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Antibiotics short course

Sten Saar, Vladislav Mihnovitš, Thomas Lustenberger, Mariliis Rauk, Erast-Henri Noor, Edgar Lipping, Karl-Gunnar Isand, Jaak Lepp, Andrus Lomp, Urmas Lepner, Peep Talving
BACKGROUND: Recent investigations noted noninferiority in short-course antimicrobial treatments following source control in abdominal infections. We set out to investigate noninferiority of a short and fixed (24-hour) antibiotic administration compared to extended treatment after source control in complicated appendicitis in a prospective single-center open-label randomized controlled trial. METHODS: After IRB approval, all consecutive adult patients (age ≥18 years) with complicated appendicitis including gangrenous appendicitis, perforated appendicitis, and appendicitis with periappendicular abscess between 5/2016 and 2/2018 were randomly allocated to antibacterial therapy limited to 24 hours (short) vs...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ludovico Furlan, Luca Erba, Lucia Trombetta, Roberto Sacco, Giorgio Colombo, Giovanni Casazza, Monica Solbiati, Nicola Montano, Chiara Marta, Rodolfo Sbrojavacca, Francesco Perticone, Gino Roberto Corazza, Giorgio Costantino
Reduction of the inappropriate use of antibiotics in clinical practice is one of the main goals of the Società Italiana di Medicina Interna (SIMI) choosing wisely campaign. We conducted a systematic review of secondary studies (systematic reviews and guidelines) to verify what evidence is available on the duration of antibiotic treatment in Pneumonia. A literature systematic search was performed to identify all systematic reviews and the three most cited and recent guidelines that address the duration of antibiotic therapy in pneumonia...
October 8, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
David Steybe, Pit Jacob Voss, Michael Andreas Ermer, Marc Anton Fuessinger, Rainer Schmelzeisen, Philipp Poxleitner
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis has been reported as a complication secondary to bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in a low number of patients. The only report of such a case in an osteoporosis patient found in current literature was related to short-term bisphosphonate but long time corticosteroid and methotrexate treatment. CASE PRESENTATION: In this article, we report a case of necrotizing fasciitis secondary to osteonecrosis of the jaw related to long-term oral bisphosphonate treatment in an osteoporosis patient additionally suffering from poorly controlled type 2 diabetes...
October 5, 2018: Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Christopher Chang
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain that occurs with defecation or alterations in bowel habits. Further classification is based on the predominant bowel habit: constipation-predominant IBS, diarrhea-predominant IBS (IBS-D), or mixed IBS. The pathogenesis of IBS is unclear and is considered multifactorial in nature. GI dysbiosis, thought to play a role in IBS pathophysiology, has been observed in patients with IBS. Alterations in the gut microbiota are observed in patients with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and overgrowth may occur in a subset of patients with IBS...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Anthony D Vinson, Reinaldo Rampolla-Selles, E Shannon Cooper, Caroline R Alquist
Background: Acute rejection of lung allografts is an important contributor to morbidity and mortality in the transplant patient population, resulting in the dysfunction and destruction of the graft by the host's immune system via cellular or antibody-mediated mechanisms. Acute cellular rejection (ACR) is more common and better characterized than antibody-mediated rejection, which to date lacks any widely agreed upon, standardized set of diagnostic criteria. We present a case of AMR attributable to a rare phenomenon, non-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies...
2018: Ochsner Journal
Sara Hussain, Sahar Hussain, Mohamed Ashraf
A 5-month-old baby presented with a low-grade fever and tachypnoea and was found to have right upper lobe consolidation on chest radiograph. He was admitted with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and the treatment protocol for pneumonia was initiated. Blood culture samples were collected, and he was started on a course of intravenous amoxicillin-clavulanate. Blood culture results displayed pansensitive Gemella morbillorum bacteraemia and he was continued on intravenous antibiotic to which he responded in a short period and was discharged in good condition on the fourth day...
