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Justin B Kaplan, Daniel S Eiferman, Kyle Porter, Jennifer MacDermott, Jessica Brumbaugh, Claire V Murphy
PURPOSE: Analgesia and sedation protocols (ASPs) reduce duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) in the medical intensive care unit (ICU), but data in the surgical ICU (SICU) are limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of a nursing-driven ASP with criteria for infusion initiation in the SICU. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A single-center, retrospective study compared ventilator-free days at day 28 from start of MV (VFD28) before and after ASP implementation...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Jaasmit Khurana, Vivian Ip, Gerald Todd, Rakesh V Sondekoppam
Pain control following major abdominal surgery remains a significant barrier to patient comfort. Although thoracic epidurals have been used to provide analgesia for these surgeries, the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is gaining popularity. The TAP catheter insertion method has transformed over the past two decades from a blinded technique to one conducted primarily under ultrasound guidance by anesthesiologists. Recently, however, interest has increased on the potential for direct surgical insertion of catheters into the TAP plane following flank incisions due to anatomical considerations...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Min Huang, Limin Luo, Yu Zhang, Wenying Wang, Jing Dong, Wenjie Du, Wei Jiang, Tao Xu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between mGluR5 and NMDAR during the development of tolerance to the analgesic effect of chronic morphine following disruption of the link between mGluR5 and NMDAR. METHODS: For these experiments, mGluR5 knockout (KO) mice, Shank3 ΔC mutant mice and their littermate controls were used. Repeated morphine treatment through intrathecal injections (i.t. 10 μg/10 μl twice daily for 5 days) was used to induce antinociceptive tolerance and thermal hyperalgesia, which was determined by tail-flick latency and calculated as a percentage of the maximum possible effect (%MPE)...
December 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Samar Makni, Slim Tounsi, Fatma Rezgui, Mohamed Trigui, Karama Zouari Bouassida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Emex spinosa (L.) Campd. (E. spinosa) locally known as" hillaioua" has always been used in folk medicine for the treatment of inflammation and pain. It is still being exploited by pharmaceutical companies for its potential remedial effects. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, the effects of E. spinosa (L.) Campd. against acute inflammation, pain and oxidative damage were evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total phenols and flavonoids were evaluated...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jeremy C Cornelissen, Floyd F Steele, Rebekah D Tenney, Samuel Obeng, Kenner C Rice, Yan Zhang, Matthew L Banks
Mu-opioid receptor agonists are clinically effective analgesics, but also produce undesirable effects that limit their clinical utility. The nociceptin opioid peptide (NOP) receptor system also modulates nociception, and NOP agonists might be useful adjuncts to enhance the analgesic effects or attenuate the undesirable effects of mu-opioid agonists. The present study determined behavioral interactions between the NOP agonist (-)-Ro 64-6198 and mu-opioid ligands that vary in mu-opioid receptor efficacy (17-cyclopropylmethyl-3,14β-dihyroxy-4,5α-epoxy-6α-[(3 ́-isoquinolyl)acetamindo]morphinan (NAQ) < buprenorphine < nalbuphine < morphine = oxycodone < methadone) in male rhesus monkeys...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Géraldine Gazzo, Philippe Girard, Nisrine Kamoun, Marc Verleye, Pierrick Poisbeau
Inflammatory processes are critical promoting factors of chronic pain states, mostly by inducing peripheral and central sensitization of the nociceptive system. These processes are associated with a massive increase in glutamatergic transmission, sometimes facilitated by spinal disinhibition. In this study, we used etifoxine, a non-benzodiazepine anxiolytic known to amplify inhibition mediated by gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA ) receptors in pain processing regions, either directly (through allosteric modulation) or indirectly (through the synthesis of endogenous neurosteroids)...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Wen-Chi Chou, Jen-Shi Chen, Chia-Yen Hung, Chang-Hsien Lu, Yu-Yun Shao, Tzeon-Jye Chiou, Yung-Chuan Sung, Kun-Ming Rau, Chia-Jui Yen, Su-Peng Yeh, Ta-Chih Liu, Ming-Fang Wu, Ming-Yang Lee, Ming-Sun Yu, Wen-Li Hwang, Pang-Yu Lai, Cheng-Shyong Chang, Ruey-Kuen Hsieh
PURPOSE: Poor adherence to analgesic drugs is one of the most common barriers to adequate pain management. This prospective, cross-sectional, patient-oriented observational study aimed to explore the adherence rate, clinical factors, and impact of adherence to analgesic drugs on the quality of life (QoL) among cancer outpatients in Taiwan. METHODS: Eight hundred ninety-seven consecutive adult outpatients with cancer who had reported tumor pain and received regular analgesic drug treatment were enrolled from 16 medical centers across Taiwan...
