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Acid basic disorder

Jan D Andersson, David Matuskey, Sjoerd J Finnema
In this review, we summarize the recent development of positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands for γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA ) receptors and their potential to measure changes in endogenous GABA levels and highlight the clinical and translational applications of GABA-sensitive PET radioligands. We review the basic physiology of the GABA system with a focus on the importance of GABAA receptors in the brain and specifically the benzodiazepine binding site. Challenges for the development of central nervous system radioligands and particularly for radioligands with increased GABA sensitivity are outlined, as well as the status of established benzodiazepine site PET radioligands and agonist GABAA radioligands...
August 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Dmiry V Chistyakov, Alina A Astakhova, Marina G Sergeeva
Relationship between mood disorders and inflammation is now well-documented, although molecular mechanisms are not understood. Previously mostly pro-inflammatory cytokines of immune system (IL-6, TNF, etc.) were taken into account. However, recent understanding of resolution of inflammation as an active process drew attention to mediators of resolution, which include both proteins and ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids derivatives (resolvins, cyclopentenone prostaglandins, etc.). This review takes into account new data on resolution of inflammation and action of mediators of resolution in models of depression...
August 8, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Santu Bera, Sudipta Mondal, Sigal Rencus-Lazar, Ehud Gazit
The unique physiochemical properties and multiscale organization of layered materials draw the attention of researchers across a wide range of scientific disciplines. Layered structures are commonly found in diverse biological systems where they fulfill various functions. A prominent example of layered biological materials is the organization of proteins and polypeptides into the archetypal aggregated amyloidal structures. While the organization of proteins into amyloid structures was initially associated with various degenerative disorders, it was later revealed that proteins not related to any disease could also form identical layered assemblies...
August 10, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xu Wang, Fei Zhao, Xufeng Wang, Yabing Niu, Lijuan Niu, Chunling Wang
Depression is one of the leading causes of disability in the world. Current pharmaceutical treatment for depression remains unsatisfactory due to its limited therapeutic efficacy and undesirable side effects. There is increasing interest in looking for alternative strategies from diet for the treatment of depressive disorder. The nutrition factors have the potential to regulate several neurochemical pathways implicated in depression. This review gives an overview of the recent advances in depression treatment using nutrition factors including vitamins, polyunsaturated fatty acid, elements and natural products...
August 2, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Francisco López-Muñoz, Winston W Shen, Pilar D'Ocon, Alejandro Romero, Cecilio Álamo
In this paper, the authors review the history of the pharmacological treatment of bipolar disorder, from the first nonspecific sedative agents introduced in the 19th and early 20th century, such as solanaceae alkaloids, bromides and barbiturates, to John Cade's experiments with lithium and the beginning of the so-called "Psychopharmacological Revolution" in the 1950s. We also describe the clinical studies and development processes, enabling the therapeutic introduction of pharmacological agents currently available for the treatment of bipolar disorder in its different phases and manifestations...
July 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Panagiotis Lagarias, Youness Elkhou, Jayson Vedad, Athina Konstantinidi, Adam A Profit, Tahsin F Kellici, Antonios Kolocouris, Ruel Z B Desamero, Thomas Mavromoustakos
This chapter includes information about the structure in equilibrium of the bioactive molecule hIAPP22-29 (NFGAILSS). The experimental structure was derived using X-ray and its 2D NOESY NMR experiments in d 6 -DMSO and d-HFIP solvents. This molecule contains eight of the ten amino acids of the 20-29 region of the human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) often referred as the "amyloidogenic core." Amyloid deposits are well-known to cause as many as 20 pathological neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, Huntington, and Creutzfeldt-Jakob...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Flavia S Mueller, Marcello Polesel, Juliet Richetto, Urs Meyer, Ulrike Weber-Stadlbauer
Rodent models of maternal immune activation (MIA) are increasingly used as experimental tools to study neuronal and behavioral dysfunctions in relation to infection-mediated neurodevelopmental disorders. One of the most widely used MIA models is based on gestational administration of poly(I:C) (= polyriboinosinic-polyribocytdilic acid), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA that induces a cytokine-associated viral-like acute phase response. The effects of poly(I:C)-induced MIA on phenotypic changes in the offspring are known to be influenced by various factors, including the precise prenatal timing, genetic background, and immune stimulus intensity...
