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Obesity Inflamation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097828/remote-effects-of-transplanted-perivascular-adipose-tissue-on-endothelial-function-and-atherosclerosis
#1
Tetsuo Horimatsu, Aaron S Patel, Rosaria Prasad, Lauren E Reid, Tyler W Benson, Abdalrahman Zarzour, Mourad Ogbi, Thiago Bruder do Nascimento, Eric Belin de Chantemele, Brian K Stansfield, Xin-Yun Lu, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT expands in obesity, and inflamed PVAT can locally promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, using adipose tissue transplantation, we tested the hypothesis that expansion of PVAT can also remotely exacerbate vascular disease. METHODS: Fifty milligrams of abdominal aortic PVAT was isolated from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice and transplanted onto the abdominal aorta of lean LDL receptor knockout mice...
August 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092540/a-unique-case-report-of-jejunoileal-bypass-reversal-with-review-of-the-literature
#2
Ashlee Justice, Zeid Keilani, James Tribble
INTRODUCTION: Jejunoileal bypass (JIB) was an effective treatment for morbid obesity in the 1970s, but shortly after it fell out of favor due to horrific side effects, including liver failure, nephrolithiasis and drastic vitamin deficiencies. Although there are few living people with JIB, the management of these patients can be challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of a 58-year-old female with a history of JIB 46 years prior who had an impending renal failure due to nephrolithiasis...
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995306/adipokine-dysregulation-and-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-human-obesity
#3
REVIEW
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950343/adipocytes-and-intestinal-epithelium-dysfunctions-linking-obesity-to-inflammation-induced-by-high-glycemic-index-pellet-diet-in-wistar-rats
#4
Anna Beatriz Santana Luz, Júlia Braga Dos Santos Figueredo, Bianca Damásio Pereira Dantas Salviano, Ana Júlia Felipe Camelo Aguiar, Luiza Gabriella Soares Dantas Pinheiro, Matheus Felipe Dantas Krause, Christina da Silva Camillo, Fernando Vagner Lobo Ladd, Raul Hernandes Bortolin, Vivian Nogueira Silbiger, Bruna Leal Lima Maciel, Ana Heloneida de Araújo Morais
We investigated the inflammatory effect of a pellet-diet with high glycemic index and load (HGLI) on the histological organization of adipocytes, intestinal epithelium, and fat in liver and pancreas in adult male Wistar rats. Two groups ( n =10) received for 17 weeks: (1) HGLI diet or (2) Standard diet (Labina®). Histological analyses of adipose tissue, jejunum, liver, and pancreas were performed. Stereology analysis, visceral adiposity index, gene expression, and immunohistochemistry of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in visceral adipose tissue and plasma TNF-α were also assessed...
June 29, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763604/attenuation-of-macrophage-accumulation-and-polarisation-in-obese-diabetic-mice-by-a-small-molecule-significantly-improved-insulin-sensitivity
#5
Sandip Mukherjee, Snehasis Das, Dipanjan Chattopadhyay, Shuvasree Sarkar, Subhendu Kumar Chatterjee, Dhrubajyoti Talukdar, Sutapa Mukherjee, Subeer S Majumdar, Satinath Mukhopadhyay, Mihir K Chaudhuri, Samir Bhattacharya
Accumulation and polarization of anti-inflammatory M2 to proinflammatory M1 macrophage in the adipose tissue of obese diabetic mice is an important pathogenic signature. It worsens lipid induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Here we demonstrate that a small molecule, a peroxyvanadate compound i.e. DmpzH [VO(O2 )2 (dmpz)] or dmp, could robustly decrease macrophage infiltration, accumulation and their polarization in high fat diet (HFD) induced obese diabetic mice. In searching the underlying mechanism it was revealed that SIRT1 level was strikingly low in the inflamed adipose tissue of HFD mice as compared to mice fed with standard diet (SD)...
