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Adhd And Autism

Siri Ranlund, Maria Joao Rosa, Simone de Jong, James H Cole, Marinos Kyriakopoulos, Cynthia H Y Fu, Mitul A Mehta, Danai Dima
Psychiatric illnesses are complex and polygenic. They are associated with widespread alterations in the brain, which are partly influenced by genetic factors. There have been some attempts to relate polygenic risk scores (PRS) - a measure of the overall genetic risk an individual carries for a disorder - to brain structure using univariate methods. However, PRS are likely associated with distributed and covarying effects across the brain. We therefore used multivariate machine learning in this proof-of-principle study to investigate associations between brain structure and PRS for four psychiatric disorders; attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia...
October 9, 2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Dana C Won, Heidi M Feldman, Lynne C Huffman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the percentage of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and combined ASD + ADHD who had sleep problems documented by developmental-behavioral pediatricians at diagnostic and follow-up visits at 12 US academic medical centers comprising the Developmental-Behavioral Pediatrics Research Network (DBPNet) and to identify the predictors of sleep problem documentation. METHODS: Developmental-behavioral pediatricians completed encounter forms that covered sociodemographic, medical, clinician, and visit factors...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
James R Roberts, Erin H Dawley, J Routt Reigart
Pesticides are chemicals that are designed specifically for the purpose of killing or suppressing another living organism. Human toxicity is possible with any pesticide, and a growing body of literature has investigated possible associations with neurodevelopmental disorders. Attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are two of these specific disorders that have garnered particular interest. Exposure to toxic chemicals during critical windows of brain development is a biologically plausible mechanism...
October 8, 2018: Pediatric Research
Jieun Song, Marsha R Mailick, Jan S Greenberg
OBJECTIVE: Parents of individuals with developmental disorders or mental health problems often provide life-long care and support to their children, which negatively affects their health in part due to chronic stress. This study aimed to examine the experience of stigma as a source of chronic stress among parents of individuals with developmental disorders or mental health problems and the effect of stigma on parental health outcomes. METHOD: Using data from the Survey of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS 2 and 3), we constructed a sample for a longitudinal analysis including 128 parents of individuals with developmental disorders (e...
September 27, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Lotte Rasmussen, Niels Bilenberg, Martin Thomsen Ernst, Sidsel Abitz Boysen, Anton Pottegård
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have a considerable use of psychotropics. Leveraging nationwide registry data, we aimed to describe the use of psychotropics among children and adolescents with ASD in Denmark. Use of melatonin and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication increased from 2010 to 2017, while there were limited changes in use of antidepressants and antipsychotics. Thirty percent of the identified children used psychotropics in 2017 most commonly ADHD medication (17%) and melatonin (13%)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mathilde Septier, Hugo Peyre, Fréderique Amsellem, Anita Beggiato, Anna Maruani, Marion Poumeyreau, Anouck Amestoy, Isabelle Scheid, Alexandru Gaman, Federico Bolognani, Garry Honey, Céline Bouquet, Myriam Ly-Le Moal, Manuel Bouvard, Marion Leboyer, Thomas Bourgeron, Richard Delorme
Attention Deficit and Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) and Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are frequent comorbid neurodevelopmental conditions and the overlap between both disorders remains to be delineated. A more complete understanding of the shared genetic and environmental factors is needed. Using a family-based method, we evaluated the risk of ADHD in a group of relatives with an ASD proband (ASD-) and a group of relatives with an ASD and ADHD proband (ASD+). We enrolled 1245 individuals in the study: 499 probands, their 746 first-degree relatives and 140 controls...
September 28, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Michelle L Palumbo, Christopher J McDougle
Comorbid psychiatric disorders are common in Down syndrome (DS). Evidence for pharmacotherapy of psychiatric co-morbidity in DS is limited. Areas covered: This article reviews the literature on the pharmacotherapy of psychiatric conditions co-occurring with DS, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), psychosis, and catatonia. A section on the phenomenon of regression is included...
September 26, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
William J Bosl
Mental, neurological, and neurodevelopmental (MNN) disorders impose an enormous burden of disease globally. Many MNN disorders follow a developmental trajectory. Thus, defining symptoms of MNN disorders may be conceived as the end product of a long developmental process. Many pharmaceutical therapies are aimed at the end symptoms, essentially attempting to reverse pathological brain function that has developed over a long time. A new paradigm is needed to leverage the developmental trajectory of MNN disorders, based on measuring brain function through the life span...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
Andreas Lundin, Kyriaki Kosidou, Christina Dalman
BACKGROUND: The autism-spectrum quotient scale was developed to study autism as a spectrum. Few studies have examined the psychometric properties of the 10 item AQ (AQ-10). We examine the AQ-10 measurement ability and convergent validity in a population health survey (n = 44,722). METHODS: The item severity and item discrimination was assessed using item response theory. Convergent validity was assessed by regressing on ADHD, psychological distress (PD) and having an education in the sciences...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Dusan Hirjak, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Stefan Fritze, Fabio Sambataro, Katharina M Kubera, Robert C Wolf
Although genuine motor abnormalities (GMA) are frequently found in schizophrenia, they are also considered as an intrinsic feature of bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders with early onset such as autism, ADHD, and Tourette syndrome. Such transnosological observations strongly suggest a common neural pathophysiology. This systematic review highlights the evidence on GMA and their neuroanatomical substrates in bipolar, obsessive-compulsive, and neurodevelopmental disorders. The data lends support for a common pattern contributing to GMA expression in these diseases that seems to be related to cerebello-thalamo-cortical, fronto-parietal, and cortico-subcortical motor circuit dysfunction...
