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Antibiotics short course

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537531/allicin-enhances-antimicrobial-activity-of-macrophages-during-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#1
Ved Prakash Dwivedi, Debapriya Bhattacharya, Mona Singh, Ashima Bhaskar, Santosh Kumar, Parveen Sobia, Luc Van Kaer, Gobardhan Das
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The emergence of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) strains has severely hampered global efforts towards tuberculosis (TB) eradication. The internationally accepted therapy "Directly Observed Treatment Short-course (DOTS)" is lengthy, and incorporates risks for the generation of drug-resistant M.tb variants. Multiple and extremely drug-resistant (MDR and XDR) variants of TB are now widespread throughout the globe, and totally drug-resistant (TDR) strains have appeared...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30536566/combined-aclidinium-bromide-and-long-acting-beta2-agonist-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd
#2
REVIEW
Han Ni, Soe Moe, Zay Soe, Kay Thi Myint, K Neelakantan Viswanathan
BACKGROUND: Several dual bronchodilator combinations of long-acting beta2 -agonist (LABA) and long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) have been approved for treatment of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease) recommendations suggest the use of LABA/LAMA combinations in people with group B COPD with persistent symptoms, group C COPD with further exacerbations on LAMA therapy alone and group D COPD with or without inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)...
December 11, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30535100/seven-versus-fourteen-days-of-antibiotic-therapy-for-uncomplicated-gram-negative-bacteremia-a-non-inferiority-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Dafna Yahav, Erica Franceschini, Fidi Koppel, Adi Turjeman, Tanya Babich, Roni Bitterman, Ami Neuberger, Nesrin Ghanem-Zoubi, Antonella Santoro, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Barak Pertzov, Tali Steinmetz, Anat Stern, Yaakov Dickstein, Elias Maroun, Hiba Zayyad, Jihad Bishara, Danny Alon, Yonatan Edel, Elad Goldberg, Claudia Venturelli, Cristina Mussini, Leonard Leibovici, Mical Paul
Background: Gram-negative bacteremia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Data to guide the duration of antibiotic therapy are limited. Methods: Randomized, multicenter, open-label, non-inferiority trial. Inpatients with Gram-negative bacteremia, afebrile and hemodynamically stable for at least 48 hours, were randomized to receive 7 (intervention) or 14 days (control) of covering antibiotic therapy. Patients with uncontrolled focus of infection were excluded...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526758/our-missing-microbes-short-term-antibiotic-courses-have-long-term-consequences
#4
Martin J Blaser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30484286/oral-isotretinoin-for-acne
#5
REVIEW
Caroline S Costa, Ediléia Bagatin, Ana Luiza C Martimbianco, Edina Mk da Silva, Marília M Lúcio, Parker Magin, Rachel Riera
BACKGROUND: Acne vulgaris, a chronic inflammatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit associated with socialisation and mental health problems, may affect more than 80% of teenagers. Isotretinoin is the only drug that targets all primary causal factors of acne; however, it may cause adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To assess efficacy and safety of oral isotretinoin for acne vulgaris. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following databases up to July 2017: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and LILACS...
November 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30442509/how-safe-is-doxycycline-for-young-children-or-for-pregnant-or-breastfeeding-women
#6
REVIEW
Gary P Wormser, Ronald P Wormser, Franc Strle, Ronnie Myers, Burke A Cunha
Tetracycline antimicrobials entered into clinical usage in the late 1940s. Permanent dental staining from tetracyclines was first appreciated in 1956, eventually leading to avoidance of this class of antibiotics whenever possible in young children and pregnant or breastfeeding women. Doxycycline, introduced in 1967, binds calcium less avidly than prior tetracyclines and is regarded by some authorities as safe to prescribe for pregnant women and young children. Review of the available data, however, suggests that this interpretation may be incorrect or at least premature...
October 4, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30424796/cost-effectiveness-of-procalcitonin-testing-to-guide-antibiotic-treatment-duration-in-critically-ill-patients-results-from-a-randomised-controlled-multicentre-trial-in-the-netherlands
#7
Michelle M A Kip, Jos A van Oers, Arezoo Shajiei, Albertus Beishuizen, A M Sofie Berghuis, Armand R Girbes, Evelien de Jong, Dylan W de Lange, Maarten W N Nijsten, Maarten J IJzerman, Hendrik Koffijberg, Ron Kusters
BACKGROUND: Procalcitonin (PCT) testing can help in safely reducing antibiotic treatment duration in intensive care patients with sepsis. However, the cost-effectiveness of such PCT guidance is not yet known. METHODS: A trial-based analysis was performed to estimate the cost-effectiveness of PCT guidance compared with standard of care (without PCT guidance). Patient-level data were used from the SAPS trial in which 1546 patients were randomised. This trial was performed in the Netherlands, which is a country with, on average, low antibiotic use and a short duration of hospital stay...
