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"Calorie Restriction"

Radha Chirumamilla, Diana Mina, Salpi Siyahian, Meyeon Park
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most prevalent genetic kidney disease. It carries high lifetime morbidity not only due to chronic kidney disease, but also due to a higher risk of cardiovascular death. Multiple metabolic abnormalities associated with -ADPKD including insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia as well as subclinical cardiovascular abnormalities, such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), contribute to this cardiovascular risk. These conditions may manifest before evidence of worsening estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Nephrology
Lawrence J Billing, Christopher A Smith, Pierre Larraufie, Deborah A Goldspink, Sam Galvin, Richard G Kay, Jonathan D Howe, Ryan Walker, Mihai Pruna, Leslie Glass, Ramona Pais, Fiona M Gribble, Frank Reimann
OBJECTIVE: Insulin-like peptide-5 (INSL5) is an orexigenic gut hormone found in a subset of colonic and rectal enteroendocrine L-cells together with the anorexigenic hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptideYY (PYY). Unlike GLP-1 and PYY, INSL5 levels are elevated by calorie restriction, raising questions about how these hormones respond to different stimuli when they arise from the same cell type. The aim of the current study was to identify whether and how INSL5, GLP-1 and PYY are co-secreted or differentially secreted from colonic L-cells...
July 30, 2018: Molecular Metabolism
Eric Le Bourg
The effects of calorie restriction have now been studied in two non-human primates, the macaque Macaca mulatta and the mouse lemur Microcebus murinus. The study on lemurs and one of the two studies on macaques have reported a lifespan increase. In this review, I argue that these results are better explained by a lifespan decrease in the control group because of a bad diet and/or overfeeding, rather than by a real lifespan increase in calorie-restricted animals. If these results can be readily translated to humans, it would mean that no beneficial effect of calorie restriction on lifespan can be expected in normal-weight or lean people, but that overweight and/or obese people could benefit to some extent from a decrease in excessive food intake...
August 1, 2018: BioEssays: News and Reviews in Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology
John A Batsis, Dennis T Villareal
The prevalence of obesity in combination with sarcopenia (the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength or physical function) is increasing in adults aged 65 years and older. A major subset of adults over the age of 65 is now classified as having sarcopenic obesity, a high-risk geriatric syndrome predominantly observed in an ageing population that is at risk of synergistic complications from both sarcopenia and obesity. This Review discusses pathways and mechanisms leading to muscle impairment in older adults with obesity...
September 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
Shih-Yi Huang, Nindy Sabrina, Yi-Wen Chien, Yi-Chun Chen, Shyh-Hsiang Lin, Jung-Su Chang
BACKGROUND & AIMS: This study explored whether moderate weight loss or a reduction in interleukin (IL)-6 improve the serum iron status in overweight (OW) and obese adults supplemented with or without fish oil. METHODS AND RESULTS: In total, 93 OW /obese Taiwanese adults with ≥2 metabolic components were randomized to a 12-week calorie-restricted diet with meal replacement alone (CRMR, n = 45) or supplemented with fish oil (CRMRF, n = 48). Mean reductions in the % body weight and serum IL-6 were 7...
July 27, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Nazanin Asghari Hanjani, Mohammadreza Vafa
Data from epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that diet and eating patterns have a major role in the pathogenesis of many age-associated diseases. Since 1935, calorie restriction (CR) has been identified as one of the most effective nongenetic dietary interventions that can increase lifespan. It involves reducing calorie intake by about 20%-40% below ad libitum , without malnutrition. Restricting food intake has been observed to increase lifespan and prevent many age-associated diseases in rats, mice, and many other species...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Cara L Green, Dudley W Lamming
Although the beneficial effects of calorie restriction (CR) on health and aging were first observed a century ago, the specific macronutrients and molecular processes that mediate the effect of CR have been heavily debated. Recently, it has become clear that dietary protein plays a key role in regulating both metabolic health and longevity, and that both the quantity and quality - the specific amino acid composition - of dietary protein mediates metabolic health. Here, we discuss recent findings in model organisms ranging from yeast to mice and humans regarding the influence of dietary protein as well as specific amino acids on metabolic health, and the physiological and molecular mechanisms which may mediate these effects...
