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Foot Intrinsic

Tatsuya Nakanowatari, Tadaki Koseki, Takuya Sato, Hideto Kanzaki, Yoshiro Kiyoshige
Quadratus plantae (QP), one of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, assist plantarflexion of the lesser toes. QP has medial and lateral muscle heads with different anatomical structures. The two heads of this muscle may have different roles in foot function. Ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measurements have allowed quantitative assessment of deep-layer muscle elasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the QP in flexion movements of the lateral four toes using RTE. Thirteen healthy subjects performed maximal voluntary contractions using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt fixation for each toe flexion movement...
March 5, 2018: Foot
Miller Linda Renfrew, Paul Flowers, Anna C Lord, Danny Rafferty, Angus K McFadyen, Roy Bowers, Paul Mattison, Lorna Paul
PURPOSE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is effective in improving walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) with foot drop. There is limited research exploring people's experiences of using this device. This study aims to explore the utility, efficacy, acceptability, and impact on daily life of the device in people with MS. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was employed. Ten participants who had used FES for 12 months were interviewed...
October 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Serkan Taş, Nezehat Özgül Ünlüer, Feza Korkusuz
PURPOSE: Many musculoskeletal disorders are associated with over-pronated foot and decreased medial longitudinal arch (MLA) height. Foot intrinsic muscles and plantar fascia (PF) are the primary structures that support MLA. An important reason for the over-pronated foot and the reduction in the MLA height may be the morphological characteristics of the foot intrinsic muscles and PF as well as changes in their mechanical properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphologic structure and mechanical properties of PF, flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles in individuals with flat foot and to compare the results with those of healthy individuals...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Angel Martin Pendas, José Luis Casals-Sainz, Evelio Francisco
The increasing availability of real space interaction energies between quantum atoms or fragments, that provide a chemically intuitive decomposition of intrinsic bond energies into electrostatic and covalent terms (see for instance Chem. Eur. J. 24, 9101, 2018), evidences the differences between the physicist's concept of interaction and the chemist's concept of bond. We argue that for the former all types of interactions are treated on the same footing, while for the latter only the covalent short-ranged ones have been actually used to build intuition about chemical graphs and chemical bonds...
September 28, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
J De Wet, B Tod, W I Visser, H F Jordaan, J W Schneider
BACKGROUND: Acral melanoma (AM) is a rare subtype of cutaneous melanoma (CM) that disproportionately affects skin of colour and carries a poorer prognosis than other melanoma subtypes. The poor prognosis is attributed to late diagnosis and subsequent relatively high Breslow thickness, but also to an intrinsic biological aggressiveness. Scientific data on AM from the developing world are limited and a need exists to characterise the disease further in the South African (SA) population...
August 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Andrew J Meyr, Kyung Seo, Jasvir S Khurana, Rachana Choksi, Baidarbhi Chakraborty
Although bone biopsy has historically been considered the "gold standard" or "standard reference" for the diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis, some contemporary investigations have provided evidence against this as a single diagnostic test and in support of a combination of clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings. The objective of this investigation was to measure the level of agreement between several commonly used forms of diagnostic testing for diabetic foot osteomyelitis...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Sarah T Ridge, Mark T Olsen, Dustin A Bruening, Kevin Jurgensmeier, David Griffin, Irene S Davis, A Wayne Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Weakness of foot muscles may contribute to a variety of loading related injuries. Supportive footwear may contribute to intrinsic foot muscle weakness by reducing the muscles' role in locomotion (e.g. absorbing forces and controlling motion). Increased stimulus to the foot muscles can be provided through a variety of mechanisms, including minimalist footwear and directed exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of walking in minimalist footwear or performing foot strengthening exercises on foot muscle size and strength...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Karla I Moreno-Torres, Barbara P Brito, Matthew A Branan, Luis L Rodriguez, Amy H Delgado, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt
The quantitative relationship between the exposure dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and subsequent infection dynamics has been demonstrated through controlled inoculation studies in various species. However, similar quantitation of viral doses has not been achieved during contact exposure experiments due to the intrinsic difficulty of measuring the virus quantities exchanged between animals. In the current study, novel modeling techniques were utilized to investigate FMDV infection dynamics in groups of pigs that had been contact-exposed to FMDV-infected donors shedding varying levels of virus, as well as in pigs inoculated via the intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) route...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Luke A Kelly, Andrew G Cresswell, Dominic J Farris
The human foot contains passive elastic tissues that have spring-like qualities, storing and returning mechanical energy and other tissues that behave as dampers, dissipating energy. Additionally the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to act as dampers and motors, dissipating and generating mechanical energy. It remains unknown as to how the contribution of all passive and active tissues combine to produce the overall energetic function of the foot during running. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the foot behaves globally as an active spring-damper during running...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Penelope J Latey, Joshua Burns, Elizabeth J Nightingale, Jillian L Clarke, Claire E Hiller
Background: Weakness of the intrinsic foot muscles is thought to produce deformity, disability and pain. Assessing intrinsic foot muscles in isolation is a challenge; however ultrasound might provide a solution. The aims of this study were to assess the reproducibility of assessing the size of abductor halluces (AbH) and the medial belly of flexor hallucis brevis (FHBM) muscles, and identify their relationship with toe strength, foot morphology and balance. Methods: Twenty one participants aged 26-64 years were measured on two occasions for muscle cross-sectional area using a Siemens Acuson X300 Ultrasound System with 5-13 MHz linear array transducer...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Daniel W Fisher, Ye Han, Kyle A Lyman, Robert J Heuermann, Linda A Bean, Natividad Ybarra, Kendall M Foote, Hongxin Dong, Daniel A Nicholson, Dane M Chetkovich
Active coping is an adaptive stress response that improves outcomes in medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, most research into coping style has focused on neurotransmitter activity and little is known about the intrinsic excitability of neurons in the associated brain regions that facilitate coping. Previous studies have shown that HCN channels regulate neuronal excitability in pyramidal cells and that HCN channel current (Ih ) in the CA1 area increases with chronic mild stress. Reduction of Ih in the CA1 area leads to antidepressant-like behavior, and this region has been implicated in the regulation of coping style...
