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Foot Intrinsic

Faaiz Ul Hassan, Muhammad Suhaib Qudus, Sheikh Arslan Sehgal, Jawad Ahmed, Momin Khan, Khayam Ul Haq, Shahina Mumtaz, Muhammad Arshad, Sami Siraj
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the major pathogen associated with acute tissue damage in patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). Antibiotic resistance in P. aeruginosa often bodes unpredictable and unfavourable clinical outcomes, owing to a variety of intrinsic and acquired molecular mechanisms. The study aimed to determine the frequency of ESBLs in Multi-drug resistant P. aeruginosa from diabetic foot patients. METHOD: Present study's duration was one year and 100 patients with DFU were enrolled...
November 27, 2018: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
Luke A Kelly, Dominic J Farris, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
The human foot is uniquely stiff to enable forward propulsion, yet also possesses sufficient elasticity to act as an energy store, recycling mechanical energy during locomotion. Historically this dichotomous function has been attributed to the passive contribution of the plantar aponeurosis. However, recent evidence highlights the potential for muscles to actively modulate the energetic function of the foot. Here we test the hypothesis that the central nervous system can actively control the foot's energetic function, via activation of the muscles within the foot's longitudinal arch...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Julie Choisne, Anthony McNally, Matthew C Hoch, Stacie I Ringleb
It is clinically challenging to distinguish between ankle and subtalar joints instability in vivo. Understanding the changes in load-displacement at the ankle and subtalar joints after ligament injuries may detect specific changes in joint characteristics that cannot be detected by investigating changes in range of motion alone. The effect of restricting joints end range of motion with ankle braces was already established, but little is known about the effect of an ankle brace on the flexibility of the injured ankle and subtalar joints...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Behnaz Jarrahi, Katherine T Martucci, Aneesha S Nilakantan, Sean Mackey
Fibromyalgia is a multifaceted chronic pain condition of unknown etiology. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) such as cold water pressor test of the foot, is widely documented as being disrupted in patients with fibromyalgia. To date, the mechanisms underlying such dysregulation of the descending control of pain in fibromyalgia remain poorly understood. In this study, we used ICA-based network analysis to comprehensively compare differences in functional network connectivity among relevant (nonartifactual) intrinsic connectivity brain networks during the resting state before and after cold pressor test in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Renan L Monteiro, Cristina D Sartor, Jane S S P Ferreira, Milla G B Dantas, Sicco A Bus, Isabel C N Sacco
BACKGROUND: Diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) negatively affects foot and ankle function (strength and flexibility), which itself affects the daily physical activity and quality of life of patients. A physical therapy protocol aiming to strengthen the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles and increase flexibility may be a promising approach to improve lower-extremity function, prevent further complications, and improve autonomy for daily living activities in these patients. Thus, the inclusion of a specific foot-related exercises focused on the main musculoskeletal impairments may have additional effects to the conventional interventions in the diabetic foot...
November 14, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Thomas P Knellwolf, Alexander R Burton, Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We recently developed an approach to record from muscle spindles in the intrinsic muscles of the foot in free-standing humans by inserting a tungsten microelectrode into the posterior tibial nerve behind the medial malleolus of the ankle. Here, we characterize the behaviour of muscle spindles in the small muscles of the foot in (i) seated subjects with the leg horizontal and foot naturally plantarflexed and (ii) in standing subjects. In the first study recordings were made from 26 muscle spindle afferents located within flexor digiti minimi brevis (n=4), abductor digiti minimi (n=3), quadratus plantae (n=3), plantar interossei (n=4), flexor digitorum brevis (n=3), dorsal interossei (n=2) and lumbricals (n=2), with one each supplying abductor hallucis, adductor hallucis and flexor hallucis brevis...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Calvin C Smith, Roger W P Kissane, Samit Chakrabarty
In order to successfully perform motor tasks such as locomotion, the central nervous system must coordinate contractions of antagonistic and synergistic muscles across multiple joints. This coordination is largely dependent upon the function of proprioceptive afferents (PAs), which make monosynaptic connections with homonymous motoneurons. Homonymous pathways have been well studied in both health and disease but their collateral fibers projecting to heteronymous, synergistic muscles receive relatively less attention...