July 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Ralf Weiskirchen, Sabine Weiskirchen, Frank Tacke
Hepatic fibrosis is characterized by the formation and deposition of excess fibrous connective tissue, leading to progressive architectural tissue remodeling. Irrespective of the underlying noxious trigger, tissue damage induces an inflammatory response involving the local vascular system and the immune system and a systemic mobilization of endocrine and neurological mediators, ultimately leading to the activation of matrix-producing cell populations. Genetic disorders, chronic viral infection, alcohol abuse, autoimmune attacks, metabolic disorders, cholestasis, alterations in bile acid composition or concentration, venous obstruction, and parasite infections are well-established factors that predispose one to hepatic fibrosis...
2018: F1000Research
Di Xu, Yinhui Li, Chung-Yan Poon, Hei-Nga Chan, Hung-Wing Li, Man Shing Wong
Acid-base disorders disrupt proper cellular functions, which are associated with diverse diseases. Development of highly sensitive pH probes being capable of detecting and monitoring the minor changes of pH environment in living systems is of considerable interest to diagnose disease as well as investigate biochemical processes in vivo. We report herein two novel high-resolution ratiometric two-photon (TP) fluorescent probes, namely, PSIOH and PSIBOH derived from carbazole-oxazolidine π-conjugated system for effective sensing and monitoring acid pH in a biological system...
July 12, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Harold Stein
Four patients were recently seen at our institution presenting with severe hypobicarbonatemia and elevated anion gap on serum specimens processed by an autoanalyzer using enzymatic reactions. Arterial blood gas values in each case revealed no significant acid-base disturbance and a marked discordance between arterial blood gas calculated bicarbonate levels and those reported on the basic metabolic panel. All patients had profound hyperlipidemia (triglycerides > 3,500mg/L), and ultracentrifugation of one patient's serum corrected the discordance...
June 28, 2018: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
Albert G Remacle, Swathi K Hullugundi, Jennifer Dolkas, Mila Angert, Piotr Cieplak, David Scott, Andrei V Chernov, Veronica I Shubayev, Alex Y Strongin
In demyelinating nervous system disorders, myelin basic protein (MBP), a major component of the myelin sheath, is proteolyzed and its fragments are released in the neural environment. Here, we demonstrated that, in contrast with MBP, the cellular uptake of the cryptic 84-104 epitope (MBP84-104) did not involve the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein-1, a scavenger receptor. Our pull-down, mass-spectrometry and molecular modeling studies suggested that, similar with a number of other unfolded and aberrant proteins and peptides, the internalized MBP84-104 was capable of binding to the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel-1 (VDAC-1), a mitochondrial porin...
June 28, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Mingzhe Jiang, Matthew F McMillan, Virginia Davis, Christopher L Kitchens
Cellulose nanocrystals hydrolyzed by hydrochloric acid and esterified by acetic acid produce acetylated cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-AA) with acetyl ester surface functional groups. While much attention has been paid to understanding the phase behavior (liquid crystal) of aqueous dispersions of sulfonated nanocrystals, relatively few studies have focused on CNC-AA dispersions. CNC-AA dispersions exhibit multiple phase regimes and markedly different phase behavior due to their lower surface charge. At concentrations above 5...
July 12, 2018: Biomacromolecules
Georgios Giannopoulos, Christos Angelidis, Spyridon Deftereos
Gout is a systemic disease, characterized by the formation and deposition of crystals in tissues (mainly in and around the joints) of individuals with elevated serum uric acid levels. Lately, a considerable number of reports relating elevated uric acid and/or gout with rhythm disorders, such as atrial fibrillation, have been published. This review summarizes evidence linking common arrhythmias and hyperuricemia/gout and discusses questions or controversies that surround it. Overall, existing evidence may not be overwhelming, but strongly suggests a positive correlation between uric acid levels and common rhythm disorders...
