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Foot Intrinsic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113521/walking-in-minimalist-shoes-is-effective-for-strengthening-foot-muscles
#1
Sarah T Ridge, Mark T Olsen, Dustin A Bruening, Kevin Jurgensmeier, David Griffin, Irene S Davis, A Wayne Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Weakness of foot muscles may contribute to a variety of loading related injuries. Supportive footwear may contribute to intrinsic foot muscle weakness by reducing the muscles' role in locomotion (e.g. absorbing forces and controlling motion). Increased stimulus to the foot muscles can be provided through a variety of mechanisms, including minimalist footwear and directed exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of walking in minimalist footwear or performing foot strengthening exercises on foot muscle size and strength...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079340/foot-and-mouth-disease-infection-dynamics-in-contact-exposed-pigs-are-determined-by-the-estimated-exposure-dose
#2
Karla I Moreno-Torres, Barbara P Brito, Matthew A Branan, Luis L Rodriguez, Amy H Delgado, Carolina Stenfeldt, Jonathan Arzt
The quantitative relationship between the exposure dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) and subsequent infection dynamics has been demonstrated through controlled inoculation studies in various species. However, similar quantitation of viral doses has not been achieved during contact exposure experiments due to the intrinsic difficulty of measuring the virus quantities exchanged between animals. In the current study, novel modeling techniques were utilized to investigate FMDV infection dynamics in groups of pigs that had been contact-exposed to FMDV-infected donors shedding varying levels of virus, as well as in pigs inoculated via the intra-oropharyngeal (IOP) route...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002498/the-energetic-behaviour-of-the-human-foot-across-a-range-of-running-speeds
#3
Luke A Kelly, Andrew G Cresswell, Dominic J Farris
The human foot contains passive elastic tissues that have spring-like qualities, storing and returning mechanical energy and other tissues that behave as dampers, dissipating energy. Additionally the intrinsic and extrinsic foot muscles have the capacity to act as dampers and motors, dissipating and generating mechanical energy. It remains unknown as to how the contribution of all passive and active tissues combine to produce the overall energetic function of the foot during running. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if the foot behaves globally as an active spring-damper during running...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977344/reliability-and-correlates-of-cross-sectional-area-of-abductor-hallucis-and-the-medial-belly-of-the-flexor-hallucis-brevis-measured-by-ultrasound
#4
Penelope J Latey, Joshua Burns, Elizabeth J Nightingale, Jillian L Clarke, Claire E Hiller
Background: Weakness of the intrinsic foot muscles is thought to produce deformity, disability and pain. Assessing intrinsic foot muscles in isolation is a challenge; however ultrasound might provide a solution. The aims of this study were to assess the reproducibility of assessing the size of abductor halluces (AbH) and the medial belly of flexor hallucis brevis (FHBM) muscles, and identify their relationship with toe strength, foot morphology and balance. Methods: Twenty one participants aged 26-64 years were measured on two occasions for muscle cross-sectional area using a Siemens Acuson X300 Ultrasound System with 5-13 MHz linear array transducer...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29953635/hcn-channels-in-the-hippocampus-regulate-active-coping-behavior
#5
Daniel W Fisher, Ye Han, Kyle A Lyman, Robert J Heuermann, Linda A Bean, Natividad Ybarra, Kendall M Foote, Hongxin Dong, Daniel A Nicholson, Dane M Chetkovich
Active coping is an adaptive stress response that improves outcomes in medical and neuropsychiatric diseases. To date, most research into coping style has focused on neurotransmitter activity and little is known about the intrinsic excitability of neurons in the associated brain regions that facilitate coping. Previous studies have shown that HCN channels regulate neuronal excitability in pyramidal cells and that HCN channel current (Ih ) in the CA1 area increases with chronic mild stress. Reduction of Ih in the CA1 area leads to antidepressant-like behavior, and this region has been implicated in the regulation of coping style...
