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Urinary biomarkers

Morteza Bashash, Maelle Marchand, Howard Hu, Christine Till, E Angeles Martinez-Mier, Brisa N Sanchez, Niladri Basu, Karen E Peterson, Rivka Green, Lourdes Schnaas, Adriana Mercado-García, Mauricio Hernández-Avila, Martha María Téllez-Rojo
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic and animal-based studies have raised concern over the potential impact of fluoride exposure on neurobehavioral development as manifested by lower IQ and deficits in attention. To date, no prospective epidemiologic studies have examined the effects of prenatal fluoride exposure on behavioral outcomes using fluoride biomarkers and sensitive measures of attention. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the association between prenatal fluoride exposure and symptoms associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
Yingfeng Wang, Wenting Sun, Jilin Zheng, Can Xu, Xia Wang, Tianyi Li, Yida Tang, Zhongfeng Li
This urinary metabonomic study aimed to identify the potential metabolic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) was used to analyze the urine samples from ACS patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to characterizing the endogenous metabolites and potential biomarker, respectively. Among twenty biomarkers that functioned in nine metabolic pathways, nine biomarkers were found up-regulated significantly, including of isobutyryl‑l‑carnitine, 3‑methylglutarylcarnitine, cinnavalininate, l‑tryptophan, 3‑methyldioxyindole, palmitic acid, N4‑acetylaminobutanal, 3‑sulfino‑l‑alanine and S‑adenosyl‑l‑homocysteine...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
J Singh, M Cerghet, L M Poisson, I Datta, K Labuzek, H Suhail, R Rattan, Shailendra Giri
Identification of non-invasive biomarkers of disease progression in multiple sclerosis (MS) is critically needed for monitoring the disease progression and for effective therapeutic interventions. Urine is an attractive source for non-invasive biomarkers because it is easily obtained in the clinic. In search of a urine metabolite signature of progression in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we profiled urine at the chronic stage of the disease (day 45 post immunization) by global untargeted metabolomics...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Angus Lindsay, Preston M McCourt, Peter Karachunski, Dawn A Lowe, James M Ervasti
Generation of superoxide by xanthine oxidase can be stimulated under ischemic and aberrant calcium homeostasis. Because patients and mice with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) suffer from ischemia and excessive calcium influx, we tested the hypothesis that xanthine oxidase activity is elevated and contributes to disease pathology. Xanthine oxidase activity was measured by urinary isoxanthopterin in DMD patients at rest and in response to exercise. Urinary isoxanthopterin/creatinine was elevated compared to age-matched controls and Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD) patients...
October 9, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Zhongyuan Liu, Dalong Xie, Hui Zhang
Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common tumors in the urinary system. Noncoding RNAs are considered to take part in cellular phenotypes and are emerging as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of BC. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical significance of neuroblastoma- associated transcript 1 (NBAT1) gene and its effects on malignant cellular phenotypes in BC. NBAT1 gene was low-expressed in BC tissues and cell lines and its low-expression was related with high pathological grade and metastasis of BC...
October 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Yishuo Wu, Guangliang Jiang, Ning Zhang, Shenghua Liu, Xiaoling Lin, Chelsea Perschon, S Lilly Zheng, Qiang Ding, Xiang Wang, Rong Na, Jishan Sun, Jianfeng Xu
BACKGROUND: DNA methylation biomarkers for bladder cancer (BCa) have not been evaluated extensively in the Chinese population. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a urinary biomarker combination of methylation assays in a group of Chinese patients with hematuria. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A total of 192 urine samples were collected and evaluated from patients with microscopic or gross hematuria, including 97 BCa patients and 95 controls with benign diseases...
October 8, 2018: European Urology Focus
Alessandro Antonelli, Marco Allinovi, Andrea Cocci, Giorgio Ivan Russo, Riccardo Schiavina, Bernardo Rocco, Giovanni Alberto Pini, Antonio Celia, Antonio Galfano, Virginia Varca, Giorgio Bozzini, Carlo Ceruti, Francesco Greco, Paolo Verze, Antonio Luigi Pastore, Angelo Porreca, Andrea Minervini
CONTEXT: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication after kidney surgery, associated with prolonged hospital stay, high morbidity, and mortality. Biomarkers represent a tool of increasing importance to identify renal impairment after partial nephrectomy (PN) or radical nephrectomy (RN) in order to optimize and anticipate the diagnosis of AKI. OBJECTIVE: The goal of this systematic review is to investigate current insights on the role of biomarkers in predicting renal impairment in patients undergoing PN or RN...