June 13, 2018: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Tripti Gupta, Gregory D Marquart, Eric J Horstick, Kathryn M Tabor, Sinisa Pajevic, Harold A Burgess
Large-scale genomic studies have recently identified genetic variants causative for major neurodevelopmental disorders, such as intellectual disability and autism. However, determining how underlying developmental processes are affected by these mutations remains a significant challenge in the field. Zebrafish is an established model system in developmental neurogenetics that may be useful in uncovering the mechanisms of these mutations. Here we describe the use of voxel-intensity, deformation field, and volume-based morphometric techniques for the systematic and unbiased analysis of gene knock-down and environmental exposure-induced phenotypes in zebrafish...
June 21, 2018: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Dimitrios Petroglou, Ilias Kanellos, Christos Savopoulos, Georgia Kaiafa, Anastasios Chrysochoou, Panagiotis Skantzis, Stylianos Daios, Apostolos I Hatzitolios, Georgios Giannoglou
Background The Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) Receptor (LDL-R) is a transmembrane protein playing a crucial role in effective lipid homeostasis. Various therapeutic agents has been used in management of dyslipidemias, however the outcome of therapeutic target is debated. Objective The aim of this review is to summarize and fully understand the current concept regarding LDL-R and its molecular properties, metabolic pathway, factors affecting LDL-R activity and all available pharmacological interventions. Additionally, non-lipid related properties of LDL-R are also referred...
June 3, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Eman M Elbaz, Mahmoud A Senousy, Dalia M El-Tanbouly, Rabab H Sayed
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating central nervous system disorder leading to serious neurological deficits. Linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, recently showed neuroprotective properties against neurodegenerative diseases. This study investigated the possible neuroprotective effect of linagliptin against cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice and its potential early-remyelinating properties. C57Bl/6 mice were fed chow containing 0.7% cuprizone for 1 week, followed by 3 weeks of a 0...
August 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
O A Shavlovskaya, N M Fokina
Authors present a case-report of a 36-year-old patient with pain syndrome in the face region (craniomandibular dysfunction with occlusive disorders) involving pericranial muscles and shoulder girdle muscles. Thioctic acid was prescribed as a basic therapy, and relaxation tire, mimic gymnastics, post-isometric relaxation, vitamin and mineral complex were additionally used. Thioctic acid was prescribed according to the following scheme: stage I - intravenous injections of thioctic acid (600 mg/daily, 5 procedures, every other day); stage II - oral administration of the drug in the dose of 600 mg/daily for 3 months...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Isaac Bishof, Eric B Dammer, Duc M Duong, Sean R Kundinger, Marla Gearing, James J Lah, Allan I Levey, Nicholas T Seyfried
The U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 70 kDa (U1-70K) and other RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) are mislocalized to cytoplasmic neurofibrillary Tau aggregates in Alzheimer's disease (AD), yet the co-aggregation mechanisms are incompletely understood. U1-70K harbors two disordered low-complexity domains (LC1 and LC2) that are necessary for aggregation in AD brain extracts. The LC1 domain contains highly repetitive basic (Arg/Lys) and acidic (Asp/Glu) residues, referred to as a basic-acidic dipeptide (BAD) domain...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ngoc Tuan Tran, Jing Zhang, Fan Xiong, Gui-Tang Wang, Wen-Xiang Li, Shan-Gong Wu
Gut microbiota plays a crucial importance in their host. Disturbance of the microbial structure and function is known to be associated with inflammatory intestinal disorders. Enteritis is a significant cause of high mortality in fish species, including grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Study regarding the association between microbial alternations and enteritis in grass carp is still absent. In this study, changes in the gut microbiota of grass carp suffering from enteritis were investigated using NGS-based 16S rRNA sequencing...
May 18, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Binita Zipporah E, Kavitha Govarthanan, Pavithra Shyamsunder, Rama S Verma
Gene expression analysis mainly helps to study gene quantification methods by using various downstream detection approaches like imaging, amplification, probe hybridization, or sequencing. With respect to DNA, which is less static, mRNA levels vary over time, between cell types under divergent conditions. Gene expression analysis is principally focused on determination of mRNA levels transcribed from DNA. DNA microarrays are one of the robust and powerful tools to detect changes in multiple transcripts in larger cohorts in parallel...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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