June 28, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906277/can-ultrasound-measures-of-intrinsic-foot-muscles-and-plantar-soft-tissues-predict-future-diabetes-related-foot-disease-a-systematic-review
#6
Troy Morrison, Sara Jones, Ryan S Causby, Kerry Thoirs
INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with hyperglycaemia and advanced glycosylation end-products. In the foot, the consequences of chronic or uncontrolled diabetes are micro and macrovascular disease, neuropathy, reduced joint mobility and structural and soft tissue changes that increase the risk of ulcer development and amputation. Diabetes foot assessment currently includes a comprehensive history, neurological and vascular assessments and examination focussed on dermatological and musculoskeletal abnormalities...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897448/understanding-the-agility-of-running-birds-sensorimotor-and-mechanical-factors-in-avian-bipedal-locomotion
#7
Monica A Daley
Birds are a diverse and agile lineage of vertebrates that all use bipedal locomotion for at least part of their life. Thus birds provide a valuable opportunity to investigate how biomechanics and sensorimotor control are integrated for agile bipedal locomotion. This review summarizes recent work using terrain perturbations to reveal neuromechanical control strategies used by ground birds to achieve robust, stable and agile running. Early experiments in running guinea fowl aimed to reveal the immediate intrinsic mechanical response to an unexpected drop ('pothole') in terrain...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29873616/microneurography-from-the-posterior-tibial-nerve-a-novel-method-of-recording-activity-from-the-foot-in-freely-standing-humans
#8
Thomas P Knellwolf, Alexander Burton, Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
The posterior tibial nerve, located behind the medial malleolus of the ankle, supplies the intrinsic muscles of the foot and most of the skin of the sole. We describe a novel approach for recording from this nerve via a percutaneously inserted tungsten microelectrode, and provide examples of recordings from presumed muscle spindle endings recorded in freely-standing human subjects. The fact that the angular excursions of the ankle joint are small as the foot is loaded during the transition from the seated position to standing means that one can obtain stable recordings of neural traffic in unloaded, loaded and freely standing conditions...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863716/-about-the-anthropometric-relationship-between-the-foot-length-and-the-height-in-the-newborn-infants-and-adult-subjects
#9
V N Chulakhov, N K Mashin, N V Maksimov
The objective of the present study was to clarify the relationship between the foot length and the height (body length) in the human subjects for the development of the rationale for the use of this characteristic for the estimation of the probable height of the newborn infants and adults. A total 1293 newborn babies (654 boys and 639 girls) were available for the examination. In addition, a mixed population of 12,141 men and 8213 women at the age ranging from 18 to 60 years and representing 49 ethnic groups were included in the study...
2018: Sudebno-meditsinskaia Ekspertiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803167/does-neuromuscular-electrostimulation-have-the-potential-to-increase-intrinsic-foot-muscle-strength
#10
Florian Ebrecht, Freddy Sichting
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an eight-week neuromuscular electrostimulation program on the intrinsic foot muscle strength. The results were compared with those from a passive and an active control group. METHODS: 74 healthy participants were recruited and divided into three groups: a neuromuscular electrostimulation group (n=19), a passive control group (n=15) with no further intervention, and an active control group following a running protocol with minimal shoes (n=40)...
January 31, 2018: Foot
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789083/low-baseline-sympathetic-tone-correlates-to-a-greater-blood-pressure-change-in-the-cold-pressor-test
#11
Marylen Youssef, Azadeh Ghassemi, Catalina Marysol Carvajal Gonczi, Thiffya Arabi Kugathasan, Robert D Kilgour, Peter J Darlington
BACKGROUND: The cold pressor test (CPT) involves acute hand or foot exposure to cold water. CPT hyper-responders have unique traits, including risk of hypertension and a greater vasoconstrictor reserve and g force tolerance compared to hypo-responders. The purpose of this study was to uncover differences in cardiovascular and sympathetic biomarkers between responder types. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (N = 30) submerged one hand into cold water (3.3 ± 0.8°C) for 5 min...
June 1, 2018: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775828/size-season-and-origin-of-gastropods-matter-in-imposex-assessments
#12
Martina Rossato, Mércia Barcelos Costa, Ítalo Braga de Castro, Grasiela Lopes Leães Pinho
Through controlled exposure to tributyltin (TBT), the effects of season, size, and population origin were evaluated on imposex incidence in Stramonita brasiliensis. Four experiments were carried out with organisms collected from three different sites on the Brazilian coast (Torres - Rio Grande do Sul, Farol de Santa Marta - Santa Catarina, and Aracruz - Espírito Santo). S. brasiliensis were anesthetized, sexed, measured, classified by size in small (< 30 mm), medium (≥ 30 to ≤ 40 mm), or big (> 40 mm) and injected in the foot muscle with 0...
September 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760070/pacing-of-paleozoic-macroevolutionary-rates-by-milankovitch-grand-cycles
#13
James S Crampton, Stephen R Meyers, Roger A Cooper, Peter M Sadler, Michael Foote, David Harte
Periodic fluctuations in past biodiversity, speciation, and extinction have been proposed, with extremely long periods ranging from 26 to 62 million years, although forcing mechanisms remain speculative. In contrast, well-understood periodic Milankovitch climate forcing represents a viable driver for macroevolutionary fluctuations, although little evidence for such fluctuation exists except during the Late Cenozoic. The reality, magnitude, and drivers of periodic fluctuations in macroevolutionary rates are of interest given long-standing debate surrounding the relative roles of intrinsic biotic interactions vs...
