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Urinary biomarkers

Junyu Liang, Guanfeng Lin, Jianwei Tian, Jiejing Chen, Rongliang Liang, Zhenhua Chen, Qiaoting Deng, Zhining Dong, Tiancai Liu, Yingsong Wu
The morbidity and mortality associated with acute kidney injury (AKI) remain obstinately high. Early diagnosis is urgently required and should be pursued in at-risk populations. Recently, a newly validated biomarker, matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), was reported as a novel indicator for early AKI prediction and a noninvasive surrogate biomarker of kidney function. Monitoring urinary MMP-7 (uMMP-7) levels fills the gaps in early diagnosis of AKI at early onset. However, the lack of available reagents for its rapid detection limits its use...
December 2, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Alexander J Michels, Scott W Leonard, Sandra L Uesugi, Gerd Bobe, Balz Frei, Maret G Traber
Background: Inadequate vitamin E and magnesium intakes are of concern for older adults owing to the associated incidence of age-related diseases. Objective: This study was designed to determine the extent to which a 16-wk intervention with hazelnuts alters vitamin E and magnesium status in a group of older men and women, and used a pre-post intervention design without a control group to adjust for temporal changes. Methods: Participants (n = 32 including 22 women; mean ± SD age: 63 ± 6 y) consumed hazelnuts (∼57 g/d) for 16 wk...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Kim G Harley, Kimberly P Berger, Katherine Kogut, Kimberly Parra, Robert H Lustig, Louise C Greenspan, Antonia M Calafat, Xiaoyun Ye, Brenda Eskenazi
STUDY QUESTION: Are in-utero or peripubertal exposures to phthalates, parabens and other phenols found in personal care products associated with timing of pubertal onset in boys and girls? SUMMARY ANSWER: We found some associations of altered pubertal timing in girls, but little evidence in boys. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Certain chemicals in personal care and consumer products, including low molecular weight phthalates, parabens and phenols, or their precursors, are associated with altered pubertal timing in animal studies...
December 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
Emerson Tavares de Sousa, Vanessa Feitosa Alves, Fabiana Barros Marinho Maia, Marinês Nobre-Dos-Santos, Franklin Delano Soares Forte, Fábio Correia Sampaio
This research aimed to determine the influence of fluoridated groundwater and 1,100 ppm fluoride dentifrice on biomarkers of exposure to fluoride in preschoolers. A cross-sectional study was performed on thirty preschoolers recruited from naturally fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas (n=15). Total Daily Fluoride Intake (TDFI) from diet and dentifrice, and Daily Urinary Fluoride Excretion (DUFE) was measured over 24 h. Nails samples were collected twice during 30 days. Fluoride analyses were performed using a fluoride-ion-specific electrode...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
Davis C Woodworth, Adelle Dagher, Adam Curatolo, Monisha Sachdev, Cody Ashe-McNalley, Bruce D Naliboff, Jennifer S Labus, J Richard Landis, Jason J Kutch, Emeran A Mayer, Richard S Lee, Marsha A Moses, Benjamin M Ellingson
The Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network has yielded neuroimaging and urinary biomarker findings that highlight unique alterations in brain structure and in urinary proteins related to tissue remodeling and vascular structure in patients with Urological Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS). We hypothesized that localized changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements might be associated with corresponding changes in urinary protein levels in UCPPS. To test this hypothesis, we created statistical parameter maps depicting the linear correlation between DTI measurements (fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) and urinary protein quantification (MMP2, MMP9, NGAL, MMP9/NGAL complex, and VEGF) in 30 UCPPS patients from the MAPP Research Network, after accounting for clinical covariates...
2018: PloS One
Matheus Neves Ribeiro da Silva, Aline Mendes, João Roberto Maciel Martins, Marcos Tobias-Machado, Maria Aparecida da Silva Pinhal
PURPOSE: The present study evaluates chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparan sulfate (HS) in the urine and hyaluronic acid (HA) in the plasma of patients with prostate cancer before and after treatment compared to a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samples were used for HA dosage and urine for quantification of CS and HS from forty-four cancer patients and fourteen controls. Clinical, laboratory and radiological information were correlated with glycosaminoglycan quantification by statistical analysis...
