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Autism Microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30283047/the-contribution-of-the-gut-microbiome-to-neurodevelopment-and-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Barbara B Warner
Bidirectional communication between the gut and brain is well recognized, with data now accruing for a specific role of the gut microbiota in that link, referred to as the microbiome-gut-brain axis. This review will discuss the emerging role of the gut microbiota in brain development and behavior. Animal studies have clearly demonstrated effects of the gut microbiota on gene expression and neurochemical metabolism impacting behavior and performance. Based on these changes, a modulating role of the gut microbiota has been demonstrated for a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression, anxiety, and movement including Parkinson's, and importantly for the pediatric population autism...
September 25, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30269309/air-pollution-early-life-microbiome-and-development
#2
REVIEW
Yvonne Vallès, M Pilar Francino
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review how an altered microbiome in early life impacts on immune, metabolic, and neurological development, focusing on some of the most widespread diseases related to each of these processes, namely atopic disease, obesity, and autism. RECENT FINDINGS: The early development of the microbial communities that inhabit the human body is currently challenged by factors that range from reduced exposure to microbes, antibiotic use, and poor dietary choices to widespread environmental pollution...
September 29, 2018: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259417/systemic-treatment-with-the-enteric-bacterial-fermentation-product-propionic-acid-reduces-acoustic-startle-response-magnitude-in-rats-in-a-dose-dependent-fashion-contribution-to-a-rodent-model-of-asd
#3
Corey L Kamen, Danna L Zevy, Jordan M Ward, Indra R Bishnoi, Martin Kavaliers, Klaus-Peter Ossenkopp
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by cognitive and sensorimotor deficits, among others. Hypo-sensitivity and hyper-sensitivity to different stimuli within the same sensory modality, a prominent symptom of ASD, can be assessed by acoustic startle response (ASR) and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Propionic acid (PPA) is a short-chain fatty acid and a by-product of the human gut microbiome. Rodents treated with PPA has been found to produce ASD-related behavioral abnormalities, gastrointestinal discomfort, and conditioned aversions...
September 27, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30235399/the-microbiome-and-inborn-errors-of-metabolism-why-we-should-look-carefully-at-their-interplay
#4
Karina Colonetti, Luiz Fernando Roesch, Ida Vanessa Doederlein Schwartz
Research into the influence of the microbiome on the human body has been shedding new light on diseases long known to be multifactorial, such as obesity, mood disorders, autism, and inflammatory bowel disease. Although inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs) are monogenic diseases, genotype alone is not enough to explain the wide phenotypic variability observed in patients with these conditions. Genetics and diet exert a strong influence on the microbiome, and diet is used (alone or as an adjuvant) in the treatment of many IEMs...
July 2018: Genetics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30228282/analysis-of-gut-microbiota-profiles-and-microbe-disease-associations-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-in-china
#5
Mengxiang Zhang, Wei Ma, Juan Zhang, Yi He, Juan Wang
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a set of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. Recent studies reported that children with ASD have altered gut microbiota profiles compared with typical development (TD) children. However, few studies on gut bacteria of children with ASD have been conducted in China. Here, in order to elucidate changes of fecal microbiota in children with ASD, 16S rRNA sequencing was conducted and the 16S rRNA (V3-V4) gene tags were amplified. We investigated differences in fecal microbiota between 35 children with ASD and 6 TD children...
September 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30184549/immunological-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-potential-target-for-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Josemar Marchezan, Eduardo Geyer Arrussul Winkler Dos Santos, Iohanna Deckmann, Rudimar Dos Santos Riesgo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology and currently few effective therapies. Immune system alterations have being demonstrated in ASD, both in humans and via animal models; immune imbalance thus arises as a possible pathway for drug intervention. In this review, the studies were classified into 2 major groups: (1) clinical research whose authors classify therapies with primary anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory actions, making use of: sulforaphane, celecoxib, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, spironolactone, flavonoid luteolin, corticosteroids, oral immunoglobulin, intravenous immunoglobulin, cell therapy, dialyzable lymphocyte extracts, minocycline, and pioglitazone; and (2) other ASD therapies already used or currently under study whose initial characteristics were neither anti-inflammatory nor immunomodulatory initially, but displayed a capacity for immunomodulation throughout the treatment: risperidone, vitamin D, omega-3, Ginkgo biloba, L-carnosine, N-acetylcysteine, and microbiome restoration...
