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Antibiotic course

Shu-Yi Lin, Zheng-Hao Huang, Hsiang-Cheng Chen, Deh-Ming Chang, Chun-Chi Lu
INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB) pneumonia with severe sepsis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), who is predisposed after treatment with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFI), is a rare severe infection and can be successfully treated with prompt antibiotics. CASE PRESENTATION: A 75-year-old woman was diagnosed with RA >30 years previously. After inadequate treatment responses to conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), she developed progressive RA, including swollen joints in both hands, and had a high disease activity score of 4...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Evan Clayton Carlos, Ramy F Youssef, Adam Geoffrey Kaplan, Daniel Arthur Wollin, Brenton B Winship, Brian H Eisner, Roger L Sur, Glenn M Preminger, Michael Eric Lipkin
INTRODUCTION: Ureteroscopy(URS) and percutaneous nephrolithotomy(PNL) are common procedures performed to treat kidney stones. Despite advances in technology/technique, serious infectious complications can occur. To better understand preoperative antibiotic administration patterns and adherence to guidelines from the American Urological Association(AUA) and the European Association of Urology(EAU), members of the Endourological Society were sent a clinical vignette-based survey to assess antibiotic use in a variety of pre-URS and pre-PNL scenarios...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Endourology
Harry Wang, Vivek Batra
Pneumoperitoneum is often associated with surgical complications or intra-abdominal sepsis. While commonly deemed a surgical emergency, pneumoperitoneum in a minority of cases does not involve a viscus perforation or require urgent surgical management; these cases of "spontaneous pneumoperitoneum" can stem from a variety of etiologies. We report a case of a 72-year-old African American male with a history of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma who presented with new-onset abdominal distention and an incidentally discovered massive pneumoperitoneum with no clear source of perforation on surveillance imaging...
June 11, 2018: Curēus
V L Narayanan, N Balasubramanian
Introduction: Proximal humerus fracture fixation using plate osteosynthesis depends on the quality of the bone, design of the fixation devices and intra-operative soft tissue dissection. This study evaluates the functional outcome of minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate in proximal humerus fracture treatment. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 30 patients with complex proximal humerus fractures treated by minimally invasive percutaneous plate osteosynthesis using locking compression plate (PHILOS)...
July 2018: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
Sarah E Anderson, Edgar X Sherman, David S Weiss, Philip N Rather
Heteroresistance is a phenomenon where a subpopulation of cells exhibits higher levels of antibiotic resistance than the general population. Analysis of tobramycin resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii AB5075 using Etest strips demonstrated that colonies with increased resistance arose at high frequency within the zone of growth inhibition. The presence of a resistant subpopulation was confirmed by population analysis profiling (PAP). The tobramycin-resistant subpopulation was cross resistant to gentamicin but not amikacin...
August 15, 2018: MSphere
Teresa Grzelak, Klaudia Mikołajczyk
Cystic fibrosis - CF - is the most common recessively autosomally and inherited disorder in the Caucasian population. It is incurable, multi-systemic disease with progressive course. CF is caused by CFTR gene mutation, the product of which is Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR). CF patients are exposed to fat-soluble vitamins deficiency, including vitamin D. It is due to the fat malabsorption (caused by exacerbation exocrine pancreatic insufficiency), decreased sun exposure (caused by receiving antibiotics photophobia), reduction of adipose tissue and insufficient supply with food...
August 15, 2018: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
Shuji Fukahori, Misaki Ito, Taku Fujiwara
The removal of antibiotic sulfamethazine (SMT) and its intermediates from water was investigated using a rotating advanced oxidation contactor (RAOC) equipped with TiO2 -high-silica zeolite composite sheets. SMT was readily removed from water through adsorption onto high-silica zeolite and photocatalytic decomposition by TiO2 inside the composite sheet. Some degradation intermediates were retained and photocatalytically decomposed inside the composite sheet. Relatively hydrophobic intermediates such as hydroxylated SMT were captured inside the sheets, whereas hydrophilic intermediates were distributed in water...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
M Bonsignore, C Alefelder, N Pausner, P Gastmeier, I Nachtigall
BACKGROUND: It is mandatory for hospitals in Germany to employ infection control physicians and have an external consultation. The recommended coverage has substantially increased in the last years. Typically, infection control physicians are specialists for hygiene and environmental medicine and/or for microbiology. As there is already a shortage of these specialists, a curricular educational program in infection control was developed by the German Medical Association in 2011. This program addresses specialists of different clinical disciplines...