July 22, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Lisa Anderson-Shaw
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Undurti N Das
Ageing is inevitable. Recent studies suggest that it could be delayed. Low-grade systemic inflammation is seen in type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and endothelial dysfunction that are common with increasing age. In all these conditions, an alteration in arachidonic acid (AA) metabolism is seen in the form of increased formation of pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and decreased production of anti-inflammatory lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins and decreased activity of desaturases. Calorie restriction, exercise and parabiosis delay age-related changes that could be related to enhanced proliferation of stem cells, decrease in inflammation and transfer of GDF-11 (growth differentiation factor-11) and other related molecules from the young to the old, increase in the formation of lipoxin A4, resolvins, protectins and maresins, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) and nitric oxide (NO); inhibition of ageing-related hypothalamic or brain IKK-β and NF-kB activation, decreased gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release resulting in increased neurogenesis and consequent decelerated ageing...
May 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Aleksandra Kezic, Ljiljana Popovic, Katarina Lalic
mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) protein kinase acts as a central integrator of nutrient signaling pathways. Besides the immunosuppressive role after solid organ transplantations or in the treatment of some cancers, another promising role of mTOR inhibitor as an antiaging therapeutic has emerged in the recent years. Acute or intermittent rapamycin treatment has some resemblance to calorie restriction in metabolic effects such as an increased insulin sensitivity. However, the chronic inhibition of mTOR by macrolide rapamycin or other rapalogs has been associated with glucose intolerance and insulin resistance and may even provoke type II diabetes...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Shinji Tanaka, Yuki Sugiura, Hisako Saito, Mai Sugahara, Yoshiki Higashijima, Junna Yamaguchi, Reiko Inagi, Makoto Suematsu, Masaomi Nangaku, Tetsuhiro Tanaka
It is unclear whether long-term sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibition such as that during the treatment of diabetes has deleterious effects on the kidney. Therefore, we first sought to determine whether abnormal glucose metabolism occurs in the kidneys of 22-week-old BTBR ob/ob diabetic mice. Second, the cumulative effect of chronic SGLT2 inhibition by ipragliflozin and 30% calorie restriction, either of which lowered blood glucose to a similar extent, on renal glucose metabolism was evaluated. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics demonstrated that these diabetic mice exhibited an abnormal elevation in the renal pools of tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites...
July 13, 2018: Kidney International
Richa Tulsian, Nikkhil Velingkaar, Roman Kondratov
The regulation of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling contributes to the metabolic effects of a calorie restriction (CR) diet. We assayed the effect of CR on the activity of mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) in the liver of mice at six different times across the day. CR effects on mTORC1 and mTORC2 activities were time-of-day dependent. CR induced mTORC1 activity at one time, reduced at two times and has no effect during other times. CR induced mTORC2 activity at one time of the day and has no effects at other times...
July 16, 2018: Aging
Fatih Gültekin, Mustafa Nazıroğlu, Hasan Basri Savaş, Bilal Çiğ
The TRPV1 channel is activated in neurons by capsaicin, oxidative stress, acidic pH and heat factors, and these factors are attenuated by the antioxidant role of calorie restriction (CR). Hence, we investigated the hypothesis that the antioxidant roles of CR and food frequency (FF) may modulate TRPV1 activity and apoptosis through inhibition of mitochondrial oxidative stress in hippocampal (HIPPON) and dorsal root ganglion neurons (DRGN). We investigated the contribution of FF and CR to neuronal injury and apoptosis through inhibition of TRPV1 in rats...
July 16, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Elena Gutiérrez-Casado, Husam Khraiwesh, José A López-Domínguez, Jesús Montero-Guisado, Guillermo López-Lluch, Plácido Navas, Rafael de Cabo, Jon J Ramsey, José A González-Reyes, José M Villalba
Loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is a hallmark of aging. This phenomenon has been related to a dysregulation of mitochondrial function and proteostasis. Calorie restriction (CR) has been demonstrated to delay aging and preserve function until late in life, particularly in muscle. Recently, we reported the type of dietary fat plays an important role in determining lifespan extension with 40% CR in male mice. In these conditions, lard fed mice showed an increased longevity compared to mice fed soybean or fish oils...
