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A. Baumannii

Shu-Yi Lin, Zheng-Hao Huang, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Deh-Ming Chang, Chun-Chi Lu
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) pneumonia with severe sepsis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who is predisposed after treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFI), is a rare severe infection and can be successfully treated with prompt antibiotics. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman was diagnosed with RA >30 years previously. After inadequate treatment responses to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), she developed progressive RA, including swollen joints in both hands, and had a high disease activity score of 4...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sarah E Anderson, Edgar X Sherman, David S Weiss, Philip N Rather
Heteroresistance is a phenomenon where a subpopulation of cells exhibits higher levels of antibiotic resistance than the general population. Analysis of tobramycin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 using Etest strips demonstrated that colonies with increased resistance arose at high frequency within the zone of growth inhibition. The presence of a resistant subpopulation was confirmed by population analysis profiling (PAP). The tobramycin-resistant subpopulation was cross resistant to gentamicin but not amikacin...
August 15, 2018: MSphere
Smiline As Girija, Vijayashree Priyadharsini Jayaseelan, Paramasivam Arumugam
Carbapenems are administered as the final drug of choice for treating complicated nosocomial infections caused by multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii strains. It is currently a worldwide issue that metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) as carbapenem-hydrolyzing enzymes are one of the major drug resistance mechanisms. This investigation is thus aimed to assess the prevalence and characterize the MBL-producing strains of A. baumannii both by phenotypic assays and by genotypic characterization. A total of 73 isolates of A...
August 16, 2018: Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
M Trisha C Ang, Roger Gumbau-Brisa, David S Allan, Robert McDonald, Michael J Ferguson, Bruce E Holbein, Matthias Bierenstiel
Depriving microorganisms of bioavailable iron is a promising strategy for new anti-infective agents. The new, highly water-soluble, low molecular weight co-polymer DIBI was developed to selectively bind iron(iii) ions as a tris chelate and acts as a standalone anti-infective. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) studies show DIBI is effective against representative reference strains for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria S. aureus and A. baumannii , and the fungus C. albicans . Compared to the small molecule iron chelators, deferiprone and deferoxamine, DIBI outclassed these by factors of 100 to 1000 for inhibition of initial growth...
July 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Rong Wang, Shuang Hou, Xiaojing Dong, Daijie Chen, Lei Shao, Liujia Qian, Zhong Li, Xiaoyong Xu
A series of fused bicyclic 2-aminothiazolyl compounds were synthesized and evaluated for their synergistic effects with polymyxin B (PB) against Klebsiella pneumoniae (SIPI-KPN-1712). Some of the synthesized compounds exhibited synergistic activity. When 4 μg ml-1 compound B1 was combined with PB, it showed potent antibacterial activity, achieving 64-fold reduction of the MIC of PB. Furthermore, compound B1 showed prominent synergistic efficacy in both concentration gradient and time-kill curves in vitro ...
November 1, 2017: MedChemComm
Anastasiya A Kasimova, Johanna J Kenyon, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Alexander S Shashkov, Anastasiya V Popova, Mikhail M Shneider, Yuriy A Knirel, Ruth M Hall
Infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from the major global clones, GC1 and GC2, are difficult to treat with antibiotics, and phage therapy, which requires extensive knowledge of the variation in the surface polysaccharides, is an option under consideration. The gene clusters directing synthesis of capsular polysaccharide (CPS) in A. baumannii GC1 isolate A388 and GC2 isolate G21 differ by a single glycosyltransferase (gtr) gene. They include genes encoding a novel UDP-glucose dehydrogenase (Ugd2) and a putative pyruvyltransferase (Ptr2)...
August 9, 2018: Glycobiology
Tuğba K Atik, Bülent Atik, Osman Kilinç, Bayhan Bektöre, Hülya Duran, Burak M Selek, Nihan Ceken, Orhan Baylan, Mustafa Özyurt
OBJECTIVES: To reveal the relationship between clinical and environmental isolates, analyzing both phenotypic and molecular aspects, in an Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) epidemic, and to use the epidemiological data to determine the source of the epidemic, to identify potential risk factors, and inform the effort to prevent and manage future epidemics. METHODS: Acinetobacter baumannii was isolated from 5 clinical samples in Sultan Abdulhamid Han Training and Research hospital, Istanbul, Turkey, for a week period...