May 29, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755590/wide-pulse-high-frequency-low-intensity-neuromuscular-electrical-stimulation-has-potential-for-targeted-strengthening-of-an-intrinsic-foot-muscle-a-feasibility-study
#14
Darren C James, Matthew C Solan, Katya N Mileva
Background: Strengthening the intrinsic foot muscles is a poorly understood and largely overlooked area. In this study, we explore the feasibility of strengthening m . abductor hallucis (AH) with a specific paradigm of neuromuscular electrical stimulation; one which is low-intensity in nature and designed to interleave physiologically-relevant low frequency stimulation with high-frequencies to enhance effective current delivery to spinal motoneurones, and enable a proportion of force produced by the target muscle to be generated from a central origin...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738281/epidemiology-of-figure-skating-injuries-a-review-of-the-literature
#15
Julie S Han, Ellen T Geminiani, Lyle J Micheli
CONTEXT: As the popularity and technical demands of figure skating increase, so will the number of athletes presenting with sport-related problems. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Searches were performed across PubMed from 1980 to 2017. The keywords searched were skating, skaters, incidence, and injuries. The search was limited to English-language articles and human participants. Relevant articles were cross-referenced. STUDY DESIGN: Clinical review...
May 1, 2018: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582649/highly-stretchable-weavable-and-washable-piezoresistive-microfiber-sensors
#16
Longteng Yu, Joo Chuan Yeo, Ren Hao Soon, Trifanny Yeo, Hong Hui Lee, Chwee Teck Lim
A key challenge in electronic textiles is to develop an intrinsically conductive thread of sufficient robustness and sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate an elastomeric functionalized microfiber sensor suitable for smart textile and wearable electronics. Unlike conventional conductive threads, our microfiber is highly flexible and stretchable up to 120% strain and possesses excellent piezoresistive characteristics. The microfiber is functionalized by enclosing a conductive liquid metallic alloy within the elastomeric microtube...
April 18, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567352/mechanical-forces-in-skin-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Chao-Kai Hsu, Hsi-Hui Lin, Hans I-Chen Harn, Michael W Hughes, Ming-Jer Tang, Chao-Chun Yang
Mechanical forces are known to regulate homeostasis of the skin and play a role in the pathogenesis of skin diseases. The epidermis consists of keratinocytes that are tightly adhered to each other by cell junctions. Defects in keratins or desmosomal/hemidesmosomal proteins lead to the attenuation of mechanical strength and formation of intraepidermal blisters in the case of epidermolysis bullosa simplex. The dermis is rich in extracellular matrix, especially collagen, and provides the majority of tensile force in the skin...
June 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524635/vestibular-evoked-responses-indicate-a-functional-role-for-intrinsic-foot-muscles-during-standing-balance
#18
Jonathan W Wallace, Brandon G Rasman, Brian H Dalton
Maintaining standing balance involves multisensory processing and integration to produce dynamic motor responses. Electrical vestibular stimulation (EVS) delivered over the mastoid processes can be used to explore the vestibular control of balance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether intrinsic foot muscles exhibit vestibular-evoked balance responses and to characterize the traits associated with these responses. Electromyography (EMG) of the abductor hallucis (AH), abductor digiti minimi (ADM) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) and anterior-posterior (AP) forces were sampled while quietly standing participants were subjected to a random continuous EVS signal (peak-to-peak amplitude = ±3 mA)...
May 1, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516631/merger-of-energetic-affinity-and-optimal-geometry-provides-new-class-of-boron-nitride-based-sorbents-with-unprecedented-hydrogen-storage-capacity
#19
Rouzbeh Shahsavari, Shuo Zhao
Hydrogen is an ideal synthetic fuel because it is lightweight, abundant and its oxidation product (water) is environmentally benign. However, its utilization is impeded by the lack of an efficient storage device. A new building block approach is proposed for an exhaustive search of optimal hydrogen uptakes in a series of low density boron nitride (BN) nanoarchitectures via extensive 3868 ab initio-based multiscale simulations. By probing various geometries, temperatures, pressures, and doping ratios, these results demonstrate a maximum uptake of 8...
April 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506007/surface-electromyography-can-quantify-temporal-and-spatial-patterns-of-activation-of-intrinsic-human-foot-muscles
#20
E Ferrari, G Cooper, N D Reeves, E F Hodson-Tole
Intrinsic foot muscles (IFM) are a crucial component within the human foot. Investigating their functioning can help understand healthy and pathological behaviour of foot and ankle, fundamental for everyday activities. Recording muscle activation from IFM has been attempted with invasive techniques, mainly investigating single muscles. Here we present a novel methodology, to investigate the feasibility of recording physiological surface EMG (sEMG) non-invasively and quantify patterns of activation across the whole plantar region of the foot...
April 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
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