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Diabetes AND macrovascular

Yuh-Shin Chang, Chung-Han Ho, Chin-Chen Chu, Jhi-Joung Wang, Sung-Huei Tseng, Ren-Long Jan
There is a globally increasing prevalence and incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Prolonged hyperglycaemia could lead to both macrovascular damage, such as carotid artery atherosclerosis, and microvascular damage, such as retinal arteriolar narrowing, and might contribute to retinal artery occlusion (RAO). Accordingly, it is important to determine whether DM is a contrubuting factor of RAO. We conducted a retrospective cohort study that included 241,196 DM patients from the Longitudinal Cohort of Diabetes Patients Database who were recruited between 2003 and 2005...
2018: PloS One
Xunwen Lei, Guifeng Zeng, Yuemei Zhang, Qiang Li, Jinzhi Zhang, Zhenggang Bai, Kehu Yang
Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that elevated homocysteine (Hcy) level represents an independent risk factor for macrovascular disease. However, the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and the progression of diabetic retinopathy in patients remains controversial. Hence, the purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to explore any potential association between Hcy and the risk of diabetic retinopathy. Methods: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library databases were searched to screen studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria from date of database inception to November 2017...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Kim C Donaghue, Loredana Marcovecchio, R Paul Wadwa, Emily Y Chew, Tien Wong, Eduardo Calliari, Bedowra Zabeen, M Mona Salem, Maria E Craig
Clinically evident diabetes-related vascular complications are rare in childhood and adolescence. However, early functional and structural abnormalities may be present a few years after the onset of the disease. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
August 5, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Svetlana V Doubova, Aldo Ferreira-Hermosillo, Ricardo Pérez-Cuevas, Casper Barsoe, Erick Gryzbowski-Gainza, Juan E Valencia
BACKGROUND: To describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients affiliated with the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) and ascertain the socio-demographic and clinical risk factors associated with emergency room (ER) visits and diabetes-related hospitalizations. METHODS: We conducted secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional study. The study included T1D patients 18 years of age and older who in 2016 attended follow-up visits at the endocrinology department of two IMSS tertiary care hospitals in Mexico City...
August 3, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Emily C Dunford, Jason S Au, Michaela C Devries, Stuart M Phillips, Maureen J MacDonald
Skeletal muscle is the largest and most important site of capillary-tissue exchange, especially during high-energy demand tasks such as exercise; however, information regarding the role of the microcirculation in maintaining skeletal muscle health is limited. Changes in microcirculatory function, as observed with aging, chronic and cardiovascular diseases, as well as exercise, likely precede any alterations which arise in larger vessels, although further investigation into these changes is required. One of the main barriers to addressing this knowledge gap is the lack of methodologies for quantifying microvascular function in vivo, the utilization of valid and non-invasive quantification methods will allow the dynamic evaluation of microvascular flow during periods of clinical relevance such as during increased demand for flow (exercise) or decreased (disuse)...
August 3, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Rula Ghandour, Nahed Mikki, Niveen M E Abu Rmeileh, Lars Jerdén, Margareta Norberg, Jan W Eriksson, Abdullatif Husseini
BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing pandemic that will lead, if not managed and controlled, to frequent complications, poor quality of life, and high rates of disability and death. Little is known about T2DM complications in Palestine. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of T2DM complications in Ramallah and al-Bireh governorate of Palestine. METHODS: The study was conducted in eleven primary healthcare clinics offering services for persons with T2DM...
July 30, 2018: Primary Care Diabetes
Linda A DiMeglio, Carlo L Acerini, Ethel Codner, Maria E Craig, Sabine E Hofer, Kubendran Pillay, David M Maahs
HbA1c reflects mean BG over the prior three to four months and is currently the only long-term glycemic control measure with robust outcome data. Multiple studies in diverse populations have shown that elevated HbA1c values are associated with chronic complications of diabetes. Intensive management resulting in lower HbA1c concentrations is associated with fewer and delayed development of microvascular and macrovascular chronic complications 1-5 , see Chapter 18 (ref). Additionally, lower HbA1c shortly after diagnosis is associated with a lower risk of subsequent complications 6,7 ...