August 2018: Saudi Medical Journal
Arunkumar Karunanidhi, Ehsanollah Ghaznavi-Rad, Rukman Awang Hamat, Mallikarjuna Rao Pichika, Leslie Than Thian Lung, Fazlin Mohd Fauzi, Sridevi Chigurupati, Alex van Belkum, Vasanthakumari Neela
The present study assessed the in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of hexane (ASHE) and dichloromethane (ASDE) extracts of Allium stipitatum (Persian shallot) against planktonic cells and biofilm structures of clinically significant antibiotic resistant pathogens, with a special emphasis on methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), and emerging pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia . Antibacterial activities were determined through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill kinetics, and electron microscopy...
2018: BioMed Research International
Yan Liu, Zenghui Pu, Maomao Zhao
A 70-year-old woman was adimittetd with subarachnoid haemorrhage. The patient underwent cerebral aneurysm embolization. On hospital day 14, the patient underwent a lumbar subarachnoid continuous drain insertion because of fever and enlarged ventricles were showed on the head computed tomography. On hospital day 19, the patient presented with remittent fever (peak at 39.1 °C) associated with altered mental status. Cerebro-Spinal Fluid (CSF) revealed white blood cell (WBC) count of 53484/mm3 (polymorphonucleocytes,75...
August 13, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Marcelo Pillonetto, Lavinia Arend, Suzie M T Gomes, Marluce A A Oliveira, Loeci N Timm, Andreza F Martins, Afonso L Barth, Alana Mazzetti, Lena Hersemann, Theo H M Smits, Marcelo T Mira, Fabio Rezzonico
BACKGROUND: Between November 2013 and June 2014, 56 cases of bacteremia (15 deaths) associated with the use of Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN) and/or calcium gluconate (CG) were reported in four Brazilian states. METHODS: We analyzed 73 bacterial isolates from four states: 45 from blood, 25 from TPN and three from CG, originally identified as Acinetobacter baumannii, Rhizobium radiobacter, Pantoea sp. or Enterobacteriaceae using molecular methods. RESULTS: The first two bacterial species were confirmed while the third group of species could not be identified using standard identification protocols...
August 13, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
I-Ling Cheng, Yu-Hung Chen, Chih-Cheng Lai, Hung-Jen Tang
This meta-analysis aims to compare intravenous colistin monotherapy and colistin-based combination therapy against carbapenem-resistant gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were searched up to July 2018. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating colistin alone and colistin-based combination therapy in the treatment of carbapenem-resistant GNB infections were included. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Five RCTs including 791 patients were included...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Alexander S Shashkov, Johanna J Kenyon, Nikolay P Arbatsky, Mikhail M Shneider, Anastasiya V Popova, Yuriy A Knirel, Ruth M Hall
The KL53 capsular polysaccharide (CPS) gene cluster of Acinetobacter baumannii D23 was sequenced, and includes a single gtr gene encoding the glycosyltransferase Gtr2, and the itrA1 gene for ItrA1 that is known to initiate CPS biosynthesis with d-QuiNAc4NAc. The K53 CPS was isolated and studied by one- and two-dimensional 1 H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy before and after O-deacetylation. The disaccharide K unit of the CPS was established as →3)-α-d-GalpNAcA4Ac-(1→3)-β-d-QuipNAc4NAc-(1→, where GalNAcA and QuiNAc4NAc indicate 2-acetamido-2-deoxygalacturonic acid and 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxyglucose, respectively...
August 13, 2018: Microbiology
Agnese Lupo, Marisa Haenni, Jean-Yves Madec
The nonfermenting bacteria belonging to Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. are capable of colonizing both humans and animals and can also be opportunistic pathogens. More specifically, the species Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been recurrently reported as multidrug-resistant and even pandrug-resistant in clinical isolates. Both species were categorized among the ESKAPE pathogens, ESKAPE standing for Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , A. baumannii , P...