July 13, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
A Chmurzynska, M A Mlodzik, A Radziejewska, A Szwengiel, A M Malinowska, J Nowacka-Woszuk
One-carbon metabolism is critical to pregnancy outcomes, because it determines the availability of nutrients involved in cell divisions and DNA methylation. The aim of this study was to analyze how 50% prenatal calorie restriction affected one-carbon metabolism in pregnant Wistar rats of the F0 to F2 generations. Mean choline (p < 0.001), betaine (p < 0.001), and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) (p < 0.05) concentrations were respectively about 40%, 45%, and 20% lower in the F0_R (R - restricted diet) than in the F0_C (C - control diet)...
July 12, 2018: Biochimie
Arashdeep Singh, Rizaldy C Zapata, Adel Pezeshki, Roger D Reidelberger, Prasanth K Chelikani
Inulin, a popular prebiotic fiber, has been reported to promote satiety and fat loss; however, the dose-response effects of inulin on energy balance and diet preference, and whether the metabolic effects are independent of calorie restriction are not well characterized. Therefore, we compared the effects of diets varying in inulin concentrations on food intake, energy expenditure, body composition, gut microbiota and hormones, and assessed whether inulin-induced hypophagia was due to reduced diet preference...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Hiroaki Soyama, Morikazu Miyamoto, Takahiro Natsuyama, Masashi Takano, Hidenori Sasa, Kenichi Furuya
Refeeding syndrome very rarely develops during pregnancy. A 35-year-old primiparous woman pregnant with twins complained of severe fatigue at 19 weeks' gestation. She was admitted to our hospital in a malnourished condition because of repeated self-induced vomiting due to anorexia nervosa. Just after hospitalization, she voluntarily increased her caloric intake significantly above the recommended prescribed diet, without medical permission. Nine days later, she developed refeeding syndrome. Electrolyte replacement and calorie restriction were started and her condition gradually improved...
June 2018: Obstetric Medicine
Vitor F Martins, Shahriar Tahvilian, Ji H Kang, Kristoffer Svensson, Byron Hetrick, Wallace S Chick, Simon Schenk, Carrie E McCurdy
Introduction: The Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway plays an important role in skeletal muscle insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. While whole-body and tissue specific knockout (KO) of individual or combinations of the regulatory subunits of PI3K (p85α, p55α, and p50α or p85β); increase insulin sensitivity, no study has examined whether increasing the expression of the individual regulatory subunits would inhibit insulin action in vivo . Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle-specific overexpression of the p55α regulatory subunit of PI3K impairs skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity, or prevents its enhancement by caloric restriction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Irem Ezgi Odabasi, Elif Gencturk, Sevde Puza, Senol Mutlu, Kutlu O Ulgen
Inhibition of DNA damage response pathway in combination with DNA alkylating agents may enhance the selective killing of cancer cells leading to better therapeutic effects. MDM2 binding protein (MTBP) in human has a role in G1 phase (interphase of cell cycle) and its overexpression leads to breast and ovarian cancers. Sld7 is an uncharacterized protein in budding yeast and a potential functional homologue of MTBP. To investigate the role of Sld7 as a therapeutic target, the behavior of the wild-type cells and sld7∆ mutants were monitored in 0...
July 5, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Monica M Schroll, Amanda B Hummon
Lifestyle optimizations are implementable changes that can have an impact on health and disease. Nutrition is a lifestyle optimization that has been shown to be of great importance in cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis. Dozens of clinical trials are currently in progress that focus on the nutritional modifications that cancer patients can make prior to and during medical care that increase the efficacy of treatment. In this review, we discuss various nutritional inventions for cancer patients and the analytical approaches to characterize the downstream molecular effects...
July 4, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
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