June 27, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581238/role-of-dysfunctional-adipocytes-in-cholesterol-induced-nonobese-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Jiung-Pang Huang, Sheng-Chieh Hsu, Yaa-Jyuhn James Meir, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Chih-Chun Chang, Kuan-Hsing Chen, Jan-Kan Chen, Li-Man Hung
Many studies have reported the causes of obese metabolic syndrome (MS); however, the causes of nonobese MS (NMS) remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that inflamed dysfunctional adipose tissue plays a crucial role in cholesterol-induced NMS. Control (C), high cholesterol (HC) and HC with 10% fructose in drinking water (HCF) diets were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 12 weeks. After 12 weeks, the body weights of the C- and HC-fed rats were comparable, but the weights of the HCF-fed rats were relatively low...
May 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562231/hepatocyte-secreted-dpp4-in-obesity-promotes-adipose-inflammation-and-insulin-resistance
#7
Devram S Ghorpade, Lale Ozcan, Ze Zheng, Sarah M Nicoloro, Yuefei Shen, Emily Chen, Matthias Blüher, Michael P Czech, Ira Tabas
Obesity-induced metabolic disease involves functional integration among several organs via circulating factors, but little is known about crosstalk between liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). In obesity, VAT becomes populated with inflammatory adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs). In obese humans, there is a close correlation between adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance, and in obese mice, blocking systemic or ATM inflammation improves insulin sensitivity. However, processes that promote pathological adipose tissue inflammation in obesity are incompletely understood...
March 29, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539583/increased-calcific-aortic-valve-disease-in-response-to-a-diabetogenic-procalcific-diet-in-the-ldlr-apob-100-100-mouse-model
#8
Marta Scatena, Melissa F Jackson, Mei Y Speer, Elizabeth M Leaf, Mary C Wallingford, Cecilia M Giachelli
OBJECTIVE: Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is a major cause of aortic stenosis (AS) and cardiac insufficiency. Patients with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are at heightened risk for CAVD, and their valves have greater calcification than nondiabetic valves. No drugs to prevent or treat CAVD exist, and animal models that might help identify therapeutic targets are sorely lacking. To develop an animal model mimicking the structural and functional features of CAVD in people with T2DM, we tested a diabetogenic, procalcific diet and its effect on the incidence and severity of CAVD and AS in the, LDLr-/- ApoB100/100 mouse model...
May 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533741/myeloid-specific-acat1-ablation-attenuates-inflammatory-responses-in-macrophages-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-suppresses-diet-induced-obesity
#9
Li-Hao Huang, Elaina M Melton, Haibo Li, Paul Sohn, DaeYoung Jung, Ching-Yi Tsai, Tian Ma, Hiroyuki Sano, HyeKyung Ha, Randall H Friedline, Jason K Kim, Edward Usherwood, Catherine Cy Chang, Ta-Yuan Chang
Macrophages are phagocytes that play important roles in health and diseases. Acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 1 [ACAT1] converts cellular cholesterol to cholesteryl esters, and is expressed in many cell types. Unlike global Acat1 knockout [KO], myeloid-specific Acat1 KO [Acat1-M/-M ] does not cause overt abnormalities in mice. Here we performed analyses in age and sex matched Acat1-M/-M and wild-type mice on chow or Western diet, and discovered that Acat1-M/-M mice exhibit resistance to Western diet-induced obesity...
March 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29526533/type-2-diabetes-related-proteins-derived-from-an-in-vitro-model-of-inflamed-fat-tissue
#10
Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Alexandros Sotiriou, Sjef Boeren, Stefan Vaessen, Jacques Vervoort, Raymond Pieters
Currently, there is a worldwide increase of patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). During the progression of healthy obese to T2D status, there is an influx of immune cells, in particular macrophages, into visceral adipose tissue, accompanied by an increase of inflammatory cytokines, such as, IL6, TNFα and Hp. To get a better insight in the underlying mechanisms, we performed a quantitative LCMS analysis on a modified in vitro assay, combining 3T3L1 adipocytes and activated RAW264.7 macrophages, thus mimicking inflamed adipose tissue...