September 17, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Shinya Ito
Drug treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulants, such as methylphenidate, has been widespread across the developed countries and is also becoming common in adults. However, this seemingly effective treatment is not without controversy on the evidence that supports their use. In addition, disparities in the frequency of its use across the world are tremendous. Although stimulants are one of the standard therapies for ADHD, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) lacks such a drug treatment...
October 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
E Pettersson, P Lichtenstein, H Larsson, J Song, A Agrawal, A D Børglum, C M Bulik, M J Daly, L K Davis, D Demontis, H J Edenberg, J Grove, J Gelernter, B M Neale, A F Pardiñas, E Stahl, J T R Walters, R Walters, P F Sullivan, D Posthuma, T J C Polderman
BACKGROUND: Most studies underline the contribution of heritable factors for psychiatric disorders. However, heritability estimates depend on the population under study, diagnostic instruments, and study designs that each has its inherent assumptions, strengths, and biases. We aim to test the homogeneity in heritability estimates between two powerful, and state of the art study designs for eight psychiatric disorders. METHODS: We assessed heritability based on data of Swedish siblings (N = 4 408 646 full and maternal half-siblings), and based on summary data of eight samples with measured genotypes (N = 125 533 cases and 208 215 controls)...
September 17, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Subin Park, Yeeun Lee, Chul Eung Kim
Given the scarcity of studies examining public beliefs regarding multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, this study compared lay beliefs regarding the etiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), Tourette syndrome (TS), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attitudes toward individuals with the disorders. We recruited 673 participants aged 20-64 years via an online panel survey in South Korea. Participants completed questionnaires regarding perceived causation of each disorder. Preferred social distance from people with the disorders was measured using a modified version of the Bogardus Social Distance Scale...
August 12, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Fernando Mulas, Mildred Rojas
The subject of disabilities that include cognition and adaptability will never cease to be interesting and relevant. The genetic etiology has more weight every day. The relationship with other neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic importance. The objective was to conduct a review of intellectual development disorder and its implication with ASD and ADHD. From Hippocrates to the present the disorders that affect learning, behavior and socialization skills have been the subject of studies and have varied, above all, in the denomination as an entity and its perception from the human and social point of view...
2018: Medicina
Elizabeth S Barrie, Julia K Pinsonneault, Wolfgang Sadee, Jill A Hollway, Benjamin L Handen, Tristram Smith, L Eugene Arnold, Eric Butter, Emily Hansen-Kiss, Gail E Herman, Michael G Aman
Background: Frequent non-pathogenic genetic variants may act as moderators of phenotypic severity for complex disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We previously identified polymorphisms affecting mRNA expression of candidate genes, including tryptophan hydroxylase 2 ( TPH2 ), dopamine beta hydroxylase ( DBH ), and dopamine transporter ( DAT, SLC6A3 ). Method: We compare genotypes and (1) clinical response to atomoxetine, (2) scores from the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R), and (3) severity of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptoms in a cohort of patients with ASD from multiple study sites...
June 2018: Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities
Laura Ghirardi, Erik Pettersson, Mark J Taylor, Christine M Freitag, Barbara Franke, Philip Asherson, Henrik Larsson, Ralf Kuja-Halkola
BACKGROUND: Traits of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are strongly associated in children and adolescents, largely due to genetic factors. Less is known about the phenotypic and aetiological overlap between ADHD and ASD traits in adults. METHODS: We studied 6866 individuals aged 20-28 years from the Swedish Study of Young Adult Twins. Inattention (IA) and hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) were assessed using the WHO Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale-V1...
September 7, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Dominik P Kiser, Sandy Popp, Angelika G Schmitt-Böhrer, Tatyana Strekalova, Daniel L van den Hove, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Olga Rivero
OBJECTIVE: Cadherin-13 (CDH13), a member of the calcium-dependent cell adhesion molecule family, has been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity (ADHD) disorders, but also to depression. In the adult brain, CDH13 expression is restricted e.g. to the presynaptic compartment of inhibitory GABAergic synapses in the hippocampus and Cdh13 knockout mice show an increased inhibitory drive onto hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, leading to a shift in excitatory/inhibitory balance...
August 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Lucas B Thal, Ian D Tomlinson, Meagan A Quinlan, Oleg Kovtun, Randy D Blakely, Sandra J Rosenthal
The dopamine transporter (DAT) is a transmembrane protein that terminates dopamine signaling in the brain by driving rapid dopamine reuptake into presynaptic nerve terminals. Several lines of evidence indicate that DAT dysfunction is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), bipolar disorder (BPD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Indeed, individuals with these disorders have been found to express the rare, functional DAT coding variant Val559, which confers anomalous dopamine efflux (ADE) in vitro and in vivo...
September 11, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Myriam Peralta-Carcelen, Justin Schwartz, Andrea C Carcelen
Prematurity is a significant risk factor for impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. These include motor, cognitive, language, behavioral, and socioemotional competence. Long-term overall function depends on healthy socioemotional functioning. The vulnerability of the preterm brain during critical periods of development contributes to behavioral and socioemotional problems in preterm children. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) clinical features are more frequent in preterm children compared with their full-term counterparts; however, true rates of ASD and ADHD vary across studies...
September 2018: Clinics in Perinatology
Rapson Gomez, Vasileios Stavropoulos, Alasdair Vance
Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory and factor analysis (EFA) aimed to determine the optimum Autism Spectrum Quotient-Children (AQ-Child) model. Initial CFA of parent ratings of the AQ-Child for 404 clinic-referred children with ADHD, aged between 4 and 11 years, revealed mixed/moderate support for the implied AQ-Child five-factor model and the past statistically supported four-factor model (Auyeung et al., J Autism Dev Disord 38:1230-1240, 2008). Interestingly, EFA findings indicated most support for a four-factor model, with factors reflecting "mind-reading", "social skills", "attention to details", and "imagination"...
August 23, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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