September 2018: ENeuro
Simone Romoli, Maria Lucia Angelotti, Giulia Antonelli, Santhosh Kumar Vr, Shrikant R Mulay, Jyaysi Desai, Lidia Anguiano Gomez, Dana Thomasova, Dirk Eulberg, Sven Klussmann, Maria Elena Melica, Carolina Conte, Duccio Lombardi, Laura Lasagni, Hans-Joachim Anders, Paola Romagnani
Insufficient podocyte regeneration after injury is a central pathomechanism of glomerulosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Podocytes constitutively secrete the chemokine CXCL12, which is known to regulate homing and activation of stem cells; hence we hypothesized a similar effect of CXCL12 on podocyte progenitors. CXCL12 blockade increased podocyte numbers and attenuated proteinuria in mice with Adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Similar studies in lineage-tracing mice revealed enhanced de novo podocyte formation from parietal epithelial cells in the setting of CXCL12 blockade...
October 22, 2018: Kidney International
Hai-Cheng Wei, Ming-Xia Xiao, Hong-Yu Chen, Yun-Qin Li, Hsien-Tsai Wu, Cheuk-Kwan Sun
To investigate the value of decomposed short-time digital volume pulse (DVP) signals in discerning systemic vascular anomaly in diabetic patients, demographic and anthropometric parameters, serum lipid profile, fasting blood glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were obtained from 29 healthy adults (Group 1) and 29 age-matched type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (Group 2). Six-second DVP signals from right index finger acquired through photoplethysmography were decomposed using ensemble empirical mode decomposition...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Tatsuya Nakanowatari, Tadaki Koseki, Takuya Sato, Hideto Kanzaki, Yoshiro Kiyoshige
Quadratus plantae (QP), one of the plantar intrinsic foot muscles, assist plantarflexion of the lesser toes. QP has medial and lateral muscle heads with different anatomical structures. The two heads of this muscle may have different roles in foot function. Ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE) measurements have allowed quantitative assessment of deep-layer muscle elasticity. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of the QP in flexion movements of the lateral four toes using RTE. Thirteen healthy subjects performed maximal voluntary contractions using a hand-held dynamometer with external belt fixation for each toe flexion movement...
March 5, 2018: Foot
Miller Linda Renfrew, Paul Flowers, Anna C Lord, Danny Rafferty, Angus K McFadyen, Roy Bowers, Paul Mattison, Lorna Paul
PURPOSE: Functional electrical stimulation (FES) is effective in improving walking in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) with foot drop. There is limited research exploring people's experiences of using this device. This study aims to explore the utility, efficacy, acceptability, and impact on daily life of the device in people with MS. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was employed. Ten participants who had used FES for 12 months were interviewed...
October 9, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Serkan Taş, Nezehat Özgül Ünlüer, Feza Korkusuz
PURPOSE: Many musculoskeletal disorders are associated with over-pronated foot and decreased medial longitudinal arch (MLA) height. Foot intrinsic muscles and plantar fascia (PF) are the primary structures that support MLA. An important reason for the over-pronated foot and the reduction in the MLA height may be the morphological characteristics of the foot intrinsic muscles and PF as well as changes in their mechanical properties. The aim of the present study is to investigate the morphologic structure and mechanical properties of PF, flexor hallucis brevis (FHB), flexor digitorum brevis (FDB), and abductor hallucis (AbH) muscles in individuals with flat foot and to compare the results with those of healthy individuals...
May 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Angel Martin Pendas, José Luis Casals-Sainz, Evelio Francisco
The increasing availability of real space interaction energies between quantum atoms or fragments, that provide a chemically intuitive decomposition of intrinsic bond energies into electrostatic and covalent terms (see for instance Chem. Eur. J. 24, 9101, 2018), evidences the differences between the physicist's concept of interaction and the chemist's concept of bond. We argue that for the former all types of interactions are treated on the same footing, while for the latter only the covalent short-ranged ones have been actually used to build intuition about chemical graphs and chemical bonds...