October 8, 2018: European Urology Focus
Max T Aung, Kelly K Ferguson, David E Cantonwine, Kelly M Bakulski, Bhramar Mukherjee, Rita Loch-Caruso, Thomas F McElrath, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Maternal immune system regulation is critical for maintenance of a healthy pregnancy and fetal development. Exposure to phenols and parabens is widespread, and may be linked to systemic inflammation and alteration of circulating immunological biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: We sought to characterize associations between repeated measures of individual urinary phenols, parabens and plasma inflammatory markers across pregnancy. METHODS: In the LIFECODES prospective birth cohort, we conducted a nested preterm birth case-control study, including 130 cases and 352 controls...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Emmanuel Canet, Rinaldo Bellomo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article reviews the recent literature on the main aspects of perioperative acute kidney injury (AKI). RECENT FINDINGS: AKI occurs in 1 in every 10 surgical patients, with cardiac, orthopedic, and major abdominal surgeries being the procedures associated with the highest risk. Overall, complex operations, bleeding, and hemodynamic instability are the most consistent procedure-related risk factors for AKI. AKI increases hospital stay, mortality, and chronic kidney disease, gradually with severity...
October 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
Yi Li, Xiaosong Xu, Xiaopeng Tang, Xiuwu Bian, Bingbing Shen, Hongwen Zhao, Shiyuan Luo, Zhiwen Chen, Keqin Zhang
Background: Type IV lupus nephritis (LNIV) is a severe disease characterized by diffuse proliferative lesions, and its prognosis is worse with cellular crescent (LNIV-CC) involvement. Urinary exosomes have been shown to reflect the degree of kidney injury. This study was aimed to identify non-invasive diagnostic markers for LNIV-CC. We analysed the expression profile of microRNAs (miRNAs) isolated from urinary exosomes in patients with LNIV-CC and LNIV, and healthy individuals using high-throughput sequencing...
December 2018: Journal of Biological Research
Fang Fang, Xiaohan Hu, Xiaomei Dai, Sanfeng Wang, Zhenjiang Bai, Jiao Chen, Jian Pan, Xiaozhong Li, Jian Wang, Yanhong Li
BACKGROUND: Research on acute kidney injury (AKI) has focused on identifying early biomarkers. However, whether AKI could be diagnosed in the absence of the classic signs of clinical AKI and whether the condition of subclinical AKI, identified by damage or functional biomarkers in the absence of oliguria or increased serum creatinine (sCr) levels, is clinically significant remains to be elucidated in critically ill children. The aims of the study were to investigate the associations between urinary cystatin C (uCysC) levels and AKI and mortality and to determine whether uCysC-positive subclinical AKI is associated with adverse outcomes in critically ill neonates and children...
October 10, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
M Vall-Palomar, J Arévalo, G Ariceta, A Meseguer
BACKGROUND: Molecular and cellular pathophysiological events occurring in the majority of rare kidney diseases remain to be elucidated. Familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in either CLDN16 or CLDN19 genes. This disease is characterized by massive urinary wasting of magnesium and calcium, osmosis deregulation and polyuria. Patients with p.G20D homozygous mutation in CLDN19 gene exhibit different progression to kidney failure suggesting that beyond the pathogenic mutation itself, other molecular events are favoring disease progression...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Yunzhen Ye, Yao Tang, Yu Xiong, Liping Feng, Xiaotian Li
Preeclampsia leads to adverse outcomes for pregnant women. Bisphenol A (BPA) is an environmental endocrine disruptor and has been shown to be positively associated with increased risk of preeclampsia in human studies. We investigated whether BPA exposure causes preeclampsia-like features in pregnant mice and the associated underlying mechanisms. Experiments were performed in animal models and cell cultures. In pregnant mice, BPA-exposed mice exhibited preeclampsia-like features including hypertension, disruption of the circulation, and the placental angiogenesis biomarkers fms-related tyrosine kinase 1 and placenta growth factor, and glomerular atrophy; urinary protein was not affected...
