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Juan Valdés-Stauber, Sabine Krämer, Susanne Bachthaler
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of the inpatient psychosomatic treatment has been documented in various settings. The question of the sustainability of the improvement achieved as well as the prognostic factors is of interest for public health. OBJECTIVE: Primary outcome variables reflect the stability or change in the clinical status of patients one year after the discharge from the inpatient psychosomatic treatment. Secondary outcome variables reflect differences in utilization of medical services between the year before and after admission...
December 12, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Takeshi Nawa, Keisuke Fukui, Tomio Nakayama, Motoyasu Sagawa, Tohru Nakagawa, Hideo Ichimura, Tetsuya Mizoue
Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of lung cancer screening using low-dose computed tomography for the general population, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of screening for participants among Hitachi residents. Materials and Methods: Citizens aged 50-74 who underwent low-dose computed tomography screening at least once during 1998-2006 were defined as the computed tomography group, and those who underwent X-ray screening at least once during the same period, but did not receive low-dose computed tomography screening throughout the follow-up period, were defined as the XP group...
December 12, 2018: Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jong Hyun Jhee, Ki Heon Nam, Seong Yeong An, Min-Uk Cha, Misol Lee, Seohyun Park, Hyoungnae Kim, Hae-Ryong Yun, Youn Kyung Kee, Jung Tak Park, Seung Hyeok Han, Shin-Wook Kang, Tae-Hyun Yoo
Background: Vitamin D deficiency is associated with renal progression in chronic kidney disease. Moreover, improvement of clinical outcomes after vitamin D supplementation has been reported in the diabetic and chronic kidney disease population. Objective: We investigated the association between renal hyperfiltration (RHF) and vitamin D status in a relatively healthy population. Design: Data were retrieved from the Korean NHANES, a nationwide population-based cross-sectional study from 2008 to 2015...
December 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sarah N Thomas, Shelly R Hovick, Naomi Tan, Amy C Sturm, Kevin Sweet
BACKGROUND: Family health history tools have the ability to improve health outcomes and promote patient-provider communication, but some research suggests their effectiveness is limited. Tool design features may heavily influence users' perceptions of the tools. AIMS: This study provides a summative evaluation of the Family HealthLink tool, which assesses cancer and coronary heart disease risk based on personal and family health history, to better understand how tool design and message content impact user perceptions...
December 12, 2018: Public Health Genomics
Andrew M Courtwright, Souheil El-Chemaly
Telomeres are repetitive nucleotide sequences that cap linear chromosomes, thereby limiting progressive chromosomal shortening during cell replication. In conjunction with environmental factors, common single nucleotide polymorphisms and rare and ultra-rare telomere-related mutations are associated with accelerated telomere shortening resulting in organ dysfunction, including interstitial lung disease (ILD). The most common telomere-related mutation-associated ILD is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Up to one-third of individuals with familial IPF have shortened telomeres and/or carry a telomere-related mutation and one in ten individuals with sporadic IPF have telomere-related mutations...
December 12, 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Alaa Badawi, Giancarlo Di Giuseppe, Paul Arora
The role of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is controversial. The objective of the present study is to estimate the 10-year risk of CVD in HCV- positive subjects and describe their profile of cardiometabolic risk markers compared to HCV-negative subjects. We conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate 10-year CVD risk, calculated using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS), in participants from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (CHMS; 2007-2015, n = 10,115) and the US-National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES; 2007-2016, n = 16,668)...
2018: PloS One
Jose E Pietri, Connor Tiffany, Dangsheng Liang
The German cockroach, Blatella germanica, is a common pest in urban environments and is among the most resilient insects in the world. The remarkable ability of the German cockroach to develop resistance when exposed to toxic insecticides is a prime example of adaptive evolution and makes control of this insect an ongoing struggle. Like many other organisms, the German cockroach is host to a diverse community of symbiotic microbes that play important roles in its physiology. In some insect species, there is a strong correlation between the commensal microbial community and insecticide resistance...
