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Bin Xu, Guohui Yu, Hui Li, Zheni Xie, Wuwu Wen, Jing Zhang, Bingru Huang
Chlorophyll (Chl) breakdown is a hallmark of leaf senescence. Protein degradation is tightly associated with accelerated Chl catabolism during leaf senescence. Therefore, blocking or reducing Chl breakdown and thereby improving Chl and leaf protein contents is desirable for agronomic improvement in perennial forage grasses. Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is one principle cool-season forage grass in temperate areas throughout the world. In this study, the perennial ryegrass STAYGREEN gene (LpSGR) was cloned and characterized...
October 17, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Cecilia Aristimuño Ficoseco, Flavia I Mansilla, Natalia C Maldonado, Hortencia Miranda, María E Fátima Nader-Macias, Graciela M Vignolo
In order to eliminate the widespread use of antibiotics in livestock production, the research for alternatives has increased lately. This study examined the safety of 40 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from bovine feedlot environment and previously selected as potential probiotics. A high sensitivity prevalence to ampicillin (AMP, 100%), gentamicin (GEN, 96.3%), kanamycin (KAN, 96.3%), clindamycin (CLI, 85.2%), chloramphenicol (CHL, 92.6%) and streptomycin (STR, 88.9%) while moderate and high resistance against erythromycin (ERY, 48%) and tetracycline (TET, 79%) respectively, were determined...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pier Luigi Zinzani, Armando Santoro, Arturo Chiti, Secondo Lastoria, Antonio Pinto, Lugi Rigacci, Giovanni Barosi, Martina Pennisi, Paolo Corradini
Programmed death 1 (PD-1) blocking antibodies now represent a major advance in the treatment of patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) who relapse after autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) and pre- and/or post-ASCT brentuximab vedotin or after at least three lines of therapy. However, uncertainties still remain on the optimal use of these agents in refractory Hodgkin disease. A panel of experts was convened to produce a consensus document aimed at providing practice recommendations for the optimal use of PD-1 blocking antibodies in cHL, especially on pretreatment selection and evaluation of cHL patients' response and treatment length, management of PD-1 blockade therapy-treated patients, evaluation and management of toxicity...
October 15, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Kouki Hikosaka, Hibiki M Noda
We present a simple model to assess the quantum yield of photochemistry (ΦP ) and CO2 assimilation rate from two parameters that are detectable by remote sensing: chlorophyll (chl) fluorescence and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI). ΦP is expressed as a simple function of the chl fluorescence yield (ΦF ) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ): ΦP = 1-bΦF (1+NPQ). Because NPQ is known to be related with PRI, ΦP can be remotely assessed from solar-induced fluorescence and the PRI. The CO2 assimilation rate can be assessed from the estimated ΦP value with either the maximum carboxylation rate (Vcmax ), the intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci ) or parameters of the stomatal conductance model...
October 15, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Chithra Muraleedharan, Deepa Talreja, Mamta Kanwar, Ashok Kumar, Satish K Walia
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we reported the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes in Clinton River. Here, we determined whether Clinton River water (CRW) is contaminated with antibiotics and is a reservoir of antibiotic resistant bacteria. METHODS: Water samples were taken from two sites of Clinton River. Antibiotic concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were enumerated on agar plates amended with six commonly used antibiotics...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
Galyna V Graham, J Michael Conlon, Yasser H Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt
Glucagon-like peptides-1 (GLP-1)from phylogenetically ancient fish (lamprey, dogfish, ratfish, paddlefish and bowfin) and from a teleost, the rainbow trout produced concentration-dependent stimulations of insulin release from clonal β-cells and isolated mouse islets. Lamprey and paddlefish GLP-1 were the most potent and effective. Incubation of BRIN-BD11 cells with GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) antagonist, exendin-4 (9-39) attenuated insulinotropic activity of all peptides whereas glucagon receptor (GCGR) antagonist [des-His1 ,Pro4 ,Glu9 ] glucagon amide significantly decreased the activities of lamprey and paddlefish GLP-1 only...
October 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
A Deininger, A Jonsson, J Karlsson, A-K Bergström
Forest harvest in the boreal zone can increase the input of terrestrial materials such as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3 - ) into nearby aquatic ecosystems, with potential effects on phytoplankton growth through enhanced nutrient- (i.e. positive) or reduced light availability (i.e. negative), which may affect ecosystem productivity and consumer resource use. Here, we conducted forest clear cutting experiments in the catchments of four small, humic and nitrogen (N) limited unproductive boreal lakes (two controls and two clear cut, 18% and 44% of area cut) with one reference and two impact years...
