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Clinical nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912811/innovations-in-energy-expenditure-assessment
#1
Najate Achamrah, Taku Oshima, Laurence Genton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optimal nutritional therapy has been associated with better clinical outcomes and requires providing energy as closed as possible to measured energy expenditure. We reviewed the current innovations in energy expenditure assessment in humans, focusing on indirect calorimetry and other new alternative methods. RECENT FINDINGS: Although considered the reference method to measure energy expenditure, the use of indirect calorimetry is currently limited by the lack of an adequate device...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912810/categorizing-and-qualifying-nutritional-lipidomic-data-defining-brutto-medio-genio-and-infinio-lipid-species-within-macrolipidomics-and-microlipidomics
#2
Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Ryan M Bradley, Robin E Duncan, Ken D Stark
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lipidomic profiling of biological samples is increasing in nutritional research applications. 'Lipidomic analyses' however can be quite variable in specific methods and the type of information about the specific lipids that is revealed. The lack of defined and simple terminology to describe aspects of lipidomics presents a challenge in the use of lipidomics across interdisciplinary research groups. RECENT FINDINGS: We propose the use of macrolipidomics and microlipidomics to define lipidomic strategies based on analytical outcomes...
June 15, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912762/oral-and-otorhinolaryngological-findings-in-adults-who-were-diagnosed-with-pediatric-onset-crohn-s-disease-a-controlled-study
#3
Anu Haaramo, Heikki Alapulli, Liisa Aine, Jetta Tuokkola, Ulla Saarnisto, Risto P Roine, Anne Pitkäranta, Kaija-Leena Kolho
BACKGROUND: Up to 50% of pediatric patients with Crohn's disease (CD) report oral manifestations, but less is known about their oral health when they become adults. GOALS: Our aim was to provide detailed descriptions of the presence of oral and otorhinolaryngological manifestations in patients with pediatric onset CD once they reached adulthood, to look for predisposing factors and to compare the findings to matched controls. STUDY: Adult patients diagnosed with CD in childhood at the Children's Hospital, University of Helsinki, Finland, after 2000 were invited for a follow-up appointment in 2016 and 24 were examined by a dentist and otorhinolaryngologist...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912757/dietary-interventions-in-liver-cirrhosis
#4
Chu Kion Yao, James Fung, Natural Hoi Sing Chu, Victoria Ping Yi Tan
Liver cirrhosis is associated with significant nutritional risks that often result in serious hepatic complications and poor survival rates. Diet is an important but underutilized aspect in the treatment modality of cirrhosis. Therefore, the aims of this review are to ascertain nutritional risks associated with its pathophysiology and to summarize existing evidence that support dietary recommendations for managing this patient population. Alterations in substrate utilization for energy production is a main feature of liver cirrhosis, resulting in increased catabolism of protein stores and a predisposition toward protein-energy malnutrition, even in the early stages of the disease...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908686/advanced-practice-nursing-nutrition-nurse-specialist-role-and-function
#5
Kurt Boeykens, Ann Van Hecke
BACKGROUND: Different disciplines should be represented in Nutritional Support Teams, e.g. a physician, dietician, pharmacist and a nurse. The latter one can function as an Advanced Practice Nurse, which implicates that he or she must have sufficiently thorough knowledge, attitudes and competences to fulfill the profile of a nutritional expert in the field of clinical nutrition. METHODS: Description of the scope of practice, education and added value related to a Nutrition Support Nurse, based on detailed published competency profiles...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908680/interactions-between-dietary-inflammatory-index-nutritional-state-and-multiple-sclerosis-clinical-condition
#6
Bruna Yhang Da Costa Silva, Helena Alves De Carvalho Sampaio, Nitin Shivappa, James Hébert, Larissa Da Silva Albuquerque, Antônio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, José Artur Costa D'Almeida, Carla Soraya Costa Maia, Maria Luisa Pereira De Melo
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) consists of a tool that assesses dietary inflammatory potential based on the assignment of an inflammatory score to a variety of nutrients, seasonings and bioactive compounds. Pro-inflammatory diets are associated to weight and abdominal fat excess. High Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) seem to contribute to a worse prognosis in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) patients. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate the relation between anthropometric indexes and body adiposity with the clinical condition and the Dietary Inflammatory Index of MS individuals...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908679/a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study-to-evaluate-the-clinical-characteristics-and-nutritional-status-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#7
Kursad Aydin
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study was designed to assess clinical characteristics and nutritional status of pediatric outpatients with cerebral palsy (CP) and to determine prevalence of malnutrition based on physicians' clinical judgment and on anthropometric data in relation to percentile reference values. METHODS: A total of 1108 pediatric neurology outpatients (mean ± SEM age: 7.2 ± 0.1 years, 59.3% were males) diagnosed with CP were included in this cross-sectional, non-interventional multicenter single-visit study conducted between October 2015 and July 2016 at 20 centers across Turkey...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908677/diagnosing-clinical-malnutrition-perspectives-from-the-past-and-implications-for-the-future