August 13, 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Masih Ahmed, Chang Sup Lee, Brian McMillan, Priyanka Jain, Lee Wiley, J Vernon Odom, Monique Leys
PURPOSE: To report a case of toxic optic neuropathy caused by an ocular bee sting. METHODS: Case report and literature review. RESULTS: A 44-year-old female presented with no light perception vision 2 days after a corneal bee sting in her right eye. She was found to have diffuse cornea edema with overlying epithelial defect and a pinpoint penetrating laceration at 6 o'clock. There was an intense green color to the cornea. The pupil was fixed and dilated with an afferent pupillary defect...
August 13, 2018: International Ophthalmology
Branum Griswold, Shawn Gilbert, Joseph Khoury
Background: Tibia vara, or Blount's disease, is a pathologic angular deformity of upper tibial physis causing a bow leg deformity. Adolescent Blount's disease may be unilateral or bilateral and is diagnosed during or just before the adolescent growth spurt. In addition to predisposing genetic factors, biomechanical overload of the proximal tibial physis causes asymmetric growth leading to a varus deformity.Surgical intervention is usually required for adolescent Blount's disease. Hemiepiphysiodesis has had some success in arresting or correcting the deformity...
2018: Iowa Orthopaedic Journal
Vanessa E Rees, Rajbharan Yadav, Kate E Rogers, Jürgen B Bulitta, Veronika Wirth, Antonio Oliver, John D Boyce, Anton Y Peleg, Roger L Nation, Cornelia B Landersdorfer
Hypermutable Pseudomonas aeruginosa are prevalent in chronic respiratory infections and have been associated with reduced lung function in cystic fibrosis (CF); these isolates can become resistant to all antibiotics in monotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the time-course of bacterial killing and resistance of meropenem and ciprofloxacin in combination against hypermutable and non-hypermutable P. aeruginosa Static concentration time-kill experiments over 72h assessed meropenem and ciprofloxacin in mono- and combination therapy against PAO1 (non-hypermutable), PAOΔ mutS (hypermutable), and hypermutable isolates CW08, CW35 and CW44 obtained from CF patients with chronic respiratory infections...
August 13, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jane C Davies, Isaac Martin
Cystic fibrosis is characterized by bacterial lung infection, a majority of adults being chronically infected with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Treatment is a major challenge, with frequent courses of antibiotics contributing to antimicrobial resistance. New approaches are clearly required. Over the last few years, a major shift in our approach to treating CF has occurred with the availability of the first drugs targeting the CFTR protein and leading to improvements in lung function, weight gain and frequency of exacerbations...
August 12, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
Amani F Hamad, Silvia Alessi-Severini, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Marni Brownell, I Fan Kuo
Background: Changes in microbiota composition as a result of antibiotics use in early life has been proposed as a possible contributor in the aetiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We aimed to examine the association between early life antibiotic exposure and risk of ASD. Methods: This was a population-based cohort study which included all live births in Manitoba, Canada, between 1 April 1998 and 31 March 2016. We used administrative health data from the Manitoba Population Research Data Repository...
August 7, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Anirban Hom Choudhuri, Priyanka Khurana, Partha Sarathi Biswas, Rajeev Uppal
Background and Aims: The critically ill patients with liver disease are vulnerable to infections in both community and hospital settings. The nosocomial infections are often caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. The present observational study was conducted to describe the epidemiology, course, and outcome of MDR bacterial infection and identify the risk factors of such infection in critically ill patients with liver disease. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational study was conducted on 106 consecutive critically patients with liver disease admitted in the Intensive Care Unit between March 2015 and February 2017...
