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Autism Microbiome

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107083/oral-microbiome-activity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Steven D Hicks, Richard Uhlig, Parisa Afshari, Jeremy Williams, Maria Chroneos, Cheryl Tierney-Aves, Kayla Wagner, Frank A Middleton
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with several oropharyngeal abnormalities, including buccal sensory sensitivity, taste and texture aversions, speech apraxia, and salivary transcriptome alterations. Furthermore, the oropharynx represents the sole entry point to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. GI disturbances and alterations in the GI microbiome are established features of ASD, and may impact behavior through the "microbial-gut-brain axis." Most studies of the ASD microbiome have used fecal samples...
August 14, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105528/social-skills-deficits-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-potential-biological-origins-and-progress-in-developing-therapeutic-agents
#2
REVIEW
Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder is defined by two core symptoms: a deficit in social communication and the presence of repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. Currently, there is no US Food and Drug Administration-approved drug for these core symptoms. This article reviews the biological origins of the social function deficit associated with autism spectrum disorder and the drug therapies with the potential to treat this deficit. A review of the history of autism demonstrates that a deficit in social interaction has been the defining feature of the concept of autism from its conception...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099552/making-sense-of%C3%A2-the-microbiome-in-psychiatry
#3
Thomaz F S Bastiaanssen, Caitlin S M Cowan, Marcus J Claesson, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Microorganisms can be found almost anywhere, including in and on the human body. The collection of microorganisms associated with a certain location is called a microbiota with its collective genetic material referred to as the microbiome. The largest population of microorganisms on the human body resides in the gastrointestinal tract thus it is not surprising that most investigated human microbiome is the human gut microbiome. On average, the gut hosts microbes from more than 60 genera and contains more cells than the human body...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30071612/the-perturbance-of-microbiome-and-gut-brain-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#4
Greta Fowlie, Nicholas Cohen, Xue Ming
Gastrointestinal problems have been documented in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Studies have found that these disturbances may be associated with an altered gut microbiome in ASD. Furthermore, in ASD, these alterations are implicated in increased gut permeability, or "leaky gut", which allows bacterial metabolites to cross the gut barrier, impacting neurodevelopment during early childhood in susceptible subjects by way of gut-brain axis. In our review, we will discuss the interaction of gut microbiota and brain development in ASD and the signaling mechanisms underlying this interaction...
August 1, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30064690/programming-bugs-microbiota-and-the-developmental-origins-of-brain-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Martin G Codagnone, Simon Spichak, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Olivia F O'Leary, Gerard Clarke, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
It has been nearly 30 years since Dr. David Barker first highlighted the importance of prenatal factors in contributing to the developmental origins of adult disease. This concept was later broadened to include postnatal events. It is clear that the interaction between genetic predisposition and early life environmental exposures is key in this regard. However, recent research has also identified another important factor in the microbiota-the trillions of microorganisms that inhabit key body niches, including the vagina and gastrointestinal tract...
June 27, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039193/clinical-and-molecular-characteristics-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
REVIEW
Shannon Rose, Dmitriy M Niyazov, Daniel A Rossignol, Michael Goldenthal, Stephen G Kahler, Richard E Frye
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) affects ~ 2% of children in the United States. The etiology of ASD likely involves environmental factors triggering physiological abnormalities in genetically sensitive individuals. One of these major physiological abnormalities is mitochondrial dysfunction, which may affect a significant subset of children with ASD. Here we systematically review the literature on human studies of mitochondrial dysfunction related to ASD. Clinical aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in ASD include unusual neurodevelopmental regression, especially if triggered by an inflammatory event, gastrointestinal symptoms, seizures, motor delays, fatigue and lethargy...