September 27, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Peter Wark, Vanessa M McDonald
BACKGROUND: Impaired mucociliary clearance characterises lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Hypertonic saline enhances mucociliary clearance and may lessen the destructive inflammatory process in the airways. This is an update of a previously published review. OBJECTIVES: To investigate efficacy and tolerability of treatment with nebulised hypertonic saline on people with CF compared to placebo and or other treatments that enhance mucociliary clearance. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Cystic Fibrosis Trials Register, comprising references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches, handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings...
September 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Christy A Harrison, Daniel Laubitz, Monica T Midura-Kiela, Deepa R Jamwal, David G Besselsen, Fayez K Ghishan, Pawel R Kiela
Background: Broad spectrum antibiotics, including combination therapy with ciprofloxacin and metronidazole (Abx) are often prescribed during the treatment of IBD to alleviate symptoms, but with varying success. In this pilot study, we studied the effects of Abx in the course of experimental colitis, with a particular focus on sex as a determinant of the microbial and inflammatory responses. Methods: The effects of Abx was tested on colonic inflammation and microbiome in male and female Rag-/- mice using adoptive transfer of naïve T cells to induce colitis in a short-term (two-week) and long-term (9-week) study...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Mark H Ebell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: American Family Physician
Brian E Lacy
BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is multifactorial in nature, and a wide range of therapies is available to manage symptoms of this common disorder. AIM: To provide an overview of the safety of interventions that may be used to manage patients with diarrhoea-predominant IBS (IBS-D). METHODS: Medline and Embase database searches (through 02 May 2018) to identify clinical studies that evaluated treatment safety and/or efficacy in adults with IBS-D...
October 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Michael J Durkin, Matthew Keller, Anne M Butler, Jennie H Kwon, Erik R Dubberke, Aaron C Miller, Phillip M Polgreen, Margaret A Olsen
Background: In 2011, The Infectious Diseases Society of America released a clinical practice guideline (CPG) that recommended short-course antibiotic therapy and avoidance of fluoroquinolones for uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs). Recommendations from this CPG were rapidly disseminated to clinicians via review articles, UpToDate, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website; however, it is unclear if this CPG had an impact on national antibiotic prescribing practices...
September 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Jesús López-Alcalde, Ricardo Rodriguez-Barrientos, Jesús Redondo-Sánchez, Javier Muñoz-Gutiérrez, José María Molero García, Carmen Rodríguez-Fernández, Julio Heras-Mosteiro, Jaime Marin-Cañada, Jose Casanova-Colominas, Amaya Azcoaga-Lorenzo, Virginia Hernandez Santiago, Manuel Gómez-García
BACKGROUND: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a lung infection that can be acquired during day-to-day activities in the community (not while receiving care in a hospital). Community-acquired pneumonia poses a significant public health burden in terms of mortality, morbidity, and costs. Shorter antibiotic courses for CAP may limit treatment costs and adverse effects, but the optimal duration of antibiotic treatment is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of short-course versus longer-course treatment with the same antibiotic at the same daily dosage for CAP in non-hospitalised adolescents and adults (outpatients)...
September 6, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Kristian H Mikkelsen, Tina Vilsbøll, Jens J Holst, Bolette Hartmann, Filip K Knop, Morten Frost
BACKGROUND: Intestinal bacteria influence bone remodeling in rodents, and antibiotic manipulation of the rodent gut microbiota increases bone formation and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss. In theory, these effects may be mediated by changes in sex hormone biotransformation in the gut, gut serotonin secretion or nutrition-induced secretion of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic hormone (GIP). Antibiotics change the human gut microbiota, but the effect of antibiotic treatment on human bone turnover is unknown...