November 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Paul de Laat, Richard J Rodenburg, Jan A M Smeitink, Mirian C H Janssen
BACKGROUND: The mitochondrial DNA m.3243A>G mutation is one the most prevalent mutation causing mitochondrial disease in adult patients. Several cohort studies have used heteroplasmy levels in urinary epithelial cells (UEC) to correlate the genotype of the patients to the clinical severity. However, the interpretation of these data is hampered by a lack of knowledge on the intra-patient variability of the heteroplasmy levels. The goal of this study was to determine the day-to-day variation of the heteroplasmy levels in UEC...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Genetics & Genomic Medicine
Thorsten H Ecke, Sarah Weiß, Carsten Stephan, Steffen Hallmann, Christian Arndt, Dimitri Barski, Thomas Otto, Holger Gerullis
OBJECTIVES: UBC® Rapid Test measures soluble fragments of cytokeratins 8 and 18 in urine. We present results of a multicenter study using an updated version of UBC® Rapid Test in bladder cancer patients, patients with urinary bladder cancer positive history, and healthy controls. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total 530 urine samples have been included in this study. Clinical urine samples were used from 242 patients with tumors of the urinary bladder (134 non-muscle-invasive low-grade tumors (NMI-LG), 48 non-muscle-invasive high-grade tumors (NMI-HG), and 60 muscle-invasive high-grade tumors (MI-HG)), 62 patients with non-evidence of disease (NED), and 226 healthy controls...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Siavash Esfahani, Alfian Wicaksono, Ella Mozdiak, Ramesh P Arasaradnam, James A Covington
The electronic nose (eNose) is an instrument designed to mimic the human olfactory system. Usage of eNose in medical applications is more popular than ever, due to its low costs and non-invasive nature. The eNose sniffs the gases and vapours that emanate from human waste (urine, breath, and stool) for the diagnosis of variety of diseases. Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) affects 8.3% of adults in the world, with 43% being underdiagnosed, resulting in 4.9 million deaths per year. In this study, we investigated the potential of urinary volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as novel non-invasive diagnostic biomarker for diabetes...
December 1, 2018: Biosensors
Jian Jing, Zhenhuan Du, Songyang Ji, Keqiang Han
The hypercoagulable state occurs in a group of prothrombotic disorders associated with an increased risk for thromboembolic events, but it is difficult to diagnose due to the lack of available biomarkers. This study aimed to investigate systematic changes of urinary proteome in acute hypercoagulable state induced by certain antifibrinolytics. To reduce the effects of both genetic and environmental factors on the urinary proteome, we used a rat model of acute hypercoagulable state induced by an antifibrinolytic agent ε-aminocaproic acid, resembling human hypercoagulable state...
December 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ying-Ming Shih, Marcus S Cooke, Chih-Hong Pan, Mu-Rong Chao, Chiung-Wen Hu
A reliable and fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of three oxidized nucleic acid damage products in urine, 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoGua), 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanosine (8-oxoGuo). We applied this method to assess the effect of various urine workup procedures on the urinary concentrations of the oxidized nucleic acid products. Our results showed that frozen urine samples must be warmed (i...
November 26, 2018: Redox Biology
Makoto Yoshiyama, Yasuaki Okamoto, Shunsuke Izumi, Daisuke Iizuka
A procedure for the determination of iron in mice urine using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. The mice urinary samples contain many organic compounds in the matrix, whose concentrations are approximately 20%, and the value is 30-fold higher compared to those found in human urine. Moreover, only 0.2 mL or less of urine was obtained as a sample volume per urination event. It was difficult to decompose the organic materials in the samples by wet digestion using mineral acids and oxidising agents, because of the tiny volumes...
November 30, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
M F van den Berg, J P Schoeman, P Defauw, Z Whitehead, A Breemersch, K Goethals, S Daminet, E Meyer
Dogs with naturally occurring canine parvovirus (CPV) infection are at risk of developing acute kidney injury (AKI) due to several factors, including severe dehydration, hypotension and sepsis. Serum creatinine (sCr) and serum urea are insensitive markers for the assessment of early kidney injury. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate potential kidney injury in dogs with CPV infection using both routine renal functional parameters and several kidney injury biomarkers. Twenty-two dogs with CPV infection were prospectively enrolled and compared with eight clinically healthy control dogs...
December 2018: Veterinary Journal
Qifei Deng, Xiayun Dai, Wei Feng, Suli Huang, Yu Yuan, Yongmei Xiao, Zhaorui Zhang, Na Deng, Huaxin Deng, Xiao Zhang, Dan Kuang, Xiaohai Li, Wangzhen Zhang, Xiaomin Zhang, Huan Guo, Tangchun Wu
BACKGROUND: All humans are now co-exposed to multiple toxic chemicals, among which metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are of special concern as they are often present at high levels in various human environments. They can also induce similar early health damage, such as genetic damage, oxidative stress, and heart rate variability (HRV). Exposure to metals, PAHs, and their combined pollutants can alter microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns. OBJECTIVES: To explore the associations of metal-PAH co-exposure with miRNA expression, and of the associated miRNAs with early health damage...
