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Antibiotics short course

V L Narayanan, N Balasubramanian
Introduction: Proximal humerus fracture fixation using plate osteosynthesis depends on the quality of the bone, design of the fixation devices and intra-operative soft tissue dissection. This study evaluates the functional outcome of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate in proximal humerus fracture treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients with complex proximal humerus fractures treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate (PHILOS)...
July 2018: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
M Bonsignore, C Alefelder, N Pausner, P Gastmeier, I Nachtigall
BACKGROUND: It is mandatory for hospitals in Germany to employ infection control physicians and have an external consultation. The recommended coverage has substantially increased in the last years. Typically, infection control physicians are specialists for hygiene and environmental medicine and/or for microbiology. As there is already a shortage of these specialists, a curricular educational program in infection control was developed by the German Medical Association in 2011. This program addresses specialists of different clinical disciplines...
August 13, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Francesca Mandolfino, Rosario Fornaro, Cesare Stabilini, Marco Casaccia, Tommaso Testa, Marco Frascio
BACKGROUND: Fecal Incontinence (FI) can seriously affect quality of life. The treatment of fecal incontinence starts conservatively but in case of failure, different surgical approaches may be proposed to the patient. Recently several not invasive approaches have been developed. One of these is the radiofrequency (RF) energy application to the internal anal sphincter. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a rare case of an anal abscess related to a SECCA procedure in a 66-year-old woman affected by gas and FI for twenty years...
August 7, 2018: BMC Surgery
R X Gu, H Wei, Y Wang, B C Liu, C L Zhou, D Lin, K Q Liu, S N Wei, B F Gong, G J Zhang, Y T Liu, X L Zhao, X Y Gong, Y Li, S W Qiu, Y C Mi, J X Wang
Objectives: To investigate the influence of duration of antibiotic therapy on the prognosis of patients with AML who had Gram-negative bloodstream infection during consolidation chemotherapy. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 591 patients enrolled from the registered "A Phase III study on optimizing treatment based on risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia, ChiCTR-TRC-10001202" treatment protocol between September 2010 and January 2016 in different treatment cycles. Results: A total of 119 episodes of Gram-negative bloodstream infection occurred during consolidation chemotherapy...
June 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Amar Mandalia, Erik-Jan Wamsteker, Matthew DiMagno
This review highlights advances made in recent years in the diagnosis and management of acute pancreatitis (AP). We focus on epidemiological, clinical, and management aspects of AP. Additionally, we discuss the role of using risk stratification tools to guide clinical decision making. The majority of patients suffer from mild AP, and only a subset develop moderately severe AP, defined as a pancreatic local complication, or severe AP, defined as persistent organ failure. In mild AP, management typically involves diagnostic evaluation and supportive care resulting usually in a short hospital length of stay (LOS)...
2018: F1000Research
Ali Sié, Clarisse Dah, Lucienne Ouermi, Charlemagne Tapsoba, Pascal Zabre, Till Bärnighausen, Elodie Lebas, Ahmed M Arzika, Blake M Snyder, Travis C Porco, Thomas M Lietman, Jeremy D Keenan, Catherine E Oldenburg
Antibiotics improve both weight and height gain in randomized trials of preschool children with preexisting morbidity. Here, we assess the effect of a short course of three different antibiotics (amoxicillin, azithromycin, and cotrimoxazole) on short-term linear and ponderal growth in a population-based sample of preschool children in rural Burkina Faso. We randomized households with at least two children in the Nouna district, Burkina Faso, to a 5-day course of amoxicillin, azithromycin, cotrimoxazole, or placebo...
July 16, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Giannoula S Tansarli, Eleftherios E Mylonakis
Background: The duration of therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains undefined. We sought to investigate whether short-course antibiotic treatment for CAP is associated with favorable clinical outcomes in adult patients. Methods: We systematically searched PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and for studies comparing the effectiveness and safety between treatment regimens administered for ≤6 days and ≥7 days. We defined treatment for ≤6 days as "short-course" and treatment for ≥7 days as "long-course"...