December 14, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Volker Behrends, Guro F Giskeødegård, Natalia Bravo-Santano, Michal Letek, Hector C Keun
Acetaminophen (APAP) is one of the most commonly used analgesics worldwide, and overdoses are associated with lactic acidosis, hepatocyte toxicity, and acute liver failure due to oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. Hepatoma cell lines typically lack the CYP450 activity to generate the reactive metabolite of APAP observed in vivo, but are still subject to APAP cytotoxicity. In this study, we employed metabolic profiling and isotope labelling approaches to investigate the metabolic impact of acute exposure to cytotoxic doses of APAP on the widely used HepG2 cell model...
December 14, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Ichiro Takasaki, Koji Nakamura, Ayaka Shimodaira, Ai Watanabe, Huy Du Nguyen, Takuya Okada, Naoki Toyooka, Atsuro Miyata, Takashi Kurihara
We recently developed PA-8, a novel small-molecule antagonist of PACAP type 1 (PAC1) receptor. In the present study, we examined whether PA-8 was effective against formalin-induced inflammatory pain in mice. Both intrathecal and oral administration of PA-8 resulted in the dose-dependent attenuation of the second phase of formalin-induced nociceptive responses. PA-8 also inhibited c-fos upregulation in the ipsilateral dorsal horn of the spinal cord. The results suggested that PACAP-PAC1 receptor signaling system in the spinal cord were primarily involved in the transmission of inflammatory pain, and PA-8 could be useful for the development of novel analgesics for treating inflammatory pain...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
Michael Dörks, Katharina Allers, Falk Hoffmann
OBJECTIVES: In addition to routinely administered long-term medication, complex drug regimens of nursing home residents often include as needed or pro re nata (PRN) medication. However, there has been no systematic evaluation of the frequency and concomitants of PRN medication in nursing homes. The main objective of this systematic review was to provide a current assessment of PRN drug use in nursing homes. DESIGN: A systematic literature search was performed. Data were identified from 4 electronic bibliographic databases: MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus...
December 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
T Malik, O Malas, A Thompson
BACKGROUND: Based on their experience or training, anesthesiologists typically use the iliac crest as a landmark to choose the L3-4 or L2-3 interspace for labor epidural catheter placement. There is no evidence-based recommendation to guide the exact placement. We hypothesized that lower placement of the catheter would lead to a higher incidence of S2 dermatomal block and improved analgesia in late labor and at delivery. METHODS: One-hundred parturients requesting epidural analgesia were randomly assigned to receive ultrasound-guided L5-S1 epidural catheter placement (experimental group) or non-ultrasound-guided higher lumbar interspace placement (control group)...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Mirim Jin, Miwon Son
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). FD is characterized by bothersome symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning sensations in the upper abdomen. The complexity and heterogeneity of FD pathophysiology, which involves multiple mechanisms, make both treatment and new drug development for FD difficult. Current medicines for FD targeting a single pathway have failed to show satisfactory efficacy and safety. On the other hand, multicomponent herbal medicines that act on multiple targets may be a promising alternative treatment for FD...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Antonella Di Sotto, Patrizia Paolicelli, Martina Nardoni, Lorena Abete, Stefania Garzoli, Silvia Di Giacomo, Gabriela Mazzanti, Maria Antonietta Casadei, Stefania Petralito
The natural sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (CRY) has been highlighted to possess interesting pharmacological potentials, particularly due to its chemopreventive and analgesic properties. However, the poor solubility of this sesquiterpene in aqueous fluids can hinder its uptake into cells, resulting in inconstant responses of biological systems, thus limiting its application. Therefore, identifying a suitable pharmaceutical form for increasing CRY bioavailability represents an important requirement for exploiting its pharmacological potential...