November 13, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415929/cancel-that-picc-line-order-cholecystostomy-tube-and-short-course-of-antibiotics
#8
Charles Walker, Katelyn Young, Ali Moosavi, Nicholas Molacek, James Dove, Marie Hunsinger, Joseph Blansfield, Kenneth Widom, Denise Torres, James Gregory, Jeffrey Wild
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines do not specifically address optimal antibiotic duration following cholecystostomy. This study compares outcomes for short-course (<7 days) and long-course (≥7 days) antibiotics post-cholecystostomy. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of cholecystostomy patients (≥18 years) admitted (1/1/2007-12/31/2017) to one healthcare system. RESULTS: Overall, 214 patients were studied. Demographics were similar, except short-course patients had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (p < 0...
October 29, 2018: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30390750/management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-guidelines
#9
REVIEW
Mark L Metersky, Andre C Kalil
Two recent major guidelines on diagnosis and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) recommend consideration of local antibiotic resistance patterns and individual patient risks for resistant pathogens when formulating an initial empiric antibiotic regimen. One recommends against invasive diagnostic techniques with quantitative cultures to determine the cause of VAP; the other recommends either invasive or noninvasive techniques. Both guidelines recommend short-course therapy be used for most patients with VAP...
December 2018: Clinics in Chest Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382951/optimal-duration-of-antibiotic-treatment-in-gram-negative-infections
#10
Jan J De Waele, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Whilst many guidelines recommend limiting the use of antibiotics because of the increase in antimicrobial resistance (AMR), this strategy becomes challenging when dealing with severe infections in critically ill patients. Moreover, some Gram-negative bacilli (GNB) can exhibit mechanisms of resistance that make the patient more vulnerable to recurrence of infections. We reviewed recent data on the optimal duration of antibiotic therapy in these patients. RECENT FINDINGS: Apart from having no additional clinical benefit at a certain point after initiation, antibiotics might have negative effects...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30368681/short-course-antibiotic-treatment-is-not-inferior-to-a-long-course-one-in-acute-cholangitis-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Benedek Tinusz, László Szapáry, Bence Paládi, Judit Tenk, Zoltán Rumbus, Dániel Pécsi, Zsolt Szakács, Gábor Varga, Zoltán Rakonczay, Zoltán Szepes, József Czimmer, Áron Vincze, Péter Hegyi, Bálint Erőss
AIMS: Our aim was to summarize the available literature on the effect of short- versus long-course antibiotic therapy on acute cholangitis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed according to the PRISMA Statement. We searched three databases for papers discussing the length of ABT in acute cholangitis. Long and short therapy groups were defined based on the most recent guideline available at the time of publication of the articles. Primary outcomes were the rate of recurrent cholangitis and mortality; secondary outcomes included length of hospitalization and the duration of fever after ERCP...
October 27, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30346638/primary-infection-with-human-herpes-virus-type-6-post-pediatric-liver-transplantation-a-pathogen-to-remember
#12
Adi Pappo-Toledano, Sara Dovrat, Zvia Soufiev, Yael Mozer-Glassberg, Irit Krause, Eran Rom, Raanan Shamir, Efraim Bilavsky
BACKGROUND: In recent years, liver transplantation (LT) has become a well-accepted therapeutic modality for children with end-stage liver disease, with transplantation surgery being performed at a younger age. Human herpes virus 6 (HHV-6) infection occurs in most children within the first 2 years of life, therefore, data on primary HHV-6 infection in pediatric liver transplant recipients is scarce. OBJECTIVE: To describe the course of primary HHV-6 infection after pediatric LT...
October 22, 2018: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345250/minocycline-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis-a-rare-but-important-cause-of-drug-induced-autoimmune-hepatitis
#13
Elizabeth G Harmon, Randolph McConnie, Anil Kesavan
Drug-induced autoimmune hepatitis (DIAIH) is an increasingly recognized form of drug-induced liver injury that leads to a condition similar to idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. A number of drugs have been associated with DIAIH, minocycline is one of the most well characterized. Minocycline is a semisynthetic tetracycline antibiotic used in the treatment of acne vulgaris. Minocycline-induced autoimmune hepatitis presents with serologic and histologic features similar to idiopathic autoimmune hepatitis. However, the natural history and outcomes of these two conditions differ significantly...
October 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345128/acute-brucellosis-presenting-with-bleeding-tendency-due-to-isolated-severe-thrombocytopenia
#14
M Aon, T Al-Enezi
Mild anemia and leukopenia are the most common hematologic findings in the course of acute brucellosis. Severe form of thrombocytopenia is less frequently reported. We describe a case of acute brucellosis in a 20-year-old man, who presented with fever, purpuric skin lesions, epistaxis, and hematuria. The absolute platelet count was 2 × 109 /L. The patient was diagnosed as suffering from brucellosis on the basis of a strongly positive serologic reaction and was treated with antibiotics and a short course of corticosteroids, with a rapid rise in platelet count...