July 9, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Brenda M Zosa, Charles W Elliott, David E Kurlander, Freedom Johnson, Vanessa P Ho, Jeffrey A Claridge
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of initial prophylactic antibiotics on facial fractures, outcomes were compared between a short course (≤24 hours) of antibiotics to those who received an extended course (>24 hours). METHODS: Adults admitted (2010-2015) to a level 1 trauma center intensive care unit with at least 1 facial bone fracture and major injuries isolated to the head and neck were included. Our primary analysis compared infectious complications of the head or neck (H/N infection) between patients given short or extended courses of antibiotic prophylaxis...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Arthur Mageau, Christine Rodriguez Régent, Jérémie Dion, Nicolas Dupin, Luc Mouthon, Claire Le Jeunne, Alexis Régent
BACKGROUND: Cerebral vasculitis caused by neurosyphilis is a re-emerging problem with diagnostic and treatment issues, especially for HIV patients. METHODS: We present a case of relapsing syphilis-associated cerebral vasculitis, despite the recommended first-line antibiotic treatment, that was successfully treated with a second intravenous penicillin G course and corticosteroids. RESULTS: A 50-year old man went to the emergency room for bilateral episodes of red and painful eyes with progressive but severe visual acuity loss...
June 30, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Alexander J Adami, Sonali J Bracken, Linda A Guernsey, Ektor Rafti, Kendra R Maas, Joerg Graf, Adam P Matson, Roger S Thrall, Craig M Schramm
INTRODUCTION: Early-life exposure to antibiotics (ABX) has been linked to increases in asthma severity and prevalence in both children and laboratory animals. We explored the immunologic mechanisms behind this association using a mouse model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced asthma and early-life ABX exposure. METHODS: Mice were exposed to three short courses of ABX following weaning and experimental asthma was thereafter induced. Airway cell counts and differentials; serum immunoglobulin E (IgE); pulmonary function; lung histopathology; pulmonary regulatory T cells (Tregs); and the fecal microbiome were characterized following ABX exposure and induction of experimental asthma...
July 2, 2018: Pediatric Research
Daniel Jungmyung Oh, Stephen Brecher, Marcus Ruopp
We report a rare case of Clostridium perfringens (CP) empyema in a patient with metastatic squamous cell cancer of the lung. Clostridial empyemas are rare and clinically variable with some reports noting consequent necrotizing infections and septic shock and others noting quick resolution with source control and antibiotic treatment. This is the first case report to our knowledge to report a CP empyema in a patient with lung malignancy. Given the comorbid lung malignancy, the patient's presenting symptoms were mild with only mild shortness of breath, fevers, and generalized weakness despite the large CP empyema...
April 2018: International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science
Andrey S Borisov, Sapna Bamrah Morris, Gibril J Njie, Carla A Winston, Deron Burton, Stefan Goldberg, Rachel Yelk Woodruff, Leeanna Allen, Philip LoBue, Andrew Vernon
Treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is critical to the control and elimination of tuberculosis disease (TB) in the United States. In 2011, CDC recommended a short-course combination regimen of once-weekly isoniazid and rifapentine for 12 weeks (3HP) by directly observed therapy (DOT) for treatment of LTBI, with limitations for use in children aged <12 years and persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (1). CDC identified the use of 3HP in those populations, as well as self-administration of the 3HP regimen, as areas to address in updated recommendations...
June 29, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Anne B Chang, Allan Cripps, Edward K Mulholland, Heidi Smith-Vaughan, Nicholas Wood, Margaret Danchin, Ruth Thornton, Andrew Wilson, Paul J Torzillo, Peter M Morris, Peter Richmond, Sheree Rablin, Daniel Arnold, Anne Connor, Vikas Goyal, Tanya Stoney, Kirsten Perrett, Keith Grimwood
We aimed to determine the efficacy of the 10-valent pneumococcal-Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) in children aged 18-months to <18-years with recurrent protracted bacterial bronchitis (rPBB), chronic suppurative lung disease (CSLD) or bronchiectasis. In a multi-centre, double-blind randomised controlled trial, children received two doses, 2-months apart of the 10vPHiD-CV or quadrivalent meningococcal-ACYW135 conjugate vaccine. Active surveillance for acute exacerbations, respiratory symptoms and antibiotic use was undertaken through to 12-months after the second vaccine dose (clinical cohort only)...