October 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Chia-Wen Kuo, Hsiao-Ling Chen, Min-Yu Tu, Chuan-Mu Chen
Extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), one member of the antioxidant defense system and a superoxide scavenger, has been noted to be downregulated in the kidneys of diabetic mice and is characterized by a heparin-binding domain that can anchor the protein to the endothelium and extracellular matrix. The association of the serum and urinary SOD3 levels with diabetic nephropathy in different stages has never been evaluated. It remains unclear how urinary SOD3 changes in different renal diseases. We recruited 98 Taiwanese patients with type 2 diabetes and 10 patients with early chronic kidney disease (CKD) into this study...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Somchai Chutipongtanate, Kenneth D Greis
The recent advance in targeted label-free proteomics, SWATH-MS, can provide consistent protein detection and reproducible protein quantitation, which is a considerable advantage for biomarker study of urinary extracellular vesicles. We developed a SWATH-MS workflow with a curated spectral library of 1,145 targets. Application of the workflow across nine replicates of three sample types (exosome-like vesicles (ELVs), microvesicles (MVs) and urine proteins (UPs)) resulted in the quantitation of 888 proteins at FDR <1%...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maribel Casas, Xavier Basagaña, Amrit K Sakhi, Line S Haug, Claire Philippat, Berit Granum, Cyntia B Manzano-Salgado, Céline Brochot, Florence Zeman, Jeroen de Bont, Sandra Andrusaityte, Leda Chatzi, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Juan R Gonzalez, Esther Gracia-Lavedan, Regina Grazuleviciene, Mariza Kampouri, Sarah Lyon-Caen, Pau Pañella, Inga Petraviciene, Oliver Robinson, Jose Urquiza, Marina Vafeiadi, Céline Vernet, Dagmar Waiblinger, John Wright, Cathrine Thomsen, Rémy Slama, Martine Vrijheid
BACKGROUND: Exposome studies are challenged by exposure misclassification for non-persistent chemicals, whose temporal variability contributes to bias in dose-response functions. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the variability of urinary concentrations of 24 non-persistent chemicals: 10 phthalate metabolites, 7 phenols, 6 organophosphate (OP) pesticide metabolites, and cotinine, between weeks from different pregnancy trimesters in pregnant women, and between days and between seasons in children...
October 6, 2018: Environment International
Thilini Madushanka Wijerathna, Fahim Mohamed, Dhammika Dissanayaka, Indika Gawarammana, Chathura Palangasinghe, Fathima Shihana, Zoltan Endre, Seyed Shahmy, Nicholas A Buckley
BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with a combination washing powder containing oxalic acid (H2 C2 O4 ) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4 ) is a significant medical problem in the Southern Province of Sri Lanka. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent consequence. Biomarkers for early diagnosis of nephrotoxicity could guide appropriate supportive therapies. METHODS: We investigated the performance of three serum biomarkers and nine urinary biomarkers in 85 patients in an ongoing multicenter prospective cohort study in Sri Lanka exploring AKI following poisoning...
October 6, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Jonna R Bank, Renée Ruhaak, Darius Soonawala, Oleg Mayboroda, Fred P Romijn, Cees van Kooten, Christa M Cobbaert, Johan W de Fijter
BACKGROUND: Urinary tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 (TIMP-2) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) have been validated as biomarkers for acute kidney injury. We investigated the performance of both markers in predicting the occurrence and duration of functionally defined delayed graft function (fDGF) in donation after circulatory death (DCD) kidney transplant recipients. METHODS: Urine samples of 74 DCD recipients were analyzed. TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 were measured with ELISA on postoperative day 1 to 7, day 10, week 6 and month 6 and values were corrected for osmolality (mOsm)...
October 8, 2018: Transplantation
Daniela C Serrazina, Vanda Lopes De Andrade, Madalena Cota, Maria LuÃsa Mateus, Michael Aschner, Ana Paula Marreilha Dos Santos
Lead (Pb), manganese (Mn) and arsenic (As) are among the major toxicants in mining environments. Miners are commonly and repeatedly exposed to this toxic mixture. Some adverse effects may appear at concentrations below environmental quality guidelines for individual mixture components. Further, Pb, Mn, and As induce common adverse outcomes, such as interferences in the cholinergic system and heme synthesis. It is thus vital to monitor miners through biomarkers (BM), such that subclinical effects may be identified at an early stage...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Hsiang-Yu Lin, Chung-Lin Lee, Yun-Ting Lo, Tuan-Jen Wang, Sung-Fa Huang, Tzu-Lin Chen, Yu-Shan Wang, Dau-Ming Niu, Chih-Kuang Chuang, Shuan-Pei Lin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to use the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to quantitate levels of three urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs; dermatan sulfate [DS], heparan sulfate [HS], and keratan sulfate [KS]) to help make a correct diagnosis of mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS). METHODS: We analyzed the relationships between phenotypes and levels of urinary GAGs of 79 patients with different types of MPS. RESULTS: The patients with mental retardation (n = 21) had significantly higher levels of HS than those without mental retardation (n = 58; 328...
September 16, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
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