2018: PloS One
Ilona Nenko, Adam D Hayward, Mirre J P Simons, Virpi Lummaa
Reproduction is predicted to trade-off with long-term maternal survival, but the survival costs often vary between individuals, cohorts and populations, limiting our understanding of this trade-off, which is central to life-history theory. One potential factor generating variation in reproductive costs is variation in developmental conditions, but the role of early-life environment in modifying the reproduction-survival trade-off has rarely been investigated. We quantified the effect of early-life environment on the trade-off between female reproduction and survival in pre-industrial humans by analysing individual-based life-history data for >80 birth cohorts collected from Finnish church records, and between-year variation in local crop yields, annual spring temperature, and infant mortality as proxies of early-life environment...
2018: PloS One
Marinde van Lennep, Michiel P van Wijk, Taher I M Omari, Silvia Salvatore, Marc A Benninga, Maartje M J Singendonk
OBJECTIVES: Pediatric achalasia is a rare neurodegenerative disorder of the esophagus that requires treatment. Different diagnostic and treatment modalities are available, but there are no data that show how children can best be diagnosed and treated. We aimed to identify current practices regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach toward children with achalasia. METHODS: Information on the current practice regarding the management of pediatric achalasia was collected by an online-based survey sent to members of the European and North American Societies for Pediatric Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition involved in pediatric achalasia care...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Michael Crompton, Barbara A Cadge, Joanna L Ziff, Andrew J Mowat, Robert Nash, Jeremy A Lavy, Harry R F Powell, Christopher P Aldren, Shakeel R Saeed, Sally J Dawson
OBJECTIVE: To analyse the epidemiology of otosclerosis in a British cohort collected between 2011 and 2017. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Five UK ENT Departments. PATIENTS: Patients with surgically confirmed otosclerosis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Questionnaire data documented family history of otosclerosis, age of onset, medical history, and information on associated risk factors for 657 patients...
January 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Shohei Tsujino, Megumi Tsujino, Akihito Tsujino
CASE: A 19-year-old college baseball outfielder presented with a 3-month history of right shoulder pain. Radiographs, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging showed a large osteochondral defect at the posterosuperior aspect of the glenoid. Arthroscopic evaluation identified an unstable fragment that was partially attached. Fixation of the osteochondral fragment was achieved with autogenous osteochondral plugs through a posterior arthrotomy. At 8 months after surgery, the patient was able to return to his former competitive level of performance...
December 12, 2018: JBJS Case Connector
Søren Klingenberg, Mads Ryø Jochumsen, Tomas Frahm Nielsen, Kirsten Bouchelouche
Ga-prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) PET/CT scan for primary staging discovered increased Ga-PSMA uptake in a known anal fistula in a recently diagnosed high-risk prostate cancer patient. The patient had an ongoing history of surgical revisions of complex fistulas in the perianal region, contributing to active inflammation and infection. Recently, reports have demonstrated increased Ga-PSMA uptake in different benign inflammatory conditions. This case demonstrates another case of a benign condition associated with increased Ga-PSMA uptake...
January 2019: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Gary J Doherty, Dochka Davidson, Han H Wong, Helen M Hatcher
Trabectedin is used routinely in the palliative management of patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma. It is not generally considered to be cardiotoxic, and there is no specific caution for its use in patients with a history of cardiac disease or risk factors. Here, we report six cases from a single academic centre where life-threatening cardiotoxicity occurred acutely during treatment with trabectedin. These patients had a median age of 72.5 years (range: 68-81) at presentation with cardiotoxicity, significantly higher than the median ages of patients treated with trabectedin in clinical trials...