June 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
M Khatami, N Zafarnia, M Heydarpoor Bami, I Sharifi, H Singh
With increase in isolation of multi and extensive drug resistance hospital pathogens (MDR, XDR) in burn centers of many hospitals in the world, attempt to use nanomaterials for treatment of burn-infected patients is the focus of researches all around the world. In the present investigation silver nanospheres (Ag NSs) has been synthesized by chicory seed exudates (CSE). The various parameters influencing the mechanism of Ag NSs synthesis including temperature, concentration, pH and time were studied. Greener Ag NSs were formed when the reaction conditions were altered with respect to pH, concentration of AgNO3 and incubation temperature...
August 9, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Ying-Chi Huang, Ping-Feng Wu, Yi-Tsung Lin, Fu-Der Wang
BACKGROUND: Acquired carbapenem resistance among non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-Acinetobacter baumannii complex (ACB complex), is a serious problem in nosocomial infections. We previously reported that patients infected with the intrinsically carbapenem-resistant Elizabethkingia meningoseptica were associated with high mortality. However, little information is available regarding the clinical outcome of E. meningoseptica bacteremia when compared to that of other carbapenem-resistant NFGNB...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Jalil Javedani Bafekr, Razieh Jalal
The development of antibiotic resistance among hospital pathogens has provided a great need for new antimicrobial agents. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) in combination with various antibiotics can act as a reducing agent for antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence and the mechanism of ZnO NPs on the antimicrobial activity of ciprofloxacin (CP) and ceftazidime (CAZ) against Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) and Acinetobacter baumannii ( A. baumannii ) bacteria in acidic conditions (pH 5...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Matthew J Powers, M Stephen Trent
The outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria is a critical barrier that prevents entry of noxious compounds. Integral to this functionality is the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or lipooligosaccharide (LOS), a molecule that is located exclusively in the outer leaflet of the outer membrane. Its lipid anchor, lipid A, is a glycolipid whose hydrophobicity and net negative charge are primarily responsible for the robustness of the membrane. Because of this, lipid A is a hallmark of Gram-negative physiology and is generally essential for survival...
August 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Nadya Andini, Anne Hu, Luming Zhou, Steven Cogill, Tza-Huei Wang, Carl T Wittwer, Samuel Yang
BACKGROUND: The time required for bloodstream pathogen detection, identification (ID), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) does not satisfy the acute needs of disease management. Conventional methods take up to 3 days for ID and AST. Molecular diagnostics have reduced times for ID, but their promise to supplant culture is unmet because AST times remain slow. We developed a combined quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based ID+AST assay with sequential detection, ID, and AST of leading nosocomial bacterial pathogens...
August 7, 2018: Clinical Chemistry
Shahnaz Armin, Fatemeh Fallah, Leila Azimi, Hossein Samadi Kafil, Kiarash Ghazvini, Sepide Hasanzadeh, Abdollah Karimi
NDM-1 producing gram-negative bacteria can be resistant to every beta-lactam antibiotic, including carbapenem which is one of the last-lines of antibiotic therapy against multi-drug resistant bacteria. This study aimed to detect the metallo-beta-lactamase in the isolated gram-negative bacteria of the Iranian clinical specimens collected from two major cities in Iran. In this cross sectional study 171 Acinetobacter baumannii, 120 Enterobacter spp. and 145 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from clinical specimens of two training hospitals in Tabriz and Mashhad were evaluated...
July 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Ksenia Ershova, Ivan Savin, Nataliya Kurdyumova, Darren Wong, Gleb Danilov, Michael Shifrin, Irina Alexandrova, Ekaterina Sokolova, Nadezhda Fursova, Vladimir Zelman, Olga Ershova
Background: The impact of infection prevention and control (IPC) programs in limited resource countries such as Russia are largely unknown due to a lack of reliable data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of an IPC program with respect to healthcare associated infection (HAI) prevention and to define the incidence of HAIs in a Russian ICU. Methods: A pioneering IPC program was implemented in a neuro-ICU at Burdenko Neurosurgery Institute in 2010 and included hand hygiene, surveillance, contact precautions, patient isolation, and environmental cleaning measures...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
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