#8
Levi M Teigen, Adam J Kuchnia, Emily M Nagel, Kathleen L Price, Ryan T Hurt, Carrie P Earthman
This review, intended for both researchers and clinicians, provides a history of the definition of clinical malnutrition. Despite global efforts, we remain without one clear, objective, internationally accepted definition; clarity in this regard will ultimately improve our evaluation and monitoring of nutritional status to achieve optimal patient outcomes. In this review we explore the development of the term malnutrition and its diagnosis and application in the setting of acute and chronic disease. We begin in the second century A...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907941/the-clinical-outcome-of-postoperative-invasive-fungal-infections-complicating-laparoscopic-sleeve-gastrectomy
#9
Yoav Bichovsky, Leonid Koyfman, Michael Friger, Boris Kirshtein, Abraham Borer, Gilbert Sebbag, Dmitry Frank, Amit Frenkel, Jochanan G Peiser, Moti Klein, Evgeni Brotfain
PURPOSE: Peritonitis is a major complication of bariatric surgery due to direct damage to the natural barriers to infection. Most such secondary peritoneal infections are caused by Gram-negative microorganisms; however, under certain conditions, Candida species can infect the peritoneal cavity following bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and microbiological data of morbidly obese patients who suffered infectious complications following laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) at the Soroka Medical Center between January 2010 and June 2015...
June 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907450/altered-maternal-and-placental-lipid-metabolism-and-fetal-fat-development-in-obesity-current-knowledge-and-advances-in-non-invasive-assessment
#10
Flavien Delhaes, Stephanie A Giza, Tianna Koreman, Genevieve Eastabrook, Charles A McKenzie, Samantha Bedell, Timothy R H Regnault, Barbra de Vrijer
Abnormal maternal lipid profiles, a hallmark of increased maternal adiposity, are associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and offspring long-term metabolic health is impacted as the consequence of altered fetal growth, physiology and often iatrogenic prematurity. The metabolic changes associated with maternal obesity and/or the consumption of a high-fat diet effecting maternal lipid profiles and metabolism have also been documented to specifically affect placental function and may underlie changes in fetal development and life course disease risk...
May 26, 2018: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907379/prediction-of-prognosis-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-respiratory-failure-a-comparison-of-three-nutritional-assessment-methods
#11
Ruiqi Chen, Lu Xing, Chao You, Xuemei Ou
OBJECTIVES: Due to their increased energy expenditure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with respiratory failure are susceptible to malnutrition. This study aimed to compare the predictive values of the following three widely used nutritional assessment methods for the clinical prognosis of COPD patients with respiratory failure: body mass index (BMI), Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS 2002), and serum albumin (ALB) level. METHODS: COPD patients with respiratory failure treated in our center from June 2013 to June 2016 were retrospectively included...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906312/successful-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-with-crushed-elbasvir-grazoprevir-administered-via-a-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-tube
#12
J E Yap, P Jaiswal, L Ton, R Szynkarek, B M Attar, S Gandhi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Elbasvir/grazoprevir is an all-oral regimen approved for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes 1 and 4, and in renal insufficiency. However, to date, no data exist on the efficacy of this regimen when it is crushed and administered through a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube. Here, we illustrate the case of a 63-year-old man who is the only known patient with HCV infection in the English literature to have successfully achieved a sustained viral response (SVR) when elbasvir/grazoprevir oral combination was administered through a PEG tube...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905824/milk-powder-added-to-a-school-meal-increases-cognitive-test-scores-in-ghanaian-children
#13
Reginald Lee, Lauren Singh, Danielle van Liefde, Meghan Callaghan-Gillespie, Matilda Steiner-Asiedu, Kwesi Saalia, Carly Edwards, Anja Serena, Tamara Hershey, Mark J Manary
Background: The inclusion of milk in school feeding is accepted as good nutritional practice, but specific benefits remain uncertain. Objective: The objective was to determine whether consumption of 8.8 g milk protein/d given as milk powder with a multiple micronutrient-enriched porridge resulted in greater increases in linear growth and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) scores in Ghanaian schoolchildren when compared with 1 of 3 control groups...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905537/surgical-treatment-of-bening-esophageal-strictures-after-corrosive-injuries
#14
V Boyko, S Savvi, A Korolevska, V Zhydetskyy, Y Novikov, S Bytiak, D Shuba
The research is based on the results of the examination and treatment of 156 patients who received treatment for extended benign esophageal strictures after corrosive injuries in the department of diseases of the esophagus and the gastrointestinal tract of the State Institution "V. T. Zaitsev Institute of General and Urgent Surgery of NAMS of Ukraine" for the period from 2000 to 2016. Surgical treatment by the developed in our hospital technique performed in the patients of the main group and the classical methods of surgery were used in the patients of comparison group...
