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Acid basic disorder

Luisa A Ferreira, Alicyia Walczyk Mooradally, Boris Zaslavsky, Vladimir N Uversky, Steffen P Graether
Dehydrins are plant proteins that are able to protect plants from various forms of dehydrative stress such as drought, cold, and high salinity. Dehydrins can prevent enzymes from losing activity after freeze/thaw treatments. Previous studies had suggested that the dehydrins function by a molecular shield effect, essentially preventing a denatured enzyme from aggregating with another enzyme. Therefore, the larger the dehydrin, the larger the shield and theoretically the more effective the protection. Although this relationship holds for smaller dehydrins, it fails to explain why larger dehydrins are less efficient than would be predicted from their size...
September 22, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Tünde Juhász, Judith Mihály, Gergely Kohut, Csaba Németh, Károly Liliom, Tamás Beke-Somfai
Membrane-active, basic amphipathic peptides represent a class of biomolecules with diverse functions. Sequentially close protein segments also show similar behaviour in several ways. Here we investigated the effect of the lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on the conformation of structurally disordered peptides including extracellular antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), and calmodulin-binding motifs derived from cytosolic and membrane target proteins. The interaction with associated LPA resulted in gain of ordered secondary structure elements, which for most cases were previously uncharacteristic of the particular peptide...
September 28, 2018: Scientific Reports
Myung Hee Park, Edith C Wolff
The natural amino acid hypusine [Ne-4-amino-2-hydroxybutyl(lysine)] is derived from the polyamine spermidine, and occurs only in a single family of cellular proteins, eukaryotic translation factor 5A (eIF5A) isoforms.  Hypusine is formed by conjugation of the aminobutyl moiety of spermidine to a specific lysine residue of this protein. The posttranslational synthesis of hypusine involves two enzymatic steps, catalyzed by deoxyhypusine synthase (DHPS) and deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (DOHH). Hypusine is essential for eIF5A activity...
September 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jan Fábry
A large number of structural determinations of compounds containing 2-hy-droxy-3,5-di-nitro-benzoic acid ( I ) and its various deprotonated forms, 2-hy-droxy-3,5-di-nitro-benzoate ( II ) or 2-carb-oxy-4,6-di-nitro-phenolate ( III ), are biased. The reason for the bias follows from incorrectly applied constraints or restraints on the bridging hydrogen , which is involved in the intra-molecular hydrogen bond between the neighbouring carb-oxy-lic/carboxyl-ate and oxo/hy-droxy groups. This hydrogen bond belongs to the category of resonance-assisted hydrogen bonds...
September 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
Fábio L S Costa, Maria Elena De Lima, Suely G Figueiredo, Rafaela S Ferreira, Núbia S Prates, Tetsu Sakamoto, Carlos E Salas
Background: Lethal factors are multifunctional oligomeric proteins found in the venomous apparatus of Scorpaeniformes fish. These toxins elicit not only an array of biological responses in vitro but also cardiovascular disorders and strong hemolytic, nociceptive and edematogenic activities in vivo. This work describes the cloning and molecular identification of two toxin subunits, denominated Sp-CTx-α and Sp-CTx-β, from scorpionfish venom ( Scorpaena plumieri ). Methods: The primary structures were deduced after cDNA amplification by PCR with primers from conserved sequences described in Scorpaeniformes toxins...
2018: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins Including Tropical Diseases
Omer Demir, Inci Sema Tas, Berrin Gunay, Funda Gungor Ugurlucan
BACKGROUND: Rosacea is a common, chronic disorder that can present with a variety of cutaneous or ocular manifestations. Skin involvement primarily affects the central face, with findings such as persistent centrofacial redness, papules, pustules, flushing, telangiectasia, and phymatous skin changes. The pathways that lead to the development of rosacea are not well understood. The relationship of pyoderma faciale (also known as rosacea fulminans) to rosacea also is uncertain. We aimed to write this article with the aim of showing how a pregnant patient who has been aggravated by the degree of lesions on the face during the first trimester of pregnancy is treated and to show what is in the literature in this issue...