June 26, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
V Gupta, A Jain, A Aggarwal
Chronic nonbacterial osteomyelitis (CNO) is a little known autoinflammatory bone disorder primarily affecting children and sometimes young adults. Diagnosis is often delayed due to its varied and nonspecific initial symptoms. Very few cases are reported from India. The aim of this report is to increase the awareness of this disease among physicians, orthopedic surgeons, and rheumatologists. Four male patients were diagnosed with CNO in the past 3 years. The age at onset varied from 9 to 23 years with a median diagnostic delay of 3...
July 2018: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
M T Khan, S I Malik, A I Bhatti, S Ali, A S Khan, M T Zeb, T Nadeem, S Fazal
Pyrazinamide (PZA) is a key first-line antibiotic used for the short-course treatment of drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates of tuberculosis. PZA exhibits potent action against semi-dormant bacilli in acidic environments. However, mutations that occur in target genes may cause technical difficulties in the diagnosis of PZA resistance during drug susceptibility testing. The objective of the current study is to identify mutations in pncAWT rpsA and rpsAWT panD genes among PZA-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) circulating in the Pashtun dominant region, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Satish S C Rao, Abdul Rehman, Siegfried Yu, Nicole Martinez de Andino
BACKGROUND: D-lactic acidosis is characterized by brain fogginess (BF) and elevated D-lactate and occurs in short bowel syndrome. Whether it occurs in patients with an intact gut and unexplained gas and bloating is unknown. We aimed to determine if BF, gas and bloating is associated with D-lactic acidosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). METHODS: Patients with gas, bloating, BF, intact gut, and negative endoscopic and radiological tests, and those without BF were evaluated...
June 19, 2018: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
Lingling Yang, Tianzhou Wu, Jiang Li, Jun Li
Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a newly recognized clinical syndrome characterized by preexisting chronic liver disease or cirrhosis with organ failure and high 28-day mortality (50-90%). Bacterial infections (BIs) play pivotal roles in the development and progression of ACLF either as a main precipitating event or a specific complication. The main organisms isolated as triggering ACLF are Gram-positive bacteria, followed by Gram-negative bacteria. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and skin infections are prevalent infections that trigger and complicate ACLF...
May 2018: Seminars in Liver Disease
Andreas Hohn, Nina Balfer, Bernhard Heising, Sabine Hertel, Jan C Wiemer, Marcel Hochreiter, Stefan Schröder
BACKGROUND: In randomised controlled trials, procalcitonin (PCT)-guided antibiotic treatment has been proven to significantly reduce length of antibiotic therapy in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, concern was raised on low protocol adherence and high rates of overruling, and thus the value of PCT-guided treatment in real clinical life outside study conditions remains unclear. In this study, adherence to a PCT protocol to guide antibiotic treatment in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock was analysed...
June 4, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
Matthew P Cheng, Alexander Lawandi, Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Katryn Paquette, Todd C Lee
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. To treat this infection, the current standard of care includes intravenous anti-staphylococcal beta-lactam antibiotics and obtaining adequate source control. Combination therapy with an aminoglycoside or rifampin, despite early promise, can no longer be routinely recommended due to an absence of proven benefit and risk of harm. Daptomycin is a rapidly acting bactericidal antibiotic that is approved for the treatment of Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia as monotherapy but has not been shown to be superior to the current standard of care...
May 29, 2018: Trials
Yong Seuk Lee, Antonia F Chen
Two-stage reimplantation is considered the gold standard for the management of periprosthetic joint infection. The first stage involves the removal of the prosthesis, followed by extensive debridement of all nonviable tissues, synovectomy, irrigation, and reaming of the medullary canals. Once the joint has been prepared, antibiotic-impregnated cement beads and/or spacer are inserted. Antibiotic-impregnated spacers are now more commonly used, and an increasing number of orthopaedic surgeons are using articulating spacers if indicated...
June 1, 2018: Knee Surgery & related Research
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