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"Calorie Restriction"

Yu-Chen Chen, Pei-Heng Jiang, Hsuan-Ming Chen, Chang-Han Chen, Yi-Ting Wang, Yu-Ju Chen, Chia-Jung Yu, Shu-Chun Teng
Aging is an intricate phenomenon associated with the gradual loss of physiological functions, and both nutrient sensing and proteostasis control lifespan. Although multiple approaches have facilitated the identification of candidate genes that govern longevity, the molecular mechanisms that link aging pathways are still elusive. Here, we conducted a quantitative mass spectrometry screen and identified all phosphorylation/dephosphorylation sites on yeast proteins that significantly responded to calorie restriction, a well-established approach to extend lifespan...
December 5, 2018: ELife
Elisa Caiola, Francesca Falcetta, Silvia Giordano, Mirko Marabese, Marina C Garassino, Massimo Broggini, Roberta Pastorelli, Laura Brunelli
BACKGROUND: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disease, with multiple different oncogenic mutations. Approximately 25-30% of NSCLC patients present KRAS mutations, which confer poor prognosis and high risk of tumor recurrence. About half of NSCLCs with activating KRAS lesions also have deletions or inactivating mutations in the serine/threonine kinase 11 (LKB1) gene. Loss of LKB1 on a KRAS-mutant background may represent a significant source of heterogeneity contributing to poor response to therapy...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
K N Nilaweera, J R Speakman
The growth of the intestine requires energy, which is known to be met by catabolism of ingested nutrients. Paradoxically, during whole body energy deficit including calorie restriction, the intestine grows in size. To understand how and why this happens, we reviewed data from several animal models of energetic challenge. These were bariatric surgery, cold exposure, lactation, dietary whey protein intake and calorie restriction. Notably, these challenges all reduced the adipose tissue mass, altered hypothalamic neuropeptide expression and increased intestinal size...
December 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Daniel Antonio de Luis, David Primo, Olatz Izaola, Emilia Gomez Hoyos, Juan Jose Lopez Gomez, Ana Ortola, Rocio Aller
OBJECTIVES: The role of ADIPOQ gene variants on weight loss after a dietary intervention remain unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of rs266729 of the ADIPOQ gene on cardiovascular risk factors and adiposity parameters after adherence to a Mediterranean-type hypocaloric diet. METHOD: Eighty-three obese patients were studied before and after 12 wk on a Mediterranean-type hypocaloric diet. Anthropometric parameters and biochemical profiles were measured...
August 23, 2018: Nutrition
Tine Mejlbo Sundfør, Mette Svendsen, Serena Tonstad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ruth Schübel, Johanna Nattenmüller, Disorn Sookthai, Tobias Nonnenmacher, Mirja E Graf, Lena Riedl, Christopher L Schlett, Oyunbileg von Stackelberg, Theron Johnson, Diana Nabers, Romy Kirsten, Mario Kratz, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Cornelia M Ulrich, Rudolf Kaaks, Tilman Kühn
Background: Although preliminary evidence suggests that intermittent calorie restriction (ICR) exerts stronger effects on metabolic parameters, which may link obesity and major chronic diseases, compared with continuous calorie restriction (CCR), there is a lack of well-powered intervention studies. Objective: We conducted a randomized controlled trial to test whether ICR, operationalized as the "5:2 diet," has stronger effects on adipose tissue gene expression, anthropometric and body composition measures, and circulating metabolic biomarkers than CCR and a control regimen...
November 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hideya Shintani, Tomoya Shintani, Hisashi Ashida, Masashi Sato
Calorie restriction (CR) can prolong the human lifespan, but enforcing long-term CR is difficult. Therefore, a compound that reproduces the effect of CR without CR is needed. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on compounds with CR mimetic (CRM) effects. More than 10 compounds have been listed as CRMs, some of which are conventionally categorized as upstream-type CRMs showing glycolytic inhibition, while the others are categorized as downstream-type CRMs that regulate or genetically modulate intracellular signaling proteins...
November 22, 2018: Nutrients
Yu Chung Chooi, Cherlyn Ding, Zhiling Chan, Jezebel Lo, John Choo, Benjamin T K Ding, Melvin K-S Leow, Faidon Magkos
Weight loss, induced by chronic energy deficit, improves the blood lipid profile. However, the effects of an acute negative energy balance and the comparative efficacy of diet and exercise are not well-established. We determined the effects of progressive, acute energy deficits (20% or 40% of daily energy requirements) induced by a single day of calorie restriction ( n = 19) or aerobic exercise ( n = 13) in healthy subjects (age: 26 ± 9 years; body mass index (BMI): 21.8 ± 2.9 kg/m²). Fasting plasma concentrations of very low-, intermediate-, low-, and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, IDL, and HDL, respectively) particles and their subclasses were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance...