April 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522769/n-acetyl-l-cysteine-treatment-efficiently-prevented-pre-diabetes-and-inflamed-dysmetabolic-liver-development-in-hypothalamic-obese-rats
#11
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, María Cecilia Castro, Luisa González Arbelaez, Guillermo Schinella, María Laura Massa, Eduardo Spinedi, Flavio Francini
AIM: Hypothalamic obese rats are characterized by pre-diabetes, dyslipidemia, hyperadiposity, inflammation and, liver dysmetabolism with oxidative stress (OS), among others. We studied endocrine-metabolic dysfunctions and, liver OS and inflammation in both monosodium l-glutamate (MSG)-neonatally damaged and control litter-mate (C) adult male rats, either chronically treated with N-Acetyl-l-Cysteine since weaned (C-NAC and MSG-NAC) or not. METHODOLOGY: We evaluated circulating TBARS, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, uric acid (UA) and, aspartate and alanine amino-transferase; insulin sensitivity markers (HOMA indexes, Liver Index of Insulin Sensitivity -LISI-) were calculated and liver steps of the insulin-signaling pathway were investigated...
April 15, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514084/innate-immune-signaling-in-drosophila-blocks-insulin-signaling-by-uncoupling-pi-3-4-5-p-3-production-and-akt-activation
#12
Stephen W Roth, Moshe D Bitterman, Morris J Birnbaum, Michelle L Bland
In obese adipose tissue, Toll-like receptor signaling in macrophages leads to insulin resistance in adipocytes. Similarly, Toll signaling in the Drosophila larval fat body blocks insulin-dependent growth and nutrient storage. We find that Toll acts cell autonomously to block growth but not PI(3,4,5)P3 production in fat body cells expressing constitutively active PI3K. Fat body Toll signaling blocks whole-animal growth in rictor mutants lacking TORC2 activity, but not in larvae lacking Pdk1. Phosphorylation of Akt on the Pdk1 site, Thr342, is significantly reduced by Toll signaling, and expression of mutant AktT342D rescues cell and animal growth, nutrient storage, and viability in animals with active Toll signaling...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366230/coordinated-activation-of-wnt-planar-cell-polarity-signaling-in-inflamed-visceral-fat-of-obese-individuals
#13
Maria A Zuriaga, Jose J Fuster, Susan Maclauchlan, Noyan Gokce, Kenneth Walsh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298809/sucrose-nonfermenting-related-kinase-regulates-both-adipose-inflammation-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mice-and-humans
#14
Jie Li, Bin Feng, Yaohui Nie, Ping Jiao, Xiaochen Lin, Mengna Huang, Ran An, Qin He, Huilin Emily Zhou, Arthur Salomon, Kirsten S Sigrist, Zhidan Wu, Simin Liu, Haiyan Xu
Sucrose nonfermenting-related kinase (SNRK) is a member of the AMPK-related kinase family, and its physiological role in adipose energy homeostasis and inflammation remains unknown. We previously reported that SNRK is ubiquitously and abundantly expressed in both white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), but SNRK expression diminishes in adipose tissue in obesity. In this study we report novel experimental findings from both animal models and human genetics. SNRK is essential for survival; SNRK globally deficient pups die within 24 h after birth...
March 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915332/obesity-and-cardiometabolic-defects-in-heart-failure-pathology
#15
REVIEW
Ganesh V Halade, Vasundhara Kain
Obesity is a major global epidemic that sets the stage for diverse multiple pathologies, including cardiovascular disease. The obesity-related low-grade chronic inflamed milieu is more pronounced in aging and responsive to cardiac dysfunction in heart failure pathology. Metabolic dysregulation of obesity integrates with immune reservoir in spleen and kidney network. Therefore, an integrative systems biology approach is necessary to delay progressive cardiac alternations. The purpose of this comprehensive review is to largely discuss the impact of obesity on the cardiovascular pathobiology in the context of problems and challenges, with major emphasis on the diversified models, and to study cardiac remodeling in obesity...