August 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Emmanuel Somm, François R Jornayvaz
Discovered 20 years ago, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 19, and its mouse ortholog FGF15, were the first members of a new subfamily of FGFs able to act as hormones. During fetal life, FGF15/19 is involved in organogenesis, affecting the development of the ear, eye, heart and brain. At adulthood, FGF15/19 is mainly produced by the ileum, acting on the liver to repress hepatic bile acid synthesis and promote postprandial nutrient partitioning. In rodents, pharmacologic doses of FGF19 induce the same anti-obesity and anti-diabetic actions as FGF21, these metabolic effects being partly mediated by the brain...
August 14, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Jan D Andersson, David Matuskey, Sjoerd J Finnema
In this review, we summarize the recent development of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors and their potential to measure changes in endogenous GABA levels and highlight the clinical and translational applications of GABA-sensitive PET radioligands. We review the basic physiology of the GABA system with a focus on the importance of GABAA receptors in the brain and specifically the benzodiazepine binding site. Challenges for the development of central nervous system radioligands and particularly for radioligands with increased GABA sensitivity are outlined, as well as the status of established benzodiazepine site PET radioligands and agonist GABAA radioligands...
August 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Dmiry V Chistyakov, Alina A Astakhova, Marina G Sergeeva
Relationship between mood disorders and inflammation is now well-documented, although molecular mechanisms are not understood. Previously mostly pro-inflammatory cytokines of immune system (IL-6, TNF, etc.) were taken into account. However, recent understanding of resolution of inflammation as an active process drew attention to mediators of resolution, which include both proteins and ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids derivatives (resolvins, cyclopentenone prostaglandins, etc.). This review takes into account new data on resolution of inflammation and action of mediators of resolution in models of depression...
October 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Santu Bera, Sudipta Mondal, Sigal Rencus-Lazar, Ehud Gazit
The unique physiochemical properties and multiscale organization of layered materials draw the attention of researchers across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Layered structures are commonly found in diverse biological systems where they fulfill various functions. A prominent example of layered biological materials is the organization of proteins and polypeptides into the archetypal aggregated amyloidal structures. While the organization of proteins into amyloid structures was initially associated with various degenerative disorders, it was later revealed that proteins not related to any disease could also form identical layered assemblies...
September 18, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xu Wang, Fei Zhao, Xufeng Wang, Yabing Niu, Lijuan Niu, Chunling Wang
Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Current pharmaceutical treatment for depression remains unsatisfactory due to its limited therapeutic efficacy and undesirable side effects. There is increasing interest in looking for alternative strategies from diet for the treatment of depressive disorder. The nutrition factors have the potential to regulate several neurochemical pathways implicated in depression. This review gives an overview of the recent advances in depression treatment using nutrition factors including vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acid, elements and natural products...
August 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Francisco López-Muñoz, Winston W Shen, Pilar D'Ocon, Alejandro Romero, Cecilio Álamo
In this paper, the authors review the history of the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, from the first nonspecific sedative agents introduced in the 19th and early 20th century, such as solanaceae alkaloids, bromides and barbiturates, to John Cade's experiments with lithium and the beginning of the so-called "Psychopharmacological Revolution" in the 1950s. We also describe the clinical studies and development processes, enabling the therapeutic introduction of pharmacological agents currently available for the treatment of bipolar disorder in its different phases and manifestations...
July 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Panagiotis Lagarias, Youness Elkhou, Jayson Vedad, Athina Konstantinidi, Adam A Profit, Tahsin F Kellici, Antonios Kolocouris, Ruel Z B Desamero, Thomas Mavromoustakos
This chapter includes information about the structure in equilibrium of the bioactive molecule hIAPP22-29 (NFGAILSS). The experimental structure was derived using X-ray and its 2D NOESY NMR experiments in d 6 -DMSO and d-HFIP solvents. This molecule contains eight of the ten amino acids of the 20-29 region of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) often referred as the "amyloidogenic core." Amyloid deposits are well-known to cause as many as 20 pathological neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Flavia S Mueller, Marcello Polesel, Juliet Richetto, Urs Meyer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA) are increasingly used as experimental tools to study neuronal and behavioral dysfunctions in relation to infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders. One of the most widely used MIA models is based on gestational administration of poly(I:C) (= polyriboinosinic-polyribocytdilic acid), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA that induces a cytokine-associated viral-like acute phase response. The effects of poly(I:C)-induced MIA on phenotypic changes in the offspring are known to be influenced by various factors, including the precise prenatal timing, genetic background, and immune stimulus intensity...