November 28, 2018: Environment International
Teng Xu, Cong Lu, Li Feng, Lin-Xi Fan, Jing Sun, Bei Fan, Qiong Wang, Yan Wang, Xin-Min Liu, Feng-Zhong Wang
The pathophysiological mechanism of depression is complex and its etiology remains unclear. Metabolomics can be used to monitor multiple metabolic pathways simultaneously, thereby investigating the mechanisms of depression onset and its regulation. Therefore, we studied the metabolic profile of urine samples from a rat model of depression for identifying potential metabolic biomarkers associated with depression. The depression model of rats was induced by 14-d simulated microgravity (SMG) treatment. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminate analysis were performed to classify and identify the differences of endogenous metabolites in urine between the normal and depressed rats...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Tao Zhang, Jujun Ruan, Bo Zhang, Shaoyou Lu, Chuanzi Gao, Lifei Huang, Xueyuan Bai, Lei Xie, Mingwei Gui, Rong-Liang Qiu
Electronic waste or e-waste dismantling activities are known to release metals. However, the human exposure pathways of metals, and their association with oxidative stress in e-waste dismantling areas (EDAs) remain unclear. In this study, our results revealed elevated geometric mean concentrations in vegetables (Cd 0.096 and Pb 0.35 µg/g fw), rice (Cd 0.15, Pb 0.20, and 12.3 µg/g fw), hen eggs (Cd 0.006 and Pb 0.071 µg/g fw), and human urine (Cd 2.12, Pb 4.98, Cu 22.2, and Sb 0.20 ng/mL). Our calculations indicate that rice consumption source accounted for the overwhelming proportion of daily intakes (DIs) of Cd (61-64%), Cu (85-89%), and Zn (75-80%) in children and adults living in EDA; vegetables were the primary contributors to the DIs of Cd (30-32%); and rice (20-29%), vegetables (28-38%), and dust ingestion (26-45%) were all important exposure sources of Pb...
November 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Ángeles C Ochoa-Martínez, Tania Ruiz-Vera, Claudia I Almendarez-Reyna, Sergio Zarazúa, Leticia Carrizales-Yáñez, Iván N Pérez-Maldonado
An appropriate and precise identification of high-risk individuals to develop cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is of high importance to reduce these kinds of diseases, a major health concern worldwide. Therefore, the aim of this research was to evaluate prognostic CVD biomarkers in Mexican women exposed to inorganic arsenic via drinking water. Then, a cross-sectional study including 190 women was achieved. Urinary arsenic (UAs) levels were analyzed as exposure biomarker to that metalloid. While, plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4), adiponectin, and chemerin levels, hypertriglyceridemic waist (HW) phenotype, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP), and Framingham risk score (FRS) were assessed as prognostic CVD biomarkers...
November 27, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Hyun-Kyung Woo, Juhee Park, Ja Yoon Ku, Chan Ho Lee, Vijaya Sunkara, Hong Koo Ha, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
Androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and resistance to anti-androgen therapy. Despite its clinical importance, the lack of efficient methods for AR-V7 analysis remains a challenge for broader use of this biomarker in routine clinical practice. Herein, we suggest a practical and non-invasive liquid biopsy method for analysis of AR-V7 in the RNA of urine-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) without the need for blood withdrawal. Urine-derived EVs were isolated by a lab-on-a-disc integrated with six independent nanofiltration units (Exo-Hexa) allowing simultaneous processing of six individual samples...
November 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Lana Vanderlee, Jessica L Reid, Christine M White, Rachel B Acton, Sharon I Kirkpatrick, Ching-I Pao, Michael E Rybak, David Hammond
BACKGROUND: Caffeine is a widely consumed stimulant, and caffeine-containing products are increasingly available on the market. Few tools are available to capture caffeine intake, particularly among young adults. To estimate caffeine consumption in the previous 24 hours, the 24-Hour Caffeine Intake Recall (CIR-24) was modeled after the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Assessment Tool, using a brand-specific database of caffeine-containing foods, beverages, and supplements. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of the CIR-24 compared with caffeine concentration biomarkers in urine and a caffeinated beverage intake frequency screener (CBQ) designed to assess usual intake among a young adult population in Canada...
December 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Wen-Ling Liao, Chiz-Tzung Chang, Ching-Chu Chen, Wen-Jane Lee, Shih-Yi Lin, Hsin-Yi Liao, Chia-Ming Wu, Ya-Wen Chang, Chao-Jung Chen, Fuu-Jen Tsai
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major complication in diabetic patients. Microalbuminuria testing is used to identify renal disease; however, its predictive value is questionable. We aimed to identify urinary biomarkers to early diagnosis nephropathy before identifiable alternations in kidney function or urine albumin excretion occurs. Proteomic approaches were used to identify potential urinary biomarkers and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed to verify the results. The data identified haptoglobin (HPT) and α-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor (AMBP) as two biomarkers with the highest ability to distinguish between healthy individuals and patients with nephropathy, and between diabetic patients with and without DN...
November 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
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