September 12, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890654/chondroitin-sulfate-inhibits-monocyte-chemoattractant-protein-1-release-from-3t3-l1-adipocytes-a-new-treatment-opportunity-for-obesity-related-inflammation
#16
Thomas V Stabler, Eulàlia Montell, Josep Vergés, Janet L Huebner, Virginia Byers Kraus
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) overproduction from inflamed adipose tissue is a major contributor to obesity-related metabolic syndromes. 3T3-L1 embryonic fibroblasts were cultured and differentiated into adipocytes using an established protocol. Adipocytes were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to induce inflammation and thus MCP-1 release. At the same time, varying concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS) were added in a physiologically relevant range (10-200 µg/mL) to determine its impact on MCP-1 release...
2017: Biomarker Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827671/muscle-and-adipose-tissue-morphology-insulin-sensitivity-and-beta-cell-function-in-diabetic-and-nondiabetic-obese-patients-effects-of-bariatric-surgery
#17
Stefania Camastra, Alessandra Vitali, Marco Anselmino, Amalia Gastaldelli, Rosario Bellini, Rossana Berta, Ilenia Severi, Simona Baldi, Brenno Astiarraga, Giorgio Barbatelli, Saverio Cinti, Ele Ferrannini
Obesity is characterized by insulin-resistance (IR), enhanced lipolysis, and ectopic, inflamed fat. We related the histology of subcutaneous (SAT), visceral fat (VAT), and skeletal muscle to the metabolic abnormalities, and tested their mutual changes after bariatric surgery in type 2 diabetic (T2D) and weight-matched non-diabetic (ND) patients. We measured IR (insulin clamp), lipolysis (2 H5 -glycerol infusion), ß-cell glucose-sensitivity (ß-GS, mathematical modeling), and VAT, SAT, and rectus abdominis histology (light and electron microscopy)...
August 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624608/obesity-s-effect-on-asthma-extends-to-diagnostic-criteria
#18
Njira Lugogo, Cynthia L Green, Noah Agada, Siyi Zhang, Susanne Meghdadpour, Run Zhou, Siyun Yang, Kevin J Anstrom, Elliot Israel, Richard Martin, Robert F Lemanske, Homer Boushey, Stephen C Lazarus, Stephen I Wasserman, Mario Castro, William Calhoun, Stephen P Peters, Emily DiMango, Vernon Chinchilli, Susan Kunselman, Tonya S King, Nikolina Icitovic, Monica Kraft
BACKGROUND: The use of inflammatory biomarkers to delineate the type of lung inflammation present in asthmatic subjects is increasingly common. However, the effect of obesity on these markers is unknown. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine the effect of obesity on conventional markers of inflammation in asthmatic subjects. METHODS: We performed secondary analysis of data from 652 subjects previously enrolled in 2 Asthma Clinical Research Network trials...
March 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588582/nanoparticle-based-magnetic-resonance-imaging-on-tumor-associated-macrophages-and-inflammation
#19
REVIEW
Natalie J Serkova
The inflammatory response, mediated by tissue-resident or newly recruited macrophages, is an underlying pathophysiological condition for many diseases, including diabetes, obesity, neurodegeneration, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Paradoxically, inflammation is a double-edged sword in oncology. Macrophages are, generally speaking, the major drivers of inflammatory insult. For many solid tumors, high density of cells expressing macrophage-associated markers have generally been found in association with a poor clinical outcome, characterized by inflamed microenvironment, a high level of dissemination and resistance to conventional chemotherapies...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585207/endothelial-dysfunction-in-obesity
#20
REVIEW
Atilla Engin
Chronic inflammatory state in obesity causes dysregulation of the endocrine and paracrine actions of adipocyte-derived factors, which disrupt vascular homeostasis and contribute to endothelial vasodilator dysfunction and subsequent hypertension. While normal healthy perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) ensures the dilation of blood vessels, obesity-associated PVAT leads to a change in profile of the released adipo-cytokines, resulting in a decreased vasorelaxing effect. Adipose tissue inflammation, nitric oxide (NO)-bioavailability, insulin resistance and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) are main participating factors in endothelial dysfunction of obesity...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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