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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104506/sex-a-significant-risk-factor-for-neurodevelopmental-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Paulo Pinares-Garcia, Marielle Stratikopoulos, Alice Zagato, Hannah Loke, Joohyung Lee
Males and females sometimes significantly differ in their propensity to develop neurological disorders. Females suffer more from mood disorders such as depression and anxiety, whereas males are more susceptible to deficits in the dopamine system including Parkinson's disease (PD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism. Despite this, biological sex is rarely considered when making treatment decisions in neurological disorders. A better understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying sex differences in the healthy and diseased brain will help to devise diagnostic and therapeutic strategies optimal for each sex...
August 13, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102946/l-dopa-treatment-during-perinatal-development-leads-to-different-behavioral-alterations-in-female-vs-male-juvenile-swiss-mice
#2
Lorena Oliveira de Matos, Ana Luiza de Araujo Lima Reis, Lorena Terene Lopes Guerra, Leonardo de Oliveira Guarnieri, Muiara Aparecida Moraes, Nayara Soares Sena Aquino, Raphael E Szawka, Grace Schenatto Pereira, Bruno Rezende Souza
Alterations in dopaminergic signaling and neurodevelopment are associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders, such as attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, and schizophrenia. Imbalances in dopamine levels during prenatal development are associated with behavioral alterations later in life, like hyperactivity and addiction, and it is possible that dopaminergic imbalances may have diverse effects during different neurodevelopmental windows. In this study, we investigate whether an increase in dopamine levels during the perinatal developmental window affects behavior of juvenile male and female Swiss mice...
August 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102079/using-antipsychotics-for-behavioral-problems-in-children
#3
Samreen Shafiq, Tamara Pringsheim
Antipsychotic use in children has increased over the past two decades. Randomized controlled trials have evaluated the efficacy of antipsychotics in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and disruptive behavior disorders (DBD). Areas covered: The authors systematically analyze the results of randomized controlled trials of second and third generation antipsychotics for irritability in ASD and aggressive and disruptive behavior in DBD with or without low IQ and ADHD. The aim of the review is to assist healthcare professionals to optimize therapy in this population...
August 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097761/social-function-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adults-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Anita K Chisholm, Vicki A Anderson, Natalie A Pride, Stephanie Malarbi, Kathryn N North, Jonathan M Payne
In light of the proliferation of recent research into social function in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), a systematic review and meta-analysis is required to synthesise data and place findings within the context of a theoretical framework. This paper reviews findings from research into social function and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children and adults with NF1 and integrates these findings with the Socio-Cognitive Integration Abilities Model (SOCIAL). It also critically appraises links between social outcomes, internal and external factors moderating social functioning, cognitive domains implicated in social functioning, and underlying neural pathology in NF1...
August 11, 2018: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095242/executive-function-predicts-the-visuospatial-working-memory-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#5
Zengjian Wang, Jin Jing, Kazue Igarashi, Lijun Fan, Siyuan Yang, YongMei Li, Yu Jin
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and those with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) always show working memory deficits. However, research findings on the factors that affected the working memory in ASD and ADHD were inconsistent. Thus, we developed the present study to investigate the association of executive function (EF) with the visuospatial working memory (VSWM) in ASD and ADHD. Three groups of participants were examined: 21 children with ASD, 28 children with ADHD and 28 typically developing (TD) children as the controls...
August 10, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080117/-%C3%AF-neuropsychiatric-manifestations-in-tuberous-sclerosis-complex-tsc-diagnostic-guidelines-tand-concept-and-therapy-with-mtor-inhibitors%C3%AF
#6
Robert Waltereit, Martha Feucht, Magdalena C de Vries, Julia Huemer, Veit Roessner, Petrus J de Vries
Neuropsychiatric manifestations in Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC): diagnostic guidelines, TAND concept and therapy with mTOR inhibitors Abstract. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC), albeit a rare autosomal-dominant multisystem disease with an incidence of 1:6,000, is one of the most important monogenetic disorders in child and adolescent psychiatry. In up to 90 % of patients, neurological disorders such as epilepsy and psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, affective disorders, and intellectual disability are observed...