October 12, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Miguel Ángel Matus-Hernández, Norma Yolanda Hernández-Saavedra, Raúl Octavio Martínez-Rincón
Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration is a key parameter to describe water quality in marine and freshwater environments. Nowadays, several products with Chl-a have derived from satellite imagery, but they are not available or reliable sometimes for coastal and/or small water bodies. Thus, in the last decade several methods have been described to estimate Chl-a with high-resolution (30 m) satellite imagery, such as Landsat, but a standardized method to estimate Chl-a from Landsat imagery has not been accepted yet...
2018: PloS One
Junli Wang, Zishi Fu, Hongxia Qiao, Fuxing Liu
Our study assessed the actual water situation in the estuarine area of Lake Wuli, Meiliang Bay, Lake Taihu, China, based on eutrophication levels and status of water quality using the trophic level index (TLI) and water quality index (WQI) methods. In the wet (August 2017) and dry (March 2018) seasons, 22 estuarine areas were tested at 69 sampling sites, which included lake and rivers. Five parameters-chlorophyll a (Chl-a), total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), Secchi disk (SD) and permanganate index (CODMn )-were measured to calculate the TLI, and 15 parameters-temperature (T), pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), TN, TP, ammonium (NH4 -N), nitrate (NO3 -N), nitrite (NO2 -N), CODMn , calcium (Ca2+ ), magnesium (Mg2+ ), chloride (Cl- ) and phosphate (PO4 -P)-were measured to calculate the WQI...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Kumud B Mishra, Anamika Mishra, Jiří Kubásek, Otmar Urban, Arnd G Heyer, Govindjee
Cold acclimation modifies the photosynthetic machinery and enables plants to survive at sub-zero temperatures, whereas in warm habitats, many species suffer even at non-freezing temperatures. We have measured chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF) and CO2 assimilation to investigate the effects of cold acclimation, and of low temperatures, on a cold-sensitive Arabidopsis thaliana accession C24. Upon excitation with low intensity (40 µmol photons m- 2 s- 1 ) ~ 620 nm light, slow (minute range) ChlF transients, at ~ 22 °C, showed two waves in the SMT phase (S, semi steady-state; M, maximum; T, terminal steady-state), whereas CO2 assimilation showed a linear increase with time...
October 10, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Shigeru Kusumoto
Interim positron emission tomography (PET) -guided therapy and brentuximab vedotin (BV) combined systemic chemotherapy have been developed for newly diagnosed classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL). A majority of recent trials using interim PET response-adapted approaches have assessed the treatment strategies for cHL and reported that the initial treatment could be suitably altered to intensive treatment in an early phase, thereby enhancing the efficacy in interim PET-positive patients, whereas the simplified treatment regimen, such as omitting drugs or radiation, could minimize the risk of toxicity in interim PET-negative patients...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Michael D Seidman, Drue Manning
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate surgical findings and hearing results for patient's undergoing the described surgical approach for congenitally absent or dysplastic oval window (OW). STUDY DESIGN: The Institutional Review Board approved retrospective review of patients with conductive hearing loss (CHL) operated on from 1992 to 2016. SETTING: Academic tertiary center. PATIENTS: Patients with CHL, an intact tympanic membrane (TM), and without history of chronic infection underwent middle ear exploration...
October 9, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Samuel Large, Robert Hettle, Arun Balakumaran, Elise Wu, Rebekah H Borse
AIMS: Patients with classical Hodgkin's lymphoma (cHL) who have relapsed after or are ineligible for autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) have limited treatment options and generally a poor prognosis. Pembrolizumab was recently approved in the United States for the treatment of such patients having demonstrated clinical benefit and tolerability in relapsed/refractory cHL; however, the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab in this population is currently unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A three-state Markov model (progression-free [PF], progressed disease, and death) was developed to assess the cost-effectiveness of pembrolizumab (200 mg) versus brentuximab vedotin (BV; 1...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Medical Economics
Piero Farruggia, Giuseppe Puccio, Francesco Locatelli, Mariarita Vetro, Marta Pillon, Angela Trizzino, Alessandra Sala, Salvatore Buffardi, Alberto Garaventa, Francesca Rossi, Maurizio Bianchi, Marco Zecca, Andrea Pession, Claudio Favre, Salvatore D'Amico, Massimo Provenzi, Giulio Andrea Zanazzo, Antonella Sau, Nicola Santoro, Rosamaria Mura, Caterina Elia, Tommaso Casini, Maurizio Mascarin, Roberta Burnelli
Many studies have reported a more favorable outcome in younger patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The aims of this study were to find an appropriate age cutoff able to identify low-risk children and to describe the natural history of 135 very young patients affected by classic HL (cHL). The best age cutoff was identified at 7 years of age. EFS (p = .0451) and PFS (p = .00921) were significantly better in the group of younger patients. The OS rate at 10 years was 97.0% in the younger group and 92.5% in the older one (p = ...