November 21, 2018: Nutrients
Ann-Katrin Kraeuter, Maarten van den Buuse, Zoltán Sarnyai
Recent transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomics studies have highlighted an abnormal cerebral glucose and energy metabolism as one of the potential pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. This raises the possibility that a metabolically-based intervention might have therapeutic value in the management of schizophrenia, a notion supported by our recent results that a low carbohydrate/high-fat therapeutic ketogenic diet (KD) prevented a variety of behavioural abnormalities induced by pharmacological inhibition of NMDA glutamate receptors...
November 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Devin Wahl, Samantha M Solon-Biet, Qiao-Ping Wang, Jibran A Wali, Tamara Pulpitel, Ximonie Clark, David Raubenheimer, Alistair M Senior, David A Sinclair, Gregory J Cooney, Rafael de Cabo, Victoria C Cogger, Stephen J Simpson, David G Le Couteur
Calorie restriction (CR) increases lifespan and improves brain health in mice. Ad libitum low-protein, high-carbohydrate (LPHC) diets also extend lifespan, but it is not known whether they are beneficial for brain health. We compared hippocampus biology and memory in mice subjected to 20% CR or provided ad libitum access to one of three LPHC diets or to a control diet. Patterns of RNA expression in the hippocampus of 15-month-old mice were similar between mice fed CR and LPHC diets when we looked at genes associated with longevity, cytokines, and dendrite morphogenesis...
November 20, 2018: Cell Reports
Elisabet Cuyàs, Sara Verdura, Laura Llorach-Parés, Salvador Fernández-Arroyo, Jorge Joven, Begoña Martin-Castillo, Joaquim Bosch-Barrera, Joan Brunet, Alfons Nonell-Canals, Melchor Sanchez-Martinez, Javier A Menendez
Metformin has been proposed to operate as an agonist of SIRT1, a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ )-dependent deacetylase that mimics most of the metabolic responses to calorie restriction. Herein, we present an in silico analysis focusing on the molecular docking and dynamic simulation of the putative interactions between metformin and SIRT1. Using eight different crystal structures of human SIRT1 protein, our computational approach was able to delineate the putative binding modes of metformin to several pockets inside and outside the central deacetylase catalytic domain...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Komal Saraswat, Raushan Kumar, Syed Ibrahim Rizvi
Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) provide an exciting anti-aging intervention strategy. 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor is known to works as a CRM at high doses, however chronic high dose has been linked to increased mortality in rats. We have investigated chronic low dose dietary administration of 2-DG on age-related stress protection in young and old age male wistar rats by evaluating age-dependent biomarkers in plasma and erythrocytes. Significant increase was observed in ROS generation in 2-DG treated rats (both young and old), concomitant with increase in erythrocyte plasma membrane redox system (PMRS), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)...
November 18, 2018: Rejuvenation Research
Xiaojiao Zheng, Shouli Wang, Wei Jia
Calorie restriction (CR) is a dietary regimen that reduces calorie intake without incurring malnutrition or a reduction in essential nutrients. It has long been recognized as a natural strategy for promoting health, extending longevity, and prevents the development of metabolic and age-related diseases. In the present review, we focus on the general effect of CR on gut microbiota composition and global metabolism. We also propose mechanisms for its beneficial effect. Results showed that probiotic and butyrate-producing microbes increased their relative abundance, whereas proinflammatory strains exhibited suppressed relative abundance following CR...
November 16, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Kuat Oshakbayev, Bakytzhan Bimbetov, Kenzhegul Manekenova, Gulnara Bedelbayeva, Khalit Mustafin, Bibazhar Dukenbayeva
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of the fast weight loss method on liver steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, glycemic and lipid features and body composition in patients with severe nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A 24 week open prospective randomized controlled clinical trial including 80 adult patients (aged 40-65 years) was performed. The patients after randomization were divided into two groups: the main group followed the fast weight loss method; the control group received conventional drug treatment...
November 15, 2018: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Hao Hu, Guoyue Yuan, Xinchen Wang, Jin Sun, Zhaohua Gao, Tingting Zhou, Wenwen Yin, Ruonan Cai, Xing Ye, Zhaoling Wang
Angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) is a newly discovered adipokine plays an important role in energy homoeostasis, obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Although lifestyle modification in obesity and T2D is known to offer metabolic benefits, there is paucity of comprehensive data on change in ANGPTL8. We investigated the effect of lifestyle intervention on ANGPTL8 concentrations. 384 obese/overweight adults with newly diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned (1:1:1) to diet (n = 128), diet + activity (n = 128) or usual care (control, n = 128) groups...