September 5, 2018: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30158857/early-disruption-of-the-microbiome-leading-to-decreased-antioxidant-capacity-and-epigenetic-changes-implications-for-the-rise-in-autism
#7
REVIEW
Rebecca S Eshraghi, Richard C Deth, Rahul Mittal, Mayank Aranke, Sae-In S Kay, Baharak Moshiree, Adrien A Eshraghi
Currently, 1 out of every 59 children in the United States is diagnosed with autism. While initial research to find the possible causes for autism were mostly focused on the genome, more recent studies indicate a significant role for epigenetic regulation of gene expression and the microbiome. In this review article, we examine the connections between early disruption of the developing microbiome and gastrointestinal tract function, with particular regard to susceptibility to autism. The biological mechanisms that accompany individuals with autism are reviewed in this manuscript including immune system dysregulation, inflammation, oxidative stress, metabolic and methylation abnormalities as well as gastrointestinal distress...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107083/oral-microbiome-activity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#8
Steven D Hicks, Richard Uhlig, Parisa Afshari, Jeremy Williams, Maria Chroneos, Cheryl Tierney-Aves, Kayla Wagner, Frank A Middleton
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including buccal sensory sensitivity, taste and texture aversions, speech apraxia, and salivary transcriptome alterations. Furthermore, the oropharynx represents the sole entry point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI disturbances and alterations in the GI microbiome are established features of ASD, and may impact behavior through the "microbial-gut-brain axis." Most studies of the ASD microbiome have used fecal samples...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105528/social-skills-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-potential-biological-origins-and-progress-in-developing-therapeutic-agents
#9
REVIEW
Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder is defined by two core symptoms: a deficit in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for these core symptoms. This article reviews the biological origins of the social function deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder and the drug therapies with the potential to treat this deficit. A review of the history of autism demonstrates that a deficit in social interaction has been the defining feature of the concept of autism from its conception...
August 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099552/making-sense-of%C3%A2-the-microbiome-in-psychiatry
#10
Thomaz F S Bastiaanssen, Caitlin S M Cowan, Marcus J Claesson, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere, including in and on the human body. The collection of microorganisms associated with a certain location is called a microbiota with its collective genetic material referred to as the microbiome. The largest population of microorganisms on the human body resides in the gastrointestinal tract thus it is not surprising that most investigated human microbiome is the human gut microbiome. On average, the gut hosts microbes from more than 60 genera and contains more cells than the human body...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071612/the-perturbance-of-microbiome-and-gut-brain-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#11
Greta Fowlie, Nicholas Cohen, Xue Ming
Gastrointestinal problems have been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Studies have found that these disturbances may be associated with an altered gut microbiome in ASD. Furthermore, in ASD, these alterations are implicated in increased gut permeability, or "leaky gut", which allows bacterial metabolites to cross the gut barrier, impacting neurodevelopment during early childhood in susceptible subjects by way of gut-brain axis. In our review, we will discuss the interaction of gut microbiota and brain development in ASD and the signaling mechanisms underlying this interaction...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064690/programming-bugs-microbiota-and-the-developmental-origins-of-brain-health-and-disease
#12
REVIEW
Martin G Codagnone, Simon Spichak, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Olivia F O'Leary, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
It has been nearly 30 years since Dr. David Barker first highlighted the importance of prenatal factors in contributing to the developmental origins of adult disease. This concept was later broadened to include postnatal events. It is clear that the interaction between genetic predisposition and early life environmental exposures is key in this regard. However, recent research has also identified another important factor in the microbiota-the trillions of microorganisms that inhabit key body niches, including the vagina and gastrointestinal tract...
June 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039193/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#13
REVIEW
Shannon Rose, Dmitriy M Niyazov, Daniel A Rossignol, Michael Goldenthal, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects ~ 2% of children in the United States. The etiology of ASD likely involves environmental factors triggering physiological abnormalities in genetically sensitive individuals. One of these major physiological abnormalities is mitochondrial dysfunction, which may affect a significant subset of children with ASD. Here we systematically review the literature on human studies of mitochondrial dysfunction related to ASD. Clinical aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD include unusual neurodevelopmental regression, especially if triggered by an inflammatory event, gastrointestinal symptoms, seizures, motor delays, fatigue and lethargy...
October 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019700/the-gut-microbiota-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#14
Marta Grochowska, Marcin Wojnar, Marek Radkowski
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders. It is estimated that the human gut is colonized by up to 1018 microorganisms, mostly anaerobic bacteria. The gut microbiome is responsible for multiple functions, e.g. tightness of the intestine barrier, digestion and absorption. The correlation between gut dysbiosis and development of psychiatric, autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as bidirectional communication between brain and gut microflora have been shown...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001426/reduced-microbiome-alpha-diversity-in-young-patients-with-adhd
#15
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Alexandra Zimmermann, Lukas Tittmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Lioba Baving, Annegret Fischer
ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention problems. Due to recent findings of microbial involvement in other psychiatric disorders like autism and depression, a role of the gut microbiota in ADHD pathogenesis is assumed but has not yet been investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of 14 male ADHD patients (mean age: 11.9 yrs.) and 17 male controls (mean age: 13.1 yrs.) was examined via next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981347/prenatal-exposure-to-environmental-insults-and-enhanced-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-focus-on-biological-pathways-and-epigenetic-mechanisms
#16
REVIEW
Nadia Cattane, Juliet Richetto, Annamaria Cattaneo
When considering neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are considered to be among the most severe in term of prevalence, morbidity and impact on the society. Similar features and overlapping symptoms have been observed at multiple levels, suggesting common pathophysiological bases. Indeed, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and epidemiological data report shared vulnerability genes and environmental triggers across the two disorders. In this review, we will discuss the possible biological mechanisms, including glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions, inflammatory signals and oxidative stress related systems, which are targeted by adverse environmental exposures and that have been associated with the development of SZ and ASD...
July 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967099/cutting-edge-critical-roles-for-microbiota-mediated-regulation-of-the-immune-system-in-a-prenatal-immune-activation-model-of-autism
#17
Catherine R Lammert, Elizabeth L Frost, Ashley C Bolte, Matt J Paysour, Mariah E Shaw, Calli E Bellinger, Thaddeus K Weigel, Eli R Zunder, John R Lukens
Recent studies suggest that autism is often associated with dysregulated immune responses and altered microbiota composition. This has led to growing speculation about potential roles for hyperactive immune responses and the microbiome in autism. Yet how microbiome-immune cross-talk contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders currently remains poorly understood. In this study, we report critical roles for prenatal microbiota composition in the development of behavioral abnormalities in a murine maternal immune activation (MIA) model of autism that is driven by the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870270/impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-neurological-diseases-diet-composition-and-novel-treatments
#18
Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment...
June 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809134/social-interaction-induced-activation-of-rna-splicing-in-the-amygdala-of-microbiome-deficient-mice
#19
Roman M Stilling, Gerard M Moloney, Feargal J Ryan, Alan E Hoban, Thomaz Fs Bastiaanssen, Fergus Shanahan, Gerard Clarke, Marcus J Claesson, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Social behaviour is regulated by activity of host-associated microbiota across multiple species. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating this relationship remain elusive. We therefore determined the dynamic, stimulus-dependent transcriptional regulation of germ-free (GF) and GF mice colonised post weaning (exGF) in the amygdala, a brain region critically involved in regulating social interaction. In GF mice the dynamic response seen in controls was attenuated and replaced by a marked increase in expression of splicing factors and alternative exon usage in GF mice upon stimulation, which was even more pronounced in exGF mice...
May 29, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787855/dysbiosis-of-microbiome-and-probiotic-treatment-in-a-genetic-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#20
Laure Tabouy, Dimitry Getselter, Oren Ziv, Marcela Karpuj, Timothée Tabouy, Iva Lukic, Rasha Maayouf, Nir Werbner, Hila Ben-Amram, Meital Nuriel-Ohayon, Omry Koren, Evan Elliott
Recent studies have determined that the microbiome has direct effects on behavior, and may be dysregulated in neurodevelopmental conditions. Considering that neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism, have a strong genetic etiology, it is necessary to understand if genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Shank3, can influence the gut microbiome, and if probiotics can be a therapeutic tool. In this study, we have identified dysregulation of several genera and species of bacteria in the gut and colon of both male and female Shank3 KO mice...
October 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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