January 2019: Anti-cancer Drugs
Margot Putukian, Kaitlin Riegler, Stephanie Amalfe, Jared Bruce, Ruben Echemendia
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the relationship between preinjury risk factors (RFs) and subsequent occurrence of concussion and examine whether preinjury RFs or postinjury assessments predict clinical recovery in collegiate athletes. METHODS: Risk factors (sex, sport, and self-report history of concussion, migraine, attention-deficit disorder, learning disability, depression, and anxiety) and Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT), depression/anxiety screenings, and neuropsychological testing were obtained before the season...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Balázs Vincze, István Lázár, Péter Mezei, Sándor Almássy, Imre Tóth
The definition of spontaneous haemothorax is accumulation of blood within the pleural space without trauma or iatrogenic causes. A case of a 17-year-old male patient with a history of multiple abnormal arterial fistulas between systemic circulation and pulmonary circulation as a cause of bleeding is presented. An overview of the causes, the clinical features of haemothorax and the interventional radiological methods that can solve some causes of haemothorax are presented in connection of our case report.
December 2018: Magyar Sebészet
Siobhan O'Donnell
INTRODUCTION: This study provides a benchmark for the nationwide use of osteoporosis screening, prevention and management strategies among Canadians aged 40 years and older (40+) using data collected one year prior to the release of Osteoporosis Canada's latest (2010) clinical practice guidelines. METHODS: Data are from the 2009 Canadian Community Health Survey-Osteoporosis Rapid Response Component. The study sample (n = 5704) was divided into four risk subgroups: (1) osteoporosis diagnosis and major fracture; (2) osteoporosis diagnosis only; (3) major fracture only; or (4) neither osteoporosis diagnosis nor major fracture...
December 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Kathleen Ries Merikangas, Joel Swendsen, Ian B Hickie, Lihong Cui, Haochang Shou, Alison K Merikangas, Jihui Zhang, Femke Lamers, Ciprian Crainiceanu, Nora D Volkow, Vadim Zipunnikov
Importance: Biologic systems involved in the regulation of motor activity are intricately linked with other homeostatic systems such as sleep, feeding behavior, energy, and mood. Mobile monitoring technology (eg, actigraphy and ecological momentary assessment devices) allows the assessment of these multiple systems in real time. However, most clinical studies of mental disorders that use mobile devices have not focused on the dynamic associations between these systems. Objectives: To examine the directional associations among motor activity, energy, mood, and sleep using mobile monitoring in a community-identified sample, and to evaluate whether these within-day associations differ between people with a history of bipolar or other mood disorders and controls without mood disorders...
December 12, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Ana Barbosa-Vasconcelos, Ângelo Mendes, Flávia Martins, Elisabete Lopes, Ana Machado, Adriano A Bordalo, Paulo Vaz-Pires, Natividade Vieira, Paulo Martins da Costa, Lucinda J Bessa
The Ave River in northern Portugal has a history of riverbanks and water quality degradation. The river water quality was assessed by physicochemical, biological (macroinvertebrates) and microbiological (Enterococcus spp. and Escherichia coli) parameters in six locations (A-F, point A being the nearest to the source) throughout its course during a year. Epilithic biofilms were studied through polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing helped with selecting isolates (n = 149 E...
December 2018: Journal of Water and Health
Stephanie M Young, Anita Y N Lim, Stephanie S Lang, Kok Onn Lee, Gangadhara Sundar
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay of therapy for active inflammatory phase of thyroid eye disease (TED) is immunosuppression. Patients in our centre with early active TED are treated with pulsed intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP). Two different protocols are offered in our centre: High dose (1g/day for 3 days, monthly for 6 months), or EUGOGO protocol (500 mg weekly for six weeks, followed by 250 mg weekly for the next 6 weeks). METHODS: A prospective cohort study of patients undergoing the two IVMP protocols was performed from January 2009 to May 2015...
December 12, 2018: Orbit
Ashley A Roark, Pragya A Dang, Bethany L Niell, Elkan F Halpern, Constance D Lehman
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to compare the supplemental cancer yield and performance of breast MRI in women at higher-than-average risk for breast cancer after negative 2D full-field digital mammography (FFDM) or negative digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective review identified 4418 screening breast MRI examinations: 2291 were performed from January 2010 through January 2012 of patients with a negative FFDM examination in the 12 months before MRI (FFDM group), and 2127 were performed from January 2013 through January 2015 of patients with a negative DBT examination in the 12 months before MRI (DBT group)...
December 12, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
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