October 10, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Chikashi Ota, Keita Sugihara, Yusuke Kinoshita, Yuichiro Kashiyama, Yutaka Nagasawa, Hitoshi Tamiaki
For photosynthetic organisms that nourish the earth's biosphere, chlorophylls (Chls) are the major pigments utilized for light harvesting and primary charge separation. Although Chl molecules are effective photosensitizers, they are inevitably phototoxic to living organisms due to the facile generation of highly oxidative singlet oxygen (1O2) through triplet energy transfer from their photoexcited states to oxygen molecules. Such phototoxicity of Chls is a major problem for translucent microbes that feed on photosynthetic algae...
October 9, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Yujie Wang, Xin Hu, Ge Jin, Zhiwei Hou, Jingming Ning, Zhengzhu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Photosynthetic pigments perform critical physiological functions in tea plants and their content is an essential indicators of photosynthetic efficiency and nutritional status. The present study aimed to predict chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), total chlorophyll (total Chl), and carotenoids (Car) contents in tea leaves under different levels of nitrogen treatment using hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in combination with variable selection algorithms. RESULTS: A total of 150 samples were collected and scanned by HSI system...
October 9, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Daniel M Palm, Alessandro Agostini, Vivien Averesch, Philipp Girr, Mara Werwie, Shigekazu Takahashi, Hiroyuki Satoh, Elmar Jaenicke, Harald Paulsen
We altered the chlorophyll (Chl) binding sites in various versions of water-soluble chlorophyll protein (WSCP) by amino acid exchanges to alter their preferences for either Chl a or Chl b. WSCP is ideally suited for this mutational analysis since it forms a tetrameric complex with only four identical Chl binding sites. A loop of 4-6 amino acids is responsible for Chl a versus Chl b selectivity. We show that a single amino acid exchange within this loop changes the relative Chl a/b affinities by a factor of 40...
October 8, 2018: Nature Plants
Moussab Damlaj, Mohsen Al-Zahrani, Ghulam Syed, Giamal Gmati, Bader Alahmari, Tabrez Pasha, Ayman Alhejazi, Ahmed Alaskar
BACKGROUND: Response-adapted therapy in advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) using interim functional imaging (IFI) is under active investigation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively examined patients with advanced cHL receiving 2 front-line regimens stratified by IFI results at our institution. Time to endpoint analysis was estimated using the method of Kaplan-Meier with log ranks. Cox regression modeling was computed for multivariable analysis. RESULTS: A total of 124 patients with advanced cHL with a median follow up of 40...
August 29, 2018: Clinical Lymphoma, Myeloma & Leukemia
Pratishtha Vedalankar, Baishnab C Tripathy
The nonhomologous enzymes, the light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase (DPOR) and the light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LPOR), catalyze the reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) to chlorophyllide (Chlide) in the penultimate step of biosynthesis of chlorophyll (Chl) required for photosynthetic light absorption and energy conversion. The two enzymes differ with respect to the requirement of light for catalysis and oxygen sensitivity. DPOR and LPOR initially evolved in the ancestral prokaryotic genome perhaps at different times...
October 6, 2018: Protoplasma
Joel W Harrison, Laura Beecraft, Ralph E H Smith
Multi-wavelength fluorometers, such as the bbe FluoroProbe (FP), measure excitation spectra of chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence to infer the abundance and composition of phytoplankton communities as well as the concentration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM). Experiments were conducted on laboratory cultures and on natural communities of freshwater phytoplankton to determine how the response of phytoplankton to high irradiance might affect fluorometric estimates of community composition and concentrations of Chl-a and CDOM...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
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