November 15, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Hossein Shirvani, Alireza Delpasand, Behzad Bazgir
The present data article aims at investigating the muscular levels of Irisin, FNDC5, and UCP1 in male Wistar rats during the aerobic exercise with or without calorie restriction (CR). Twenty four, 8-week-old male Wistar rats (190±16 g) were selected and purchased for the research. After obesity induction by high-fat diet, the animals were randomly divided into three groups: exercise EX ( n = 8), EX-CR ( n = 8) and CO as control ( n = 8). EX exercised 6 sessions per week and EXCR exercise 3 sessions + 3 days caloric restriction per week...
December 2018: Data in Brief
Helmut Schröder, Gabriela Cárdenas-Fuentes, Miguel Angel Martínez-González, Dolores Corella, Jesús Vioque, Dora Romaguera, J Alfredo Martínez, Francisco J Tinahones, José López Miranda, Ramon Estruch, Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas, Fernando Arós, Ascensión Marcos, Josep A Tur, Julia Warnberg, Lluis Serra-Majem, Vicente Martín, Clotilde Vázquez, José Lapetra, Xavier Pintó, Josep Vidal, Lidia Daimiel, José Juan Gaforio, Pilar Matía-Martín, Emilio Ros, Olga Castañer, Camille Lassale, Miguel Ruiz-Canela, Eva M Asensio, Josep Basora, Laura Torres-Collado, Antonio Garcia-Rios, Itziar Abete, Estefania Toledo, Pilar Buil-Cosiales, Mònica Bullo, Albert Goday, Montserrat Fitó, Jordi Salas-Salvadó
BACKGROUND: The development and implementation of effective physical activity (PA) intervention programs is challenging, particularly in older adults. After the first year of the intervention program used in the ongoing PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Plus trial, we assessed the initial effectiveness of the PA component. METHODS: PREDIMED-Plus is an ongoing randomized clinical trial including 6874 participants randomized to an intensive weight-loss lifestyle intervention based on an energy-restricted Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), physical activity promotion and behavioral support and to a control group using MedDiet recommendations but without calorie restriction or PA advice...
November 13, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Nicole R Compo, Diego E Gomez, Brian Tapscott, J Scott Weese, Patricia V Turner
The gastrointestinal microbiome is known to play a critical role in animal health but has been relatively poorly characterized in commercial mink, an obligate carnivore. Whether the microbiota can be manipulated in mink to improve pelt quality, health, and well-being is unknown. The objectives of this study were to characterize the fecal microbiota of commercial mink, and to evaluate potential changes due to year (2014 vs 2015), life stage (adult female vs weaned kit), season (summer vs winter), and between Canadian farms...
2018: PloS One
Masaaki Yamamoto, Yutaka Takahashi
The endocrine system plays an essential role in the physiological adaptation to malnutrition. The adaptive response of various hormones directs the energy utilization toward the survival functions and away from growth and reproduction. Particularly, the hypothalamic pituitary axis plays an integral and a central role in the regulation of endocrine organs. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)-dependent histone deacetylase that is activated in response to calorie restriction (CR). SIRT1 is involved in cellular processes via the deacetylation of histone as well as various transcription factors and signal transduction molecules and thereby modulates the endocrine/metabolic functions...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
J Humberto Treviño-Villarreal, Justin S Reynolds, Alexander Bartelt, P Kent Langston, Michael R MacArthur, Alessandro Arduini, Valeria Tosti, Nicola Veronese, Beatrice Bertozzi, Lear E Brace, Pedro Mejia, Kaspar Trocha, Gustavo S Kajitani, Alban Longchamp, Eylul Harputlugil, Rose Gathungu, Susan S Bird, Arnold D Bullock, Robert S Figenshau, Gerald L Andriole, Andrew Thompson, Jöerg Heeren, C Keith Ozaki, Bruce S Kristal, Luigi Fontana, James R Mitchell
Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Dietary interventions based on protein restriction (PR) reduce circulating triglycerides (TGs), but underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance remain unclear. Here, we show that 1 week of a protein-free diet without enforced calorie restriction significantly lowered circulating TGs in both lean and diet-induced obese mice. Mechanistically, the TG-lowering effect of PR was due, in part, to changes in very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) metabolism both in liver and peripheral tissues...
November 2, 2018: JCI Insight
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