July 29, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
Massimo Venturini, Paolo Marra, Anna Colarieti, Giulia Agostini, Carolina Lanza, Luigi Augello, Simone Gusmini, Marco Salvioni, Germano Melissano, Paolo Fiorina, Roberto Chiesa, Francesco De Cobelli, Alessandro Del Maschio
Diabetes mellitus is associated with both microvascular and macrovascular complications, which can result in visceral aneurysms as for example splenic artery aneurysms: in their management, an endovascular treatment, less invasive than surgery, is generally preferred. Endovascular treatment of splenic artery aneurysms can be based either on covered stenting (CS) or transcatheter embolization (TE). CS generally allows aneurysm exclusion with vessel preservation, while TE usually determines target artery occlusion with potential risk of distal ischemia...
July 25, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Muhammad Noor-Ul-Huda, Samabia Tehsin, Sairam Ahmed, Fuad A K Niazi, Zeerish Murtaza
Diabetes mellitus is an enduring disease related with significant morbidity and mortality. The main pathogenesis behind this disease is its numerous micro- and macrovascular complications. In developing countries, diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the major sources of vision impairment in working age population. DR has been classified into two categories: proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR). NPDR is further classified into mild, moderate and severe, while PDR is further classified into early PDR, high risk PDR and advanced diabetic eye disease...
July 28, 2018: Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical Engineering
Heng-Chih Pan, Kuei-Mei Chou, Chin-Chan Lee, Ning-I Yang, Chiao-Yin Sun
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Type 2 diabetes is a global health problem that is associated with a wide variety of vascular complications and associated morbidity and mortality. Klotho is an enzyme and transmembrane protein, and increasing evidence suggests that Klotho may contribute to reduced oxidative stress, improved endothelial function, and vasoprotection. To date, the physiological role of Klotho in vascular complications associated with diabetes is unclear. METHODS: We prospectively recruited 252 patients with type 2 diabetes, who visited an outpatient clinic at our hospital between 2009 and 2011...
July 17, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Bou-Yue Peng, Navneet Kumar Dubey, Viraj Krishna Mishra, Feng-Chou Tsai, Rajni Dubey, Win-Ping Deng, Hong-Jian Wei
High morbidity and mortality of diabetes mellitus (DM) throughout the human population is a serious threat which needs to be addressed cautiously. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are most prevalent forms. Disruption in insulin regulation and resistance leads to increased formation and accumulation of advanced end products (AGEs), which further enhance oxidative and nitrosative stress leading to microvascular (retinopathy, neuropathy, and nephropathy) and macrovascular complications...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Naim Alkhouri, Fred Poordad, Eric Lawitz
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the hepatic manifestation of insulin resistance, which is the hallmark of type 2 diabetes (T2D). NAFLD is a known risk factor for developing T2D and has a very high prevalence in those with existing T2D. The diabetes spectrum includes several conditions from prediabetes to T2D to insulin-dependent diabetes leading to macrovascular and microvascular complications. Similarly, NAFLD has a histologic spectrum that ranges from the relatively benign nonalcoholic fatty liver to the aggressive form of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis with or without liver fibrosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis-cirrhosis leading to end-stage liver disease...
July 2018: Hepatology communications
Sobia Aleem, Riffat Iqbal, Tanzila Shar, Sadia Noreen, Naila Rafiq, Irum Javed, Sumaira Kosar, Humaira N. Majeed, Naila Abdul Sattar, Muhammad K. Abid
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an advanced and chronic endocrine disorder characterized by an insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and liver, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to understand the mechanism and genes which are responsible for the prevalence of diabetes. The study also covers various types of diabetic complications with special reference to insulin role and defects. METHODS: The scientific literature and patents were reviewed and analyzed based on their suitability and relevance to the theme of the study...