May 2018: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905081/is-excretion-of-sulfur-metabolites-related-to-risk-of-cardiovascular-events-or-mortality-in-the-general-population
#15
Joost van den Born, Anne M Koning, Anne-Roos Frenay, Matthias Bachtler, Ineke Riphagen, Isidor Minovic, Martin Feelisch, Marinda Dekker, Marian Bulthuis, Ron Gansevoort, Jan-Luuk Hillebrands, Andreas Pasch, Stephan Bakker, Harry van Goor
Thiosulfate and sulfate are natural dietary constituents, as well as oxidative metabolites of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a gaseous signaling molecule with cardiovascular protective properties. Urinary thiosulfate and sulfate excretion are associated with favorable disease outcome in high-risk patients. In our large, general population based cohort neither thiosulfate, nor sulfate excretion is associated with risk of cardiovascular events. However, sulfate, but not thiosulfate, excretion, is inversely associated with risk of all-cause mortality...
June 15, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904444/the-impact-of-nutritional-status-and-complete-blood-count-parameters-on-clinical-outcome-in-geriatric-critically-ill-patients
#16
Abdulkerim Yildiz, Ali Yigit, Ali Ramazan Benli
Background: The geriatric population in intensive care units (ICUs) has recently increased. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of initial complete blood count (CBC)-related parameters and nutritional status on morbidity and mortality in geriatric ICU patients. Methods: A retrospective analysis was made of geriatric patients admitted to our tertiary adult ICU for 1 year. Patients with a length of stay (LOS) of < 48 h, with hematological malignancy or age < 65 years age were excluded from the study...
July 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904295/deaths-associated-with-insertion-of-nasogastric-tubes-for-enteral-nutrition-in-the-medical-intensive-care-unit-clinical-and-autopsy-findings
#17
Avery L Smith, Carol A Santa Ana, John S Fordtran, Joseph M Guileyardo
It is generally assumed that blind insertion of nasogastric tubes for enteral nutrition in patients admitted to medical intensive care units is safe; that is, does not result in life-threatening injury. If death occurs in temporal association with insertion of a nasogastric tube, caregivers typically attribute it to underlying diseases, with little or no consideration of iatrogenic death due to tube insertion. The clinical and autopsy results in three recent cases at Baylor University Medical Center challenge the validity of these notions...
July 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903644/high-parathyroid-hormone-levels-are-associated-with-osteosarcopenia-in-older-individuals-with-a-history-of-falling
#18
Pushpa Suriyaarachchi, Fernando Gomez, Carmen L Curcio, Derek Boersma, Lavanya Murthy, Vivian Grill, Gustavo Duque
OBJECTIVES: The combination of osteopenia/osteoporosis and sarcopenia (osteosarcopenia) defines a diagnostic subset of individuals at higher risk of falls, fractures and institutionalization. In this study we aimed to assess the potential role of high serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) in osteosarcopenia. We hypothesized that a high PTH level is one of the major determinants of this syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in 400 subjects (mean age = 79, 65% women) assessed between 2009 and 2014 at the Falls and Fractures Clinic, Nepean Hospital (Penrith, Australia)...
July 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903605/a-retrospective-evaluation-of-nutrition-support-in-relation-to-clinical-outcomes-in-critically-ill-patients-with-an-open-abdomen
#19
Rosalie Yandell, Susan Wang, Peter Bautz, Alison Shanks, Stephanie O'Connor, Adam Deane, Kylie Lange, Marianne Chapman
BACKGROUND: Optimising nutrition support in critically ill patients with an open abdomen is challenging. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to (i) quantify the amount and adequacy of nutrition support administered and (ii) determine any relationships that exist between mode of nutrition support delivery and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with an open abdomen. METHODS: A retrospective review of critically ill patients mechanically ventilated for at least 48 h with an open abdomen in a mixed quaternary referral intensive care unit...
June 11, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903177/-concentration-of-red-blood-cell-folate-and-the-analysis-of-folic-acid-supplement-optimum-time-and-dose-in-first-trimester
#20
Yue Teng, Jingmiao Hu, Shan Dong, Lixia Zhang, Xin Lu, Haishan Yang
OBJECTIVE: To have a knowledge of prevalent red blood cell folate concentration in Beijing and analyzes optimum time and dose of folic acid supplement. To provide the basis data for making public health policy and clinical consultation. METHODS: This study included 3458 pregnant women who visited nutrition outpatient of the Haidian Maternal and Child Health Hospital in Beijing in first trimester. Their last menstrual period is between 1st Feb 2014 and 31 st Jan 2016...
July 2017: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
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