ChIP-seq and DNase-seq datasets, we identified genome-wide binding profiles of various transcription-associated factors around pseudogene loci...
January 4, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Saurabh Pandey, Erle S Robertson
In cancer progression, metastasis is a major cause of poor survival of patients and can be targeted for therapeutic interventions. The first discovered metastatic-suppressor Nm23-H1 possesses nucleoside diphosphate kinase, histidine kinase, and DNase activity as a broad-spectrum enzyme. Recent advances in cancer metastasis have opened new ways for the development of therapeutic molecular approaches. In this review, we provide a summary of the current understanding of Nm23/NDPKs in the context of viral oncogenesis...
February 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Jessica Cedervall, Anca Dragomir, Falk Saupe, Yanyu Zhang, Johan Ärnlöv, Erik Larsson, Anna Dimberg, Anders Larsson, Anna-Karin Olsson
Renal insufficiency is a frequent cancer-associated problem affecting more than half of all cancer patients at the time of diagnosis. To minimize nephrotoxic effects the dosage of anticancer drugs are reduced in these patients, leading to sub-optimal treatment efficacy. Despite the severity of this cancer-associated pathology, the molecular mechanisms, as well as therapeutic options, are still largely lacking. We here show that formation of intravascular tumor-induced neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is a cause of kidney injury in tumor-bearing mice...
2017: Oncoimmunology
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