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Adhd And Autism

Sayyed Ali Samadi, Ghasem Abdollahi-Boghrabadi, Roy McConkey
Parents of children with developmental disabilities face many challenges. Those who are less satisfied with the care-giving that their children receive may require extra support. This paper reports the development of a Parental Satisfaction with Caring for a child with Developmental Disability Index (PSCDDI), with items derived from literature reviews and pilot testing in Iran. The index was field tested with 256 parents caring for children with a diagnosis of intellectual disability, autism, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and who were attending centres in four locations across Iran...
December 11, 2018: Children
Meghan Miller, Erica D Musser, Gregory S Young, Brent Olson, Robert D Steiner, Joel T Nigg
Importance: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are believed to partially share genetic factors and biological influences. As the number of children with these diagnoses rises, so does the number of younger siblings at presumed risk for ADHD and ASD; reliable recurrence risk estimates within and across diagnoses may aid screening and early detection efforts and enhance understanding of potential shared causes. Objective: To examine within-diagnosis sibling recurrence risk and sibling cross-aggregation of ADHD and ASD among later-born siblings of children with either disorder...
December 10, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Muhammad Asif, Hugo F M C M Martiniano, Astrid M Vicente, Francisco M Couto
Identifying disease genes from a vast amount of genetic data is one of the most challenging tasks in the post-genomic era. Also, complex diseases present highly heterogeneous genotype, which difficult biological marker identification. Machine learning methods are widely used to identify these markers, but their performance is highly dependent upon the size and quality of available data. In this study, we demonstrated that machine learning classifiers trained on gene functional similarities, using Gene Ontology (GO), can improve the identification of genes involved in complex diseases...
2018: PloS One
Ayesha C Sujan, A Sara Öberg, Patrick D Quinn, Brian M D'Onofrio
Children of women treated with antidepressants during pregnancy are more likely to develop neurodevelopmental problems than are unexposed children. Associations between prenatal antidepressant exposure and neurodevelopmental problems could reflect a causal effect or could be partially or fully explained by other factors that differ between exposed and unexposed offspring, including having mothers with conditions requiring antidepressant treatment (e.g. depression), environmental risk factors, and/or genetic risk factors shared across disorders...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Debra J Barnette, Christopher Hanks, Weiyi Li, Kyle Porter
BACKGROUND: Adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently experience polypharmacy. However, there is limited understanding of how to quantify medication complexity in this vulnerable population. OBJECTIVE: This study examined medication administration difficulty using the Medication Regimen Complexity Index (MRCI) tool in adolescents and adults with ASD. The outcomes compared the mean total MRCI score with the medication count, described MRCI contributions for over-the-counter medication (OTC), and compared MRCI scores by patient characteristics...
December 3, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Luc Lecavalier, Courtney E McCracken, Michael G Aman, Christopher J McDougle, James T McCracken, Elaine Tierney, Tristram Smith, Cynthia Johnson, Bryan King, Benjamin Handen, Naomi B Swiezy, L Eugene Arnold, Karen Bearss, Benedetto Vitiello, Lawrence Scahill
OBJECTIVE: We explored patterns of concomitant psychiatric disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHODS: Participants were 658 children with ASD (age 3-17 years; mean = 7.2 years) in one of six federally-funded multisite randomized clinical trials (RCT) between 1999 and 2014. All children were referred for hyperactivity or irritability. Study designs varied, but all used the Child and Adolescent Symptom Inventory or Early Childhood Inventory to assess Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), Oppositional-Defiant Disorder (ODD), Conduct Disorder (CD), Anxiety Disorders, and Mood Disorders...
November 6, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Steve D Lukito, Owen G O'Daly, David J Lythgoe, Susannah Whitwell, Amanda Debnam, Clodagh M Murphy, Karen Ashwood, Vladimira Stoencheva, Emily Simonoff, Katya Rubia
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often co-occur and share neurocognitive deficits. One such shared impairment is