December 13, 2018: Pharmaceutics
Heng-Long Wang, Jung-Che Chang, Li-Wen Fang, Hsia-Fen Hsu, Li-Chiun Lee, Jyh-Ferng Yang, Ming-Tsai Liang, Pei-Chi Hsiao, Chao-Ping Wang, Shih-Wei Wang, Chi-Chang Chang, Jer-Yiing Houng
Bulnesia sarmientoi (BS) has long been used as an analgesic, wound-healing and anti-inflammatory medicinal plant. The aqueous extract of its bark has been demonstrated to have anti-cancer activity. This study investigated the anti-proliferative and anti-metastatic effects of BS supercritical fluid extract (BSE) on the A549 and H661 lung cancer cell lines. The cytotoxicity on cancer cells was assessed by an MTT assay. After 72 h treatment of A549 and H661 cells, the IC50 values were 18.1 and 24.7 μg/mL, respectively...
December 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ikram Dib, Fatima Ezzahra El Alaoui-Faris
Artemisia campestris L. (Asteraceae) is a polymorphic species that consists of many subspecies and varieties. It is known for its medicinal, pharmacological, and culinary properties. This review is undertaken with the aim to highlight some aspects of this plant, specifically the taxonomy, the cytogeography, the phytochemistry with an emphasis on the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of the main bioactive compounds of A. campestris L. in addition to its biological properties and the food control properties...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Luiz Francisco Wemmenson Gonçalves Moura, João Xavier da Silva Neto, Tiago Deiveson Pereira Lopes, Stephen Rathinaraj Benjamin, Fernando César Rodrigues Brito, Francisco Ernani Alves Magalhães, Eridan Orlando Pereira Tramontina Florean, Daniele de Oliveira Bezerra de Sousa, Maria Izabel Florindo Guedes
The application of medicinal plants are the most important biotechnological alternative in the treatment of numerous diseases, especially in developing countries, such as Brazil. Among them, we specified some specimens of the genus Cnidoscolus used as phytotherapies, with healing properties, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic and diuretic, anticancer, among others. Such effects are possibly associated with the presence of terpenoids, alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids phenolic compounds, among others. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate in the literature the studies on the phytochemical, ethnopharmacological and biotechnological applications of this genus, from 1998 to 2017...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ewelina Rojewska, Katarzyna Ciapała, Joanna Mika
BACKGROUND: The G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35), is considered important for nociceptive transmission, as suggested by accumulating evidence. This receptor was discovered in 1998; however, a lack of pharmacological tools prevented a complete understanding of its function and how to exploit it therapeutically. We studied the influence of CXCL17, kynurenic acid and zaprinast on nociceptive transmission in naïve and neuropathic mice. Additionally, we investigated the influence of kynurenic acid and zaprinast on morphine effectiveness in neuropathic pain...
October 6, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Soheila Alboghobeish, Bahareh Naghizadeh, Alireza Kheirollah, Behnam Ghorbanzadeh, Mohammad Taghi Mansouri
Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of fluoxetine on morphine-induced analgesia, as well as preventive effects of it on morphine induced tolerance and dependence in mice. We also elucidate the involvement of L-type Ca2+ channels in these phenomena. To induce morphine tolerance, mice were treated with morphine (50 mg/kg) for 3 consecutive days. To evaluate the involvement of the calcium channel in the effects of fluoxetine (5, 20 mg/kg), combination ineffective doses of the two L-type calcium channel blockers, nimodipine (5 mg/kg) or diltiazem (20 mg/kg) with flouxetine were used with each morphine dose...
December 11, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Chiara Ruzza, Victor A Holanda, Elaine C Gavioli, Claudio Trapella, Girolamo Calo
Cebranopadol is a mixed NOP/opioid receptor agonist currently under development as innovative analgesic. In this study the liability of cebranopadol to produce opioid-type physical dependence has been evaluated in comparison with morphine in wild type mice and in mice knockout for the NOP receptor gene (NOP(-/-)). Mice were treated twice a day for 5 days with increasing doses of cebranopadol or morphine (cumulative doses 10.2 and 255 mg/kg, respectively) and the number of jumping in response to naloxone 10 mg/kg were measured after 2 h from the last injection...
December 11, 2018: Peptides
Hyung-Chul Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Hyung-Jun Kim, Yoonsang Park, Soo Bin Yoon, Seong Mi Yang, Hye-Won Oh, Chul-Woo Jung
The widespread use of remifentanil during total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) has raised concerns about the risk of postoperative remifentanil-associated pain. Although a recent meta-analysis suggests that remifentanil-associated pain is unlikely to occur in patients with TIVA because of the protective effect of co-administered propofol, the evidence is not conclusive. We retrospectively assessed 635 patients who received robotic thyroid surgery under TIVA to evaluate the risk of remifentanil-associated pain...
2018: PloS One
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