October 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ralf Weiskirchen, Sabine Weiskirchen, Frank Tacke
Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by the formation and deposition of excess fibrous connective tissue, leading to progressive architectural tissue remodeling. Irrespective of the underlying noxious trigger, tissue damage induces an inflammatory response involving the local vascular system and the immune system and a systemic mobilization of endocrine and neurological mediators, ultimately leading to the activation of matrix-producing cell populations. Genetic disorders, chronic viral infection, alcohol abuse, autoimmune attacks, metabolic disorders, cholestasis, alterations in bile acid composition or concentration, venous obstruction, and parasite infections are well-established factors that predispose one to hepatic fibrosis...
2018: F1000Research
Di Xu, Yinhui Li, Chung-Yan Poon, Hei-Nga Chan, Hung-Wing Li, Man Shing Wong
Acid-base disorders disrupt proper cellular functions, which are associated with diverse diseases. Development of highly sensitive pH probes being capable of detecting and monitoring the minor changes of pH environment in living systems is of considerable interest to diagnose disease as well as investigate biochemical processes in vivo. We report herein two novel high-resolution ratiometric two-photon (TP) fluorescent probes, namely, PSIOH and PSIBOH derived from carbazole-oxazolidine π-conjugated system for effective sensing and monitoring acid pH in a biological system...
August 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Harold Stein
Four patients were recently seen at our institution presenting with severe hypobicarbonatemia and elevated anion gap on serum specimens processed by an autoanalyzer using enzymatic reactions. Arterial blood gas values in each case revealed no significant acid-base disturbance and a marked discordance between arterial blood gas calculated bicarbonate levels and those reported on the basic metabolic panel. All patients had profound hyperlipidemia (triglycerides > 3,500mg/L), and ultracentrifugation of one patient's serum corrected the discordance...
June 28, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Albert G Remacle, Swathi K Hullugundi, Jennifer Dolkas, Mila Angert, Piotr Cieplak, David Scott, Andrei V Chernov, Veronica I Shubayev, Alex Y Strongin
In demyelinating nervous system disorders, myelin basic protein (MBP), a major component of the myelin sheath, is proteolyzed and its fragments are released in the neural environment. Here, we demonstrated that, in contrast with MBP, the cellular uptake of the cryptic 84-104 epitope (MBP84-104) did not involve the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1, a scavenger receptor. Our pull-down assay, mass spectrometry and molecular modeling studies suggested that, similar with many other unfolded and aberrant proteins and peptides, the internalized MBP84-104 was capable of binding to the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel-1 (VDAC-1), a mitochondrial porin...
July 31, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Mingzhe Jiang, Matthew F McMillan, Virginia Davis, Christopher L Kitchens
Cellulose nanocrystals hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid and esterified by acetic acid produce acetylated cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-AA) with acetyl ester surface functional groups. While much attention has been paid to understanding the phase behavior (liquid crystal) of aqueous dispersions of sulfonated nanocrystals, relatively few studies have focused on CNC-AA dispersions. CNC-AA dispersions exhibit multiple phase regimes and markedly different phase behavior due to their lower surface charge. At concentrations above 5...
August 13, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Georgios Giannopoulos, Christos Angelidis, Spyridon Deftereos
Gout is a systemic disease, characterized by the formation and deposition of crystals in tissues (mainly in and around the joints) of individuals with elevated serum uric acid levels. Lately, a considerable number of reports relating elevated uric acid and/or gout with rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, have been published. This review summarizes evidence linking common arrhythmias and hyperuricemia/gout and discusses questions or controversies that surround it. Overall, existing evidence may not be overwhelming, but strongly suggests a positive correlation between uric acid levels and common rhythm disorders...
June 13, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
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