September 4, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Diana J Schreier, Kianoush B Kashani, Ankit Sakhuja, Kristin C Mara, Mohammad S Tootooni, Heather A Personett, Sarah Nelson, Andrew D Rule, James M Steckelberg, Aaron J Tande, Erin F Barreto
Background: Nephrotoxins contribute to 20-40% of acute kidney injury (AKI) cases in the intensive care unit (ICU). The combination of piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin (PTZ/VAN) has been identified as nephrotoxic, but existing studies focus on extended durations of therapy rather than the brief empiric courses often used in the ICU. Objective: Compare the risk of AKI with a short course of PTZ/VAN to other anti-pseudomonal beta-lactam/vancomycin combinations...
August 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
B Houyvet, A Leduc, V Cornet, J Pontin, L Benoist, B Bernay, J Henry, E Vetois, C Zatylny-Gaudin
K4 is a de novo peptide with antibacterial activity on human pathogens. It has a short sequence (14 amino acids), with a cationic N-terminal moiety and an amphipathic ɑ-helix structure. The present paper demonstrates its activity on Vibrio bacteria in a marine environment. It was found non-toxic on marine organisms including Artemia salina, Dicentrarchus labrax, and Magallana gigas at different developmental stages, but influenced the growth of unicellular organisms like microalgae, depending on the algal strain and on K4 concentration...
August 24, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Ekaterina Kulchavenya
Background: Acute uncomplicated cystitis in women is one of the most frequently diagnosed bacterial infections. Methods: In a pilot, open, noncomparative prospective study, 29 nonpregnant, sexually active women with acute uncomplicated cystitis were enrolled. The mean age was 28.9 ± 4.3, range 22-36 years. All patients received unique therapy: the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ketoprofen, 100 mg once a day for 5 days, and Canephron, 2 dragees three times a day for 1 month...
September 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Urology
V L Narayanan, N Balasubramanian
Introduction: Proximal humerus fracture fixation using plate osteosynthesis depends on the quality of the bone, design of the fixation devices and intra-operative soft tissue dissection. This study evaluates the functional outcome of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate in proximal humerus fracture treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients with complex proximal humerus fractures treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate (PHILOS)...
July 2018: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
M Bonsignore, C Alefelder, N Pausner, P Gastmeier, I Nachtigall
BACKGROUND: It is mandatory for hospitals in Germany to employ infection control physicians and have an external consultation. The recommended coverage has substantially increased in the last years. Typically, infection control physicians are specialists for hygiene and environmental medicine and/or for microbiology. As there is already a shortage of these specialists, a curricular educational program in infection control was developed by the German Medical Association in 2011. This program addresses specialists of different clinical disciplines...
October 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Francesca Mandolfino, Rosario Fornaro, Cesare Stabilini, Marco Casaccia, Tommaso Testa, Marco Frascio
BACKGROUND: Fecal Incontinence (FI) can seriously affect quality of life. The treatment of fecal incontinence starts conservatively but in case of failure, different surgical approaches may be proposed to the patient. Recently several not invasive approaches have been developed. One of these is the radiofrequency (RF) energy application to the internal anal sphincter. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a rare case of an anal abscess related to a SECCA procedure in a 66-year-old woman affected by gas and FI for twenty years...
August 7, 2018: BMC Surgery
R X Gu, H Wei, Y Wang, B C Liu, C L Zhou, D Lin, K Q Liu, S N Wei, B F Gong, G J Zhang, Y T Liu, X L Zhao, X Y Gong, Y Li, S W Qiu, Y C Mi, J X Wang
Objectives: To investigate the influence of duration of antibiotic therapy on the prognosis of patients with AML who had Gram-negative bloodstream infection during consolidation chemotherapy. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from 591 patients enrolled from the registered "A Phase III study on optimizing treatment based on risk stratification for acute myeloid leukemia, ChiCTR-TRC-10001202" treatment protocol between September 2010 and January 2016 in different treatment cycles. Results: A total of 119 episodes of Gram-negative bloodstream infection occurred during consolidation chemotherapy...
June 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
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