2018: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30344150/persistent-cervical-lymphadenitis-in-a-patient-with-prior-thyroid-cancer-attributed-to-kikuchi-fujimoto-disease
#15
Roman Zuckerman, Louise Damiani, Hashem A Ayyad, Deborah R Alpert
We describe a 50-year-old woman with a history of thyroid cancer who presented with bilateral cervical and submandibular lymphadenopathy, low-grade fevers, and increasing fatigue. The patient underwent lymph node fine-needle aspiration, which showed no evidence of metastatic or lymphoproliferative disease. This procedure was complicated by a parapharyngeal abscess and cellulitis. She was treated unsuccessfully with various courses of antibiotics, but briefly responded to short courses of steroids. As her cervical lymphadenopathy returned, she underwent an excisional lymph node biopsy, which demonstrated caseating granulomatous lymphadenitis...
October 21, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333934/practical-strategies-for-management-of-lenalidomide-associated-cytopenias-in-myelodysplastic-syndromes-with-del-5q
#16
REVIEW
Sandra E Kurtin, Jean A Ridgeway, Sara Tinsley
CASE STUDY A male patient aged 67 years with a 2-year history of refractory anemia and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with del(5q) started lenalidomide (Revlimid) treatment as a participant in the MDS-001 trial (List et al., 2005). At the time of the study, this patient had been transfusion-dependent since 2001, and at study entry he had received a total of 12 units of red blood cells (RBCs). The patient started lenalidomide at 25 mg daily for 21 days of each 28-day cycle on April 2, 2002. (Please note that as a result of subsequent trials, the approved starting dose for lenalidomide in patients with del[5q] MDS is 10 mg...
November 2017: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30308538/twenty-four-hour-versus-extended-antibiotic-administration-after-surgery-in-complicated-appendicitis-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Sten Saar, Vladislav Mihnovitš, Thomas Lustenberger, Mariliis Rauk, Erast-Henri Noor, Edgar Lipping, Karl-Gunnar Isand, Jaak Lepp, Andrus Lomp, Urmas Lepner, Peep Talving
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations noted noninferiority in short-course antimicrobial treatments following source control in abdominal infections. We set out to investigate noninferiority of a short and fixed (24-hour) antibiotic administration compared to extended treatment after source control in complicated appendicitis in a prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial. METHODS: After IRB approval, all consecutive adult patients (age ≥18 years) with complicated appendicitis including gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis, and appendicitis with periappendicular abscess between 5/2016 and 2/2018 were randomly allocated to antibacterial therapy limited to 24 hours (short) vs...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298412/short-vs-long-course-antibiotic-therapy-for-pneumonia-a-comparison-of-systematic-reviews-and-guidelines-for-the-simi-choosing-wisely-campaign
#18
Ludovico Furlan, Luca Erba, Lucia Trombetta, Roberto Sacco, Giorgio Colombo, Giovanni Casazza, Monica Solbiati, Nicola Montano, Chiara Marta, Rodolfo Sbrojavacca, Francesco Perticone, Gino Roberto Corazza, Giorgio Costantino
Reduction of the inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical practice is one of the main goals of the Società Italiana di Medicina Interna (SIMI) choosing wisely campaign. We conducted a systematic review of secondary studies (systematic reviews and guidelines) to verify what evidence is available on the duration of antibiotic treatment in Pneumonia. A literature systematic search was performed to identify all systematic reviews and the three most cited and recent guidelines that address the duration of antibiotic therapy in pneumonia...
October 8, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288621/necrotizing-fasciitis-as-a-complication-of-osteonecrosis-of-the-jaw-related-to-oral-bisphosphonate-application-in-a-patient-with-osteoporosis-a-case-report
#19
David Steybe, Pit Jacob Voss, Michael Andreas Ermer, Marc Anton Fuessinger, Rainer Schmelzeisen, Philipp Poxleitner
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis has been reported as a complication secondary to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a low number of patients. The only report of such a case in an osteoporosis patient found in current literature was related to short-term bisphosphonate but long time corticosteroid and methotrexate treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: In this article, we report a case of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to osteonecrosis of the jaw related to long-term oral bisphosphonate treatment in an osteoporosis patient additionally suffering from poorly controlled type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30288076/short-course-therapy-for-diarrhea-predominant-irritable-bowel-syndrome-understanding-the-mechanism-impact-on-gut-microbiota-and-safety-and-tolerability-of-rifaximin
#20
REVIEW
Christopher Chang
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain that occurs with defecation or alterations in bowel habits. Further classification is based on the predominant bowel habit: constipation-predominant IBS, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), or mixed IBS. The pathogenesis of IBS is unclear and is considered multifactorial in nature. GI dysbiosis, thought to play a role in IBS pathophysiology, has been observed in patients with IBS. Alterations in the gut microbiota are observed in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and overgrowth may occur in a subset of patients with IBS...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
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