September 28, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
J De Wet, B Tod, W I Visser, H F Jordaan, J W Schneider
BACKGROUND: Acral melanoma (AM) is a rare subtype of cutaneous melanoma (CM) that disproportionately affects skin of colour and carries a poorer prognosis than other melanoma subtypes. The poor prognosis is attributed to late diagnosis and subsequent relatively high Breslow thickness, but also to an intrinsic biological aggressiveness. Scientific data on AM from the developing world are limited and a need exists to characterise the disease further in the South African (SA) population...
August 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Andrew J Meyr, Kyung Seo, Jasvir S Khurana, Rachana Choksi, Baidarbhi Chakraborty
Although bone biopsy has historically been considered the "gold standard" or "standard reference" for the diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis, some contemporary investigations have provided evidence against this as a single diagnostic test and in support of a combination of clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings. The objective of this investigation was to measure the level of agreement between several commonly used forms of diagnostic testing for diabetic foot osteomyelitis...
November 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Sarah T Ridge, Mark T Olsen, Dustin A Bruening, Kevin Jurgensmeier, David Griffin, Irene S Davis, A Wayne Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Weakness of foot muscles may contribute to a variety of loading related injuries. Supportive footwear may contribute to intrinsic foot muscle weakness by reducing the muscles' role in locomotion (e.g. absorbing forces and controlling motion). Increased stimulus to the foot muscles can be provided through a variety of mechanisms, including minimalist footwear and directed exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of walking in minimalist footwear or performing foot strengthening exercises on foot muscle size and strength...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Karla I Moreno-Torres, Barbara P Brito, Matthew A Branan, Luis L Rodriguez, Amy H Delgado, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt
The quantitative relationship between the exposure dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and subsequent infection dynamics has been demonstrated through controlled inoculation studies in various species. However, similar quantitation of viral doses has not been achieved during contact exposure experiments due to the intrinsic difficulty of measuring the virus quantities exchanged between animals. In the current study, novel modeling techniques were utilized to investigate FMDV infection dynamics in groups of pigs that had been contact-exposed to FMDV-infected donors shedding varying levels of virus, as well as in pigs inoculated via the intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) route...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Luke A Kelly, Andrew G Cresswell, Dominic J Farris
The human foot contains passive elastic tissues that have spring-like qualities, storing and returning mechanical energy and other tissues that behave as dampers, dissipating energy. Additionally the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to act as dampers and motors, dissipating and generating mechanical energy. It remains unknown as to how the contribution of all passive and active tissues combine to produce the overall energetic function of the foot during running. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the foot behaves globally as an active spring-damper during running...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Penelope J Latey, Joshua Burns, Elizabeth J Nightingale, Jillian L Clarke, Claire E Hiller
Background: Weakness of the intrinsic foot muscles is thought to produce deformity, disability and pain. Assessing intrinsic foot muscles in isolation is a challenge; however ultrasound might provide a solution. The aims of this study were to assess the reproducibility of assessing the size of abductor halluces (AbH) and the medial belly of flexor hallucis brevis (FHBM) muscles, and identify their relationship with toe strength, foot morphology and balance. Methods: Twenty one participants aged 26-64 years were measured on two occasions for muscle cross-sectional area using a Siemens Acuson X300 Ultrasound System with 5-13 MHz linear array transducer...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Daniel W Fisher, Ye Han, Kyle A Lyman, Robert J Heuermann, Linda A Bean, Natividad Ybarra, Kendall M Foote, Hongxin Dong, Daniel A Nicholson, Dane M Chetkovich
Active coping is an adaptive stress response that improves outcomes in medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, most research into coping style has focused on neurotransmitter activity and little is known about the intrinsic excitability of neurons in the associated brain regions that facilitate coping. Previous studies have shown that HCN channels regulate neuronal excitability in pyramidal cells and that HCN channel current (Ih ) in the CA1 area increases with chronic mild stress. Reduction of Ih in the CA1 area leads to antidepressant-like behavior, and this region has been implicated in the regulation of coping style...
September 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
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