August 6, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067938/the-role-of-epigenetic-modifications-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders-a-systematic-review
#7
REVIEW
Lorenza Dall'Aglio, Taulant Muka, Charlotte A M Cecil, Wichor M Bramer, Michael M P J Verbiest, Jana Nano, Andrea Cortes Hidalgo, Oscar H Franco, Henning Tiemeier
Epigenetic processes have been suggested as key mechanisms in the etiology of neurodevelopmental disorders. This systematic review summarizes the current evidence for an association between epigenetics and Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Attention/Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Six databases were searched until the 24th of October 2017. Of the 2169 retrieved articles, 29 met our inclusion criteria. While generally associations between epigenetics and neurodevelopmental disorders were reported, only a few findings were consistent across independent analyses...
July 29, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30056085/visual-and-auditory-emotion-recognition-problems-as-familial-cross-disorder-phenomenon-in-asd-and-adhd
#8
Francesca Waddington, Catharina Hartman, Yvette de Bruijn, Martijn Lappenschaar, Anoek Oerlemans, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Nanda Rommelse
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are frequently comorbid disorders. Emotion recognition problems are considered an important familial deficit in ASD, but this is unknown in ADHD. Very few studies have directly compared emotion recognition performance of youth with ASD and/or ADHD and of their unaffected siblings across age to quantify the contribution of emotion recognition problems to the ADHD phenotype. We therefore devised a study of 64 ASD+ADHD participants, 89 ASD-only participants, 111 ADHD-only participants, 122 unaffected ASD(+ADHD) siblings, 69 unaffected ADHD-only siblings and 220 controls aged 7-18 years, who had completed two tasks assessing auditory and visual emotion recognition...
July 25, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053494/the-link-of-organophosphorus-pesticides-with-neurodegenerative-and-neurodevelopmental-diseases-based-on-evidence-and-mechanisms
#9
Sara Mostafalou, Mohammad Abdollahi
Organophosphorus (OP) compounds have been known as the most widely used pesticides during the past half century and there have been a huge body of literature regarding their association with human chronic diseases. Neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders including Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autism are among the afflicting neurological diseases which overshadow human life and their higher risk in relation to OP exposures have been uncovered by epidemiological studies...
July 24, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045714/mindfulness-for-children-with-adhd-and-mindful-parenting-mindchamp-protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-comparing-a-family-mindfulness-based-intervention-as-an-add-on-to-care-as-usual-with-care-as-usual-only
#10
Nienke M Siebelink, Susan M Bögels, Lisanne M Boerboom, Noor de Waal, Jan K Buitelaar, Anne E Speckens, Corina U Greven
BACKGROUND: Self-control in childhood has been linked to long-term and cascading effects on health, academic, criminality, wealth and parenting outcomes. Hence it is important to target self-control deficits early in life. Self-control deficits are a hallmark of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Even after receiving care-as-usual (CAU) for ADHD, impaired self-control often remains. Pharmacotherapy can be hampered by side-effects, low adherence and short-term effectiveness...