September 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
Troy Morrison, Sara Jones, Ryan S Causby, Kerry Thoirs
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with hyperglycaemia and advanced glycosylation end-products. In the foot, the consequences of chronic or uncontrolled diabetes are micro and macrovascular disease, neuropathy, reduced joint mobility and structural and soft tissue changes that increase the risk of ulcer development and amputation. Diabetes foot assessment currently includes a comprehensive history, neurological and vascular assessments and examination focussed on dermatological and musculoskeletal abnormalities...
2018: PloS One
Monica A Daley
Birds are a diverse and agile lineage of vertebrates that all use bipedal locomotion for at least part of their life. Thus birds provide a valuable opportunity to investigate how biomechanics and sensorimotor control are integrated for agile bipedal locomotion. This review summarizes recent work using terrain perturbations to reveal neuromechanical control strategies used by ground birds to achieve robust, stable and agile running. Early experiments in running guinea fowl aimed to reveal the immediate intrinsic mechanical response to an unexpected drop ('pothole') in terrain...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
T P Knellwolf, A R Burton, E Hammam, V G Macefield
The posterior tibial nerve, located behind the medial malleolus of the ankle, supplies the intrinsic muscles of the foot and most of the skin of the sole. We describe a novel approach for recording from this nerve via a percutaneously inserted tungsten microelectrode and provide examples of recordings from presumed muscle spindle endings recorded in freely standing human subjects. The fact that the angular excursions of the ankle joint are small as the foot is loaded during the transition from the seated position to standing means that one can obtain stable recordings of neural traffic in unloaded, loaded, and freely standing conditions...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
V N Chulakhov, N K Mashin, N V Maksimov
The objective of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the foot length and the height (body length) in the human subjects for the development of the rationale for the use of this characteristic for the estimation of the probable height of the newborn infants and adults. A total 1293 newborn babies (654 boys and 639 girls) were available for the examination. In addition, a mixed population of 12,141 men and 8213 women at the age ranging from 18 to 60 years and representing 49 ethnic groups were included in the study...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
Florian Ebrecht, Freddy Sichting
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week neuromuscular electrostimulation program on the intrinsic foot muscle strength. The results were compared with those from a passive and an active control group. METHODS: 74 healthy participants were recruited and divided into three groups: a neuromuscular electrostimulation group (n=19), a passive control group (n=15) with no further intervention, and an active control group following a running protocol with minimal shoes (n=40)...
June 2018: Foot
Marylen Youssef, Azadeh Ghassemi, Catalina Marysol Carvajal Gonczi, Thiffya Arabi Kugathasan, Robert D Kilgour, Peter J Darlington
BACKGROUND: The cold pressor test (CPT) involves acute hand or foot exposure to cold water. CPT hyper-responders have unique traits, including risk of hypertension and a greater vasoconstrictor reserve and g force tolerance compared to hypo-responders. The purpose of this study was to uncover differences in cardiovascular and sympathetic biomarkers between responder types. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (N = 30) submerged one hand into cold water (3.3 ± 0.8°C) for 5 min...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Martina Rossato, Mércia Barcelos Costa, Ítalo Braga de Castro, Grasiela Lopes Leães Pinho
Through controlled exposure to tributyltin (TBT), the effects of season, size, and population origin were evaluated on imposex incidence in Stramonita brasiliensis. Four experiments were carried out with organisms collected from three different sites on the Brazilian coast (Torres - Rio Grande do Sul, Farol de Santa Marta - Santa Catarina, and Aracruz - Espírito Santo). S. brasiliensis were anesthetized, sexed, measured, classified by size in small (< 30 mm), medium (≥ 30 to ≤ 40 mm), or big (> 40 mm) and injected in the foot muscle with 0...
September 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
James S Crampton, Stephen R Meyers, Roger A Cooper, Peter M Sadler, Michael Foote, David Harte
Periodic fluctuations in past biodiversity, speciation, and extinction have been proposed, with extremely long periods ranging from 26 to 62 million years, although forcing mechanisms remain speculative. In contrast, well-understood periodic Milankovitch climate forcing represents a viable driver for macroevolutionary fluctuations, although little evidence for such fluctuation exists except during the Late Cenozoic. The reality, magnitude, and drivers of periodic fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates are of interest given long-standing debate surrounding the relative roles of intrinsic biotic interactions vs...
May 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Darren C James, Matthew C Solan, Katya N Mileva
Background: Strengthening the intrinsic foot muscles is a poorly understood and largely overlooked area. In this study, we explore the feasibility of strengthening m . abductor hallucis (AH) with a specific paradigm of neuromuscular electrical stimulation; one which is low-intensity in nature and designed to interleave physiologically-relevant low frequency stimulation with high-frequencies to enhance effective current delivery to spinal motoneurones, and enable a proportion of force produced by the target muscle to be generated from a central origin...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
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