July 17, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Carlos Poblete-Aro, Javier Russell-Guzmán, Pablo Parra, Marcelo Soto-Muñoz, Bastián Villegas-González, Cristián Cofré-Bolados, Tomás Herrera-Valenzuela
Sedentarism, overweight and malnutrition generate an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species leading to a state of chronic oxidative stress. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress alters pancreatic insulin secretion and the actions of the hormone on target cells, contributing to the development of micro and macrovascular complications. During physical exertion a state of transient oxidative stress occurs. As a consequence, the organism generates multiple physiological adaptations to these repetitive stimuli...
March 2018: Revista Médica de Chile
Haibin Wu, Karen N Eggleston, Jieming Zhong, Ruying Hu, Chunmei Wang, Kaixu Xie, Yiwei Chen, Xiangyu Chen, Min Yu
INTRODUCTION/AIMS: To evaluate the annual direct medical cost attributable to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) according to socioeconomic factors, medical conditions and complications categories. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We created uniquely detailed data from merging datasets of local diabetes management system and social security system in Tongxiang, China. We calculated T2DM-related total cost and out-of-pocket (OOP) cost for inpatient admissions and outpatient visits, and compared the cost for patients with or without complications by different health-care items...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Randa Elgendy, Sonya S Deschênes, Rachel J Burns, Melanie Levy, Norbert Schmitz
BACKGROUND: Heavy alcohol consumption in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is related to increased risk of diabetes-related micro- and macrovascular complications. Depressive symptoms may be relevant to consider in this relation, as high depressive symptoms are associated with increased risk of complications. We aimed to investigate whether the interaction between depressive symptoms and alcohol frequency will be positively related to development of neuropathy, retinopathy, nephropathy, and coronary artery disease (CAD), such that those with high depressive symptoms and high alcohol frequency will be at increased risk for complications...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes
J D Gatwood, M Chisholm-Burns, R Davis, F Thomas, P Potukuchi, A Hung, C P Kovesdy
AIM: To determine the association of adherence to oral antidiabetes medication with macrovascular and microvascular complications, time to insulin therapy, revascularization, admissions, and death among veterans with uncomplicated diabetes. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study using the Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse to examine 159 032 veterans diagnosed with uncomplicated diabetes during 2002-2014 and starting oral antidiabetes therapy for the first time...
July 6, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Elamin Abdelgadir, Fauzia Rashid, Alaaeldin Bashier, Razan Ali
Landmark trials on diabetes control have shown variable results in terms of cardiovascular benefits, with the majority showing a favorable effect of glycemic control on microvascular and, more recently, macrovascular complications. However, some trials pointed out a CV hazard with tight diabetes mellitus (DM) control. Most of those trials were assessing the impact of glycemic control, more than evaluating the effect of a certain medication. In the last decade, food and drugs administration (FDA) has mandated that all new hypoglycemic agents run a CV outcome trial (CVOT) for safety in order to grant and sustain approval...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
Wee Chee Lee, Siti Safiah Mokhtar, Seetha Munisamy, Sahran Yahaya, Aida Hanum Ghulam Rasool
Diabetes mellitus is an epidemic that is gaining global concern. Chronic hyperglycemia in diabetes induces the excess production of free radicals. The deleterious effects of excess free radicals are encountered by endogenous antioxidant defense system. Imbalance between free radicals production and antioxidants defense mechanisms leads to a condition known as "oxidative stress". Diabetes mellitus is associated with augmented oxidative stress that induced micro- and macrovascular complications, which presents a significant risk for cardiovascular events...
May 30, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Junduo Wu, Ziping Jiang, Haina Zhang, Wenzhao Liang, Wenlin Huang, Huan Zhang, Ying Li, Zhaohui Wang, Junnan Wang, Ye Jia, Bin Liu, Hao Wu
Oxidative stress and inflammation are major contributors to diabetes-induced endothelial dysfunction which is the critical first step to the development of diabetic macrovascular complications. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) plays a key role in combating diabetes-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Sodium butyrate (NaB) is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and an activator of NRF2. However, NaB's effect on diabetes-induced aortic injury was unknown. It was also not known whether or to what extent NRF2 is required for both self-defense and NaB's protection in the diabetic aorta...
June 30, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
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