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"Calorie Restriction"

Miso Kang, Hye Jin Yoo, Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Jong Ho Lee
BACKGROUND: Using metabolomics technique to analyze the response to a dietary intervention generates valuable information concerning the effects of the prescribed diet on metabolic regulation. To determine whether low calorie diet (LCD)-induced weight reduction causes changes in plasma metabolites and metabolic characteristics. METHODS: Overweight subjects consumed a LCD (n = 47) or a weight maintenance diet (control, n = 50) in a randomized, controlled design study with a 12-week clinical intervention period...
October 15, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Cicera Edna Barbosa David, Aline Maria Brito Lucas, Maria Thalyne Silva Araújo, Beatriz Neves Coelho, Juarez Braga Soares Neto, Bruna Raysa Campos Portela, Anna Lídia Nunes Varela, Alicia J Kowaltowski, Heberty T Facundo
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and associated heart failure. Cardiac tissue grows in response to pressure or volume overload, leading to wall thickening or chamber enlargement. If sustained, this condition will lead to a dysfunctional cardiac tissue and oxidative stress. Calorie restriction (CR) is a powerful intervention to improve health and delay aging. Here, we investigated whether calorie restriction in mice prevented isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo by avoiding reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and maintaining antioxidant enzymatic activity...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Luke Harrison, Sonja C Schriever, Annette Feuchtinger, Eleni Kyriakou, Peter Baumann, Katrin Pfuhlmann, Ana C Messias, Axel Walch, Matthias H Tschöp, Paul T Pfluger
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals carrying loss-of-function gene mutations for the adipocyte hormone leptin are morbidly obese, but respond favorably to replacement therapy. Recombinant leptin is however largely ineffective for the vast majority of obese individuals due to leptin resistance. One theory underlying leptin resistance is impaired leptin transport across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB). Here, we aim to gain new insights into the mechanisms of leptin BBB transport, and its role in leptin resistance...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Rosario Pardo, Maria Vilà, Luis Cervela, Marina de Marco, Pau Gama-Pérez, Alba González-Franquesa, Lucia Statuto, Ramon Vilallonga, Rafael Simó, Pablo M Garcia-Roves, Josep A Villena
Calorie restriction (CR) exerts remarkable, beneficial effects on glucose homeostasis by mechanisms that are not fully understood. Given the relevance of white adipose tissue (WAT) in glucose homeostasis, we aimed at identifying the main cellular processes regulated in WAT in response to CR in a pathologic context of obesity. For this, a gene-expression profiling study was first conducted in mice fed ad libitum or subjected to 40% CR. We found that the gene network related to mitochondria was the most highly upregulated in WAT by CR...
October 2, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Kentaro Oki, Edward B Arias, Makoto Kanzaki, Gregory D Cartee
We evaluated effects of calorie restriction (CR: consuming 60-65% of ad libitum [AL] intake) initiated late-in-life with or without acute exercise on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (ISGU) of skeletal muscle by studying 4 groups of 26-month-old rats: sedentary-AL, sedentary-CR (8-week duration), 3-hours post-exercise (3hPEX)-AL and 3hPEX-CR. ISGU was determined in isolated epitrochlearis muscles incubated ±insulin. Muscles were assessed for signaling proteins (immunoblotting) and lipids (mass spectrometry)...
October 1, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Alan Morris
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Hoda E Mohamed, Dina M Abo-ELmatty, Noha M Mesbah, Samy M Saleh, Abdel-Moniem A Ali, Amr T Sakr
Obesity is a proven risk factor for neurodegenerative disease like Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulating evidences suggested that nutritional interventions provide potential for prevention and treatment of AD. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of dietary treatment of obese rats with natural Raspberry ketone (RK) and their relationship with neurodegeneration. Obesity was first induced in 40 male Wistar rats (140-160 g) by feeding high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks. Obese rats were then assigned into 4 groups (n = 10 each)...
November 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Anne Gilmore, Leanne Redman
Caloric restriction in non-obese humans improves metabolic efficiency and reduces oxidative damage markers which may decrease cancer incidence and progression.
2018: Molecular & Cellular Oncology
Blandine Laferrère, François Pattou
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass results in large and sustained weight loss and resolution of type 2 diabetes in 60% of cases at 1-2 years. In addition to calorie restriction and weight loss, various gastro-intestinal mediated mechanisms, independent of weight loss, also contribute to glucose control. The anatomical re-arrangement of the small intestine after gastric bypass results in accelerated nutrient transit, enhances the release of post-prandial gut hormones incretins and of insulin, alters the metabolism and the entero-hepatic cycle of bile acids, modifies intestinal glucose uptake and metabolism, and alters the composition and function of the microbiome...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Asokan Devarajan, Namakkal S Rajasekaran, Claire Valburg, Ekambaram Ganapathy, Snehal Bindra, William A Freije
Intrauterine growth restriction leads to adult obesity, cardiovascular disease, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/steatohepatitis. Animal models have shown that combined intrauterine and early postnatal calorie restriction (IPCR) ameliorates these sequelae in adult life. The mechanism by which IPCR protects against adult onset disease is not understood. Autophagy, a lysosomal degradative process, recycles cellular constituents and eliminates damaged organelles, proteins, and oxidants. In this study, we hypothesized that IPCR could regulate autophagy in the liver of male rat offspring...