July 2018: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
Alasdair P S Munro, Christopher C Blyth, Anita J Campbell, Asha C Bowen
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia (SAB) causes considerable morbidity and mortality in children. Despite this, its epidemiology and risk factors are poorly understood, with minimal paediatric clinical trial data available to guide clinicians in management. We conducted a pilot study to characterise SAB and validate a severity classification for use in future clinical trials. METHODS: Patients with SAB were prospectively identified at Princess Margaret Hospital for Children (Perth, Western Australia) from May 2011 to December 2013...
August 10, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Wylie Lopez, Sean M Rider, Kenneth Nwosu, Erick Kazarian, Justin Blucher, Erin Schoenfeld, Andrew Simpson, James Kang, Andrew J Schoenfeld
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether administration of prophylactic vancomycin, in addition to cefazolin decreased revision surgeries for postoperative infection (SSI) as well as the need for revisions overall. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: In 2010 our institution implemented an antibiotic prophylaxis regimen consisting of intravenous vancomycin and cefazolin that applied to all patients receiving surgical implants...
August 7, 2018: Spine
U Herbers, C Trautwein, F Tacke, A Koch
Acute pancreatitis is a potentially life-threatening disease, which is morphologically classified into interstitial edematous or necrotizing pancreatitis. According to the revised Atlanta classification, mild, moderate and severe clinical courses are differentiated regarding local and systemic complications as well as concomitant organ failure. In the initial disease phase, the therapeutic measures are focused on (aggressive) volume replacement, early enteral nutrition and adequate analgesia. Characteristic in the course of severe acute pancreatitis are abdominal necroses, which require individualized and interdisciplinary treatment with antibiotic therapy, drainage and definitive necrosectomy...
August 9, 2018: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Pallav Mahesh Patni, Pradeep Jain, Hemalatha Hiremath, Swadhin Raghuwanshi, Prashansa Vijaywargia, Mona Jain Patni
A 22-year-old female patient had a history of a 7-month recurrent pus discharge from her chin. She had been previously treated by physicians, dermatologist, and surgeons. The sinus kept re-occurring and she was referred to dental hospital for opinion. The patient had cutaneous opening of size 5 mm × 6 mm with purulent discharge in submental region. Patient had undergone three surgical excisions and multiple antibiotic regimens. Patient had a history of trauma due to fall six years back. A 30 number standard gutta-percha was used to trace the sinus tract and dental origin was confirmed radiographically...
July 2018: Clujul Medical (1957)
Joseph Philip, Christian Kegg, Dalia Lopez-Colon, Brian J Kelly, Robert M Lawrence, Matthew A Robinson, Ravi S Samraj, Mark S Bleiweis
BACKGROUND: There is no consensus for the length of prophylactic antibiotics after delayed chest closure (DCC) postcardiac surgery in pediatrics. In September 2014, our institution's pediatric cardiac intensive care unit changed the policy on length of prophylactic antibiotics after DCC from 5 days (control) to 2 days (study group). The objective of the study was to determine whether a 2-day course of antibiotics is as effective as a 5-day course in preventing blood stream and sternal wound infections in pediatric DCC...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Jesús María Aranaz Andrés, Alberto Pardo Hernández, Patricia López Pereira, José Lorenzo Valencia-Martín, Cristina Diaz-Agero Pérez, Nieves López Fresneña, Ángela Rincón Carlavilla, María Teresa Gea-Velázquez de Castro, Cristina Navarro Royo, Carmen Albéniz Lizárraga, Abelardo Claudio Fernández Chávez
OBJECTIVE: The patient safety culture (PSC) in health institutions depends on various organizational and human factors. Our aim was to evaluate, as a teaching strategy, the knowledge in patient safety and perceptions about the PSC. METHODS: A convenience sample, with 122 health professionals from Regional Minister of Health's patient safety courses attendees in 2015. Be- fore each course, were delivered a knowledge questionnaire about patient safety (own elaboration) and a validated PSC questionnaire (estimating 3 dimensions: managerial support, perception of safety and expectations / actions)...
August 8, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
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