July 25, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040859/neurodevelopmental-disorders-in-children-aged-2-9-years-population-based-burden-estimates-across-five-regions-in-india
#11
Narendra K Arora, M K C Nair, Sheffali Gulati, Vaishali Deshmukh, Archisman Mohapatra, Devendra Mishra, Vikram Patel, Ravindra M Pandey, Bhagabati C Das, Gauri Divan, G V S Murthy, Thakur D Sharma, Savita Sapra, Satinder Aneja, Monica Juneja, Sunanda K Reddy, Praveen Suman, Sharmila B Mukherjee, Rajib Dasgupta, Poma Tudu, Manoja K Das, Vinod K Bhutani, Maureen S Durkin, Jennifer Pinto-Martin, Donald H Silberberg, Rajesh Sagar, Faruqueuddin Ahmed, Nandita Babu, Sandeep Bavdekar, Vijay Chandra, Zia Chaudhuri, Tanuj Dada, Rashna Dass, M Gourie-Devi, S Remadevi, Jagdish C Gupta, Kumud K Handa, Veena Kalra, Sunil Karande, Ramesh Konanki, Madhuri Kulkarni, Rashmi Kumar, Arti Maria, Muneer A Masoodi, Manju Mehta, Santosh Kumar Mohanty, Harikumaran Nair, Poonam Natarajan, A K Niswade, Atul Prasad, Sanjay K Rai, Paul S S Russell, Rohit Saxena, Shobha Sharma, Arun K Singh, Gautam B Singh, Leena Sumaraj, Saradha Suresh, Alok Thakar, Sujatha Parthasarathy, Bhadresh Vyas, Ansuman Panigrahi, Munish K Saroch, Rajan Shukla, K V Raghava Rao, Maria P Silveira, Samiksha Singh, Vivek Vajaratkar
BACKGROUND: Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) compromise the development and attainment of full social and economic potential at individual, family, community, and country levels. Paucity of data on NDDs slows down policy and programmatic action in most developing countries despite perceived high burden. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed 3,964 children (with almost equal number of boys and girls distributed in 2-<6 and 6-9 year age categories) identified from five geographically diverse populations in India using cluster sampling technique (probability proportionate to population size)...
July 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027417/head-circumference-and-child-adhd-symptoms-and-cognitive-functioning-results-from-a-large-population-based-cohort-study
#12
Muriel Ferrer, Raquel García-Esteban, Carmen Iñiguez, Olga Costa, Ana Fernández-Somoano, Cristina Rodríguez-Delhi, Jesús Ibarluzea, Aitana Lertxundi, Cathryn Tonne, Jordi Sunyer, Jordi Julvez
The aim of this study is to understand the association between prenatal, newborn and postnatal head circumference (HC) and preschool neurodevelopment in a large population-based birth cohort. The INMA project followed 1795 children from 12 weeks of pregnancy to preschool years. HC measurements were carried out prospectively, and following a standardized protocol during pregnancy (12, 20 and 34 weeks), birth, and child ages of 1-1.5 and 4 years old; and z-scores were further estimated. Prenatal head growth was assessed using conditional z-scores between weeks 12-20 and 20-34...
July 19, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30027330/ex-gaussian-frequency-and-reward-analyses-reveal-specificity-of-reaction-time-fluctuations-to-adhd-and-not-autism-traits
#13
Nicoletta Adamo, John Hodsoll, Philip Asherson, Jan K Buitelaar, Jonna Kuntsi
Both attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been linked to increased reaction time variability (RTV), a marker of attentional fluctuation. Here we test whether specificity to either trait emerges when we examine (1) detailed ex-Gaussian and frequency RTV subcomponents, (2) effects while controlling for the other trait and (3) improvement in the RTV measures following rewards or a faster event rate. 1110 children aged 7-10 years from a population-based sample completed a Go/No-Go task under three conditions (slow, fast and incentives)...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30019794/neurocognitive-assessment-of-children-with-neurodevelopmental-disorders-preliminary-findings
#14
Kentaro Kawabe, Fumie Horiuchi, Shizuka Kondo, Miki Matsumoto, Kanae Seo, Yasunori Oka, Shu-Ichi Ueno
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity, and is often treated pharmacologically. It is necessary to use both subjective and objective assessments to diagnose and determine the efficacy of pharmacological treatment in children with ADHD; however, cognitive assessment tools for ADHD are scarce. We examined a computer-administered, brief, and repeatable cognitive assessment tool: CogHealth. The aims of this study were to use the CogHealth battery, an objective assessment tool, to compare cognitive function between children with ADHD or ADHD+Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and healthy children and to assess improvements in cognitive function following pharmacological treatment...