September 21, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Andrew Moore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
Christine Faraci, Joyce Jin, Dori C Woods
It has recently been demonstrated that moderate adult onset caloric restriction (e.g. calorie restriction; CR) has a positive impact on female fertility in aged mice, due in large to preventing the age-associated decline in the quality of oocytes available for fertilization. The impact of CR on oocyte quality has been attributed, at least in part, to mitochondrial functions. In mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutator mice (PolgD257A/D257A), which harbor a mutation in the proofreading mtDNA polymerase-gamma (POLG), mitochondrial mutations rapidly accumulate, resulting in a premature aging phenotype and female infertility...
2018: PloS One
Yaru Liang, Zhao Wang
An organism's lifespan is inevitably accompanied by the aging process, which involves functional decline, a steady increase of a plethora of chronic diseases, and ultimately death. Thus, it has been an ongoing dream of mankind to improve health span and extend the lifespan. In the last century, there is a great increase in the search for eternal youth and an insatiable appetite for methods which could turn back the clock. Survival curves are key components of lifespan experiments. Many interventions have been reported to extend the lifespan, including the administration of pharmaceuticals, calorie restriction, and genetic alteration...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Cadence True, Tyler Dean, Diana Takahashi, Elinor Sullivan, Paul Kievit
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine whether maternal high-fat diet (HFD) consumption in nonhuman primates alters the ability of offspring to adapt metabolically to nutrient and caloric challenges. METHODS: Offspring from Japanese macaque dams fed either a control (CTR) diet or HFD were weaned onto a CTR diet creating two groups: maternal HFD (mHFD, n = 18) and maternal CTR (mCTR) diet (n = 12). Male and female offspring were exposed to a 5-day 30% calorie restriction and to a 35-day HFD challenge (HFDC), at 16 and 24 months of age, respectively...
September 2018: Obesity
Minsuk Oh, Sue Kim, Ki-Yong An, Jihee Min, Hyuk In Yang, Junga Lee, Mi Kyung Lee, Dong-Il Kim, Hye-Sun Lee, Ji-Won Lee, Justin Y Jeon
BACKGROUND: It has been recognized that alternate day calorie restriction (ADCR) or exercise has positive effects on cardio-metabolic risk factors. It is unclear whether the combined effect of ADCR and exercise (aerobic + resistance training) influences risk. We investigated effects of an 8-week ADCR and exercise program (aerobic + resistance training) on cardio-metabolic risk factors in overweight and obese adults. METHODS: This study randomized 45 overweight or obese but healthy adults (F = 26, M = 19; aged about 32 to 40 years) into 4 groups: ADCR (n = 13), exercise (n = 10), exercise plus ADCR (n = 12), and control (n = 10) for 8 weeks...
September 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
Sarah J Mitchell, Michel Bernier, Julie A Mattison, Miguel A Aon, Tamzin A Kaiser, R Michael Anson, Yuji Ikeno, Rozalyn M Anderson, Donald K Ingram, Rafael de Cabo
The importance of dietary composition and feeding patterns in aging remains largely unexplored, but was implicated recently in two prominent nonhuman primate studies. Here, we directly compare in mice the two diets used in the primate studies focusing on three paradigms: ad libitum (AL), 30% calorie restriction (CR), and single-meal feeding (MF), which accounts for differences in energy density and caloric intake consumed by the AL mice. MF and CR regimes enhanced longevity regardless of diet composition, which alone had no significant impact within feeding regimens...
August 24, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Frances L Byrne, Stefan R Hargett, Sujoy Lahiri, R Jack Roy, Stuart S Berr, Stephen H Caldwell, Kyle L Hoehn
Rodent models of liver tumorigenesis have reproducibly shown that dietary sugar intake is a powerful driver of liver tumor initiation and growth. In contrast, dietary sugar restriction with ketogenic diets or calorie restriction generally prevents liver tumor formation. Ketogenic diet is viewed positively as a therapeutic adjuvant; however, most ketogenic diet studies described to date have been performed in prevention mode rather than treatment mode. Therefore, it remains unclear whether a ketogenic diet can be administered in late stages of disease to stall or reverse liver tumor growth...
September 5, 2018: Cancers
Mohammad Bagherniya, Alexandra E Butler, George E Barreto, Amirhossein Sahebkar
Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation process and protective housekeeping mechanism to eliminate damaged organelles, long-lived misfolded proteins and invading pathogens. Autophagy functions to recycle building blocks and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis, allowing cells to adapt to stress. Modulation of autophagy is a potential therapeutic target for a diverse range of diseases, including metabolic conditions, neurodegenerative diseases, cancers and infectious diseases. Traditionally, food deprivation and calorie restriction (CR) have been considered to slow aging and increase longevity...
August 30, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
Shuo Wang, Meiqin Huang, Xue You, Jingyu Zhao, Lanlan Chen, Lin Wang, Yangjun Luo, Yan Chen
Calorie restriction (CR) extends lifespan and elicits numerous effects beneficial to health and metabolism in various model organisms, but the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. Gut microbiota has been reported to be associated with the beneficial effects of CR; however, it is unknown whether these effects of CR are causally mediated by gut microbiota. In this study, we employed an antibiotic-induced microbiota-depleted mouse model to investigate the functional role of gut microbiota in CR...
August 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
Giambattista Salinari, Gabriele Ruiu
According to the constant senescence hypothesis , senescence cannot be accelerated or decelerated by exogenous factors. Two contrasting theories have been proposed in the literature. According to the inflammaging theory , those individuals who have experienced a higher antigenic load will experience more rapid senescence. Instead, the calorie restriction theory stresses that excessive daily calorie intake can produce an acceleration in senescence. To test these theories, this paper analyzes the evolution of the rate of aging in Sardinia (Italy)...
2018: Genus
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