July 23, 2018: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019700/the-gut-microbiota-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#7
Marta Grochowska, Marcin Wojnar, Marek Radkowski
The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about the gut microbiota in neuropsychiatric disorders. It is estimated that the human gut is colonized by up to 1018 microorganisms, mostly anaerobic bacteria. The gut microbiome is responsible for multiple functions, e.g. tightness of the intestine barrier, digestion and absorption. The correlation between gut dysbiosis and development of psychiatric, autoimmune and allergic diseases as well as bidirectional communication between brain and gut microflora have been shown...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001426/reduced-microbiome-alpha-diversity-in-young-patients-with-adhd
#8
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Alexandra Zimmermann, Lukas Tittmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Lioba Baving, Annegret Fischer
ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention problems. Due to recent findings of microbial involvement in other psychiatric disorders like autism and depression, a role of the gut microbiota in ADHD pathogenesis is assumed but has not yet been investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of 14 male ADHD patients (mean age: 11.9 yrs.) and 17 male controls (mean age: 13.1 yrs.) was examined via next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981347/prenatal-exposure-to-environmental-insults-and-enhanced-risk-of-developing-schizophrenia-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-focus-on-biological-pathways-and-epigenetic-mechanisms
#9
REVIEW
Nadia Cattane, Juliet Richetto, Annamaria Cattaneo
When considering neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs), Schizophrenia (SZ) and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are considered to be among the most severe in term of prevalence, morbidity and impact on the society. Similar features and overlapping symptoms have been observed at multiple levels, suggesting common pathophysiological bases. Indeed, recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and epidemiological data report shared vulnerability genes and environmental triggers across the two disorders. In this review, we will discuss the possible biological mechanisms, including glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmissions, inflammatory signals and oxidative stress related systems, which are targeted by adverse environmental exposures and that have been associated with the development of SZ and ASD...
July 4, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29967099/cutting-edge-critical-roles-for-microbiota-mediated-regulation-of-the-immune-system-in-a-prenatal-immune-activation-model-of-autism
#10
Catherine R Lammert, Elizabeth L Frost, Ashley C Bolte, Matt J Paysour, Mariah E Shaw, Calli E Bellinger, Thaddeus K Weigel, Eli R Zunder, John R Lukens
Recent studies suggest that autism is often associated with dysregulated immune responses and altered microbiota composition. This has led to growing speculation about potential roles for hyperactive immune responses and the microbiome in autism. Yet how microbiome-immune cross-talk contributes to neurodevelopmental disorders currently remains poorly understood. In this study, we report critical roles for prenatal microbiota composition in the development of behavioral abnormalities in a murine maternal immune activation (MIA) model of autism that is driven by the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870270/impact-of-gut-microbiota-on-neurological-diseases-diet-composition-and-novel-treatments
#11
Ana Larroya-García, Diana Navas-Carrillo, Esteban Orenes-Piñero
Gut microbiota has significant effects on the structure and function of the enteric and central nervous system including human behaviour and brain regulation. Herein, we analyze the role of this intestinal ecosystem, the effects of dietary changes and the administration of nutritional supplements, such as probiotics, prebiotics, or fecal transplantation in neuropsychiatric disorders. Numerous factors have been highlighted to influence gut microbiota composition, including genetics, health status, mode of birth delivery and environment...
June 5, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29809134/social-interaction-induced-activation-of-rna-splicing-in-the-amygdala-of-microbiome-deficient-mice
#12
Roman M Stilling, Gerard M Moloney, Feargal J Ryan, Alan E Hoban, Thomaz Fs Bastiaanssen, Fergus Shanahan, Gerard Clarke, Marcus J Claesson, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
Social behaviour is regulated by activity of host-associated microbiota across multiple species. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating this relationship remain elusive. We therefore determined the dynamic, stimulus-dependent transcriptional regulation of germ-free (GF) and GF mice colonised post weaning (exGF) in the amygdala, a brain region critically involved in regulating social interaction. In GF mice the dynamic response seen in controls was attenuated and replaced by a marked increase in expression of splicing factors and alternative exon usage in GF mice upon stimulation, which was even more pronounced in exGF mice...
May 29, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787855/dysbiosis-of-microbiome-and-probiotic-treatment-in-a-genetic-model-of-autism-spectrum-disorders
#13
Laure Tabouy, Dimitry Getselter, Oren Ziv, Marcela Karpuj, Timothée Tabouy, Iva Lukic, Rasha Maayouf, Nir Werbner, Hila Ben-Amram, Meital Nuriel-Ohayon, Omry Koren, Evan Elliott
Recent studies have determined that the microbiome has direct effects on behavior, and may be dysregulated in neurodevelopmental conditions. Considering that neurodevelopmental conditions, such as autism, have a strong genetic etiology, it is necessary to understand if genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders, such as Shank3, can influence the gut microbiome, and if probiotics can be a therapeutic tool. In this study, we have identified dysregulation of several genera and species of bacteria in the gut and colon of both male and female Shank3 KO mice...
May 19, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614380/serotonin-as-a-link-between-the-gut-brain-microbiome-axis-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Narek Israelyan, Kara Gross Margolis
Autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and repetitive patterns of behavior. ASD is, however, often associated with medical comorbidities and gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is among the most common. Studies have demonstrated a correlation between GI dysfunction and the degree of social impairment in ASD. The etiology of GI abnormalities in ASD is unclear, though the association between GI dysfunction and ASD-associated behaviors suggest that overlapping developmental defects in the brain and the intestine and/or a defect in communication between the enteric and central nervous systems (ENS and CNS, respectively), known as the gut-brain axis, could be responsible for the observed phenotypes...
June 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#15
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
April 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571898/differential-immune-responses-and-microbiota-profiles-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-co-morbid-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#16
Destanie R Rose, Houa Yang, Gloria Serena, Craig Sturgeon, Bing Ma, Milo Careaga, Heather K Hughes, Kathy Angkustsiri, Melissa Rose, Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Judy Van de Water, Robin L Hansen, Jacques Ravel, Alessio Fasano, Paul Ashwood
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have reported the increased presence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Altered microbiome profiles, pro-inflammatory responses and impaired intestinal permeability have been observed in children with ASD and co-morbid GI symptoms, yet few studies have compared these findings to ASD children without GI issues or similarly aged typical developing children. The aim of this study was to determine whether there are biological signatures in terms of immune dysfunction and microbiota composition in children with ASD with GI symptoms...
May 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564487/gut-microbial-dysbiosis-in-indian-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#17
Joby Pulikkan, Abhijit Maji, Darshan Bharat Dhakan, Rituja Saxena, Binoop Mohan, Milu Maria Anto, Neeti Agarwal, Tony Grace, Vineet K Sharma
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a term associated with a group of neurodevelopmental disorders. The etiology of ASD is not yet completely understood; however, a disorder in the gut-brain axis is emerging as a prominent factor leading to autism. To identify the taxonomic composition and markers associated with ASD, we compared the fecal microbiota of 30 ASD children diagnosed using Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) score, DSM-5 approved AIIMS-modified INCLEN Diagnostic Tool for Autism Spectrum Disorder (INDT-ASD), and Indian Scale for Assessment of Autism (ISAA) tool, with family-matched 24 healthy children from Indian population using next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S rRNA gene amplicon...
March 21, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459836/treating-depression-with-transcutaneous-auricular-vagus-nerve-stimulation-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#18
Jian Kong, Jiliang Fang, Joel Park, Shaoyuan Li, Peijing Rong
Depression is a highly prevalent disorder, and its treatment is far from satisfactory. There is an urgent need to develop a new treatment for depression. Although still at its early stage, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) has shown promising potential for treating depression. In this article, we first summarize the results of clinical studies on the treatment effect of taVNS on depression. Then, we re-analyze a previous study to identify the specific symptoms taVNS can relieve as indicated by subscores of the 24-item Hamilton Depression Scale in patients with depression...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456357/role-of-exclusive-breastfeeding-in-conferring-protection-in-children-at-risk-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-results-from-a-sibling-case-control-study
#19
Harshini Manohar, Madhavapuri Pravallika, Preeti Kandasamy, Venkatesh Chandrasekaran, Ravi Philip Rajkumar
Background: Gut microflora influences neural development through complex mechanisms. Feeding practices, especially breastfeeding influence gut microbiome and thereby play a pivotal role in immune and neural development. Current understandings of the role of healthy distal gut microflora in the development of immune and neural systems provide insights into immunological mechanisms as one of the possible etiologies in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Studies have shown that optimal breastfeeding is associated with lower odds of being at-risk for ASD and children with ASD are suboptimally breastfed...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29391397/butyrate-enhances-mitochondrial-function-during-oxidative-stress-in-cell-lines-from-boys-with-autism
#20
Shannon Rose, Sirish C Bennuri, Jakeira E Davis, Rebecca Wynne, John C Slattery, Marie Tippett, Leanna Delhey, Stephan Melnyk, Stephen G Kahler, Derrick F MacFabe, Richard E Frye
Butyrate (BT) is a ubiquitous short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) principally derived from the enteric microbiome. BT positively modulates mitochondrial function, including enhancing oxidative phosphorylation and beta-oxidation and has been proposed as a neuroprotectant. BT and other SCFAs have also been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), a condition associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. We have developed a lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) model of ASD, with a subset of LCLs demonstrating mitochondrial dysfunction (AD-A) and another subset of LCLs demonstrating normal mitochondrial function (AD-N)...
February 2, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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