July 18, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018328/shared-endo-phenotypes-of-default-mode-dsfunction-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Julius M Kernbach, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Danielle S Bassett, Jonathan Smallwood, Daniel Margulies, Sarah Krall, Philip Shaw, Gaël Varoquaux, Bertrand Thirion, Kerstin Konrad, Danilo Bzdok
Categorical diagnoses from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) or International Classification of Diseases (ICD) manuals are increasingly found to be incongruent with emerging neuroscientific evidence that points towards shared neurobiological dysfunction underlying attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data, functional connectivity of the default mode network, the dorsal attention and salience network was studied in 1305 typically developing and diagnosed participants...
July 17, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002940/low-dose-fluoxetine-in-four-children-with-autistic-spectrum-disorder-improves-self-injurious-behavior-adhd-like-symptoms-and-irritability
#16
Juan Pablo Lucchelli, Gilles Bertschy
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is defined by the copresence of two core symptoms: alteration in social communication and repetitive behaviors and/or restricted interests. In ASD children and adults, irritability, self-injurious behavior (SIB), and Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders- (ADHD-) like symptoms are regularly observed. In these situations, pharmacological treatments are sometimes used. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors- (SSRI-) based treatments have been the subject of several publications: case reports and controlled studies, both of which demonstrate efficacy on the symptoms mentioned above, even if no consensus has been reached concerning their usage...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001426/reduced-microbiome-alpha-diversity-in-young-patients-with-adhd
#17
Alexander Prehn-Kristensen, Alexandra Zimmermann, Lukas Tittmann, Wolfgang Lieb, Stefan Schreiber, Lioba Baving, Annegret Fischer
ADHD is a psychiatric disorder which is characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity and attention problems. Due to recent findings of microbial involvement in other psychiatric disorders like autism and depression, a role of the gut microbiota in ADHD pathogenesis is assumed but has not yet been investigated. In this study, the gut microbiota of 14 male ADHD patients (mean age: 11.9 yrs.) and 17 male controls (mean age: 13.1 yrs.) was examined via next generation sequencing of 16S rDNA and analyzed for diversity and biomarkers...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982895/timing-of-the-diagnoses-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-taiwan
#18
Han-Ting Wei, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kai-Lin Huang, Ya-Mei Bai, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai, Tai-Long Pan, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Mu-Hong Chen
ADHD comorbidity has been associated with delayed diagnosis of ASD, but no study has investigated this association in an Asian country. Children with ASD were included and divided into three groups: ADHD before ASD, ADHD same/after ASD, and ASD only. Timing of ASD and ADHD diagnoses were assessed. The logistic regression model was performed to investigate the likelihood of being diagnosed with ASD after 6 years of age between three groups. ADHD before ASD (OR 10.93) group was more likely to being diagnosed with ASD after 6 years of age compared with ADHD same/after ASD (OR: 1...
July 7, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29981380/disparities-in-familiarity-with-developmental-disabilities-among-low-income-parents
#19
Katharine E Zuckerman, Alison E Chavez, Carolina Regalado Murillo, Olivia J Lindly, Julie A Reeder
OBJECTIVE: Parent knowledge about developmental disabilities (DDs) may facilitate access to DD care; however, parents may vary in their knowledge and familiarity with common DDs. This study aimed to assess racial/ethnic and language differences in low-income families' familiarity, knowledge, and personal experience with DDs. METHODS: We conducted a child development survey among 539 low-income parents of young children attending visits at the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), in six Oregon counties in 2015...
July 4, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29963709/early-developmental-pathways-to-childhood-symptoms-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-anxiety-and-autism-spectrum-disorder
#20
Elizabeth Shephard, Rachael Bedford, Bosiljka Milosavljevic, Teodora Gliga, Emily J H Jones, Andrew Pickles, Mark H Johnson, Tony Charman
BACKGROUND: Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have co-occurring symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and/or anxiety. It is unclear whether these disorders arise from shared or distinct developmental pathways. We explored this question by testing the specificity of early-life (infant and toddler) predictors of mid-childhood ADHD and anxiety symptoms compared to ASD symptoms. METHODS: Infants (n = 104) at high and low familial risk for ASD took part in research assessments at 7, 14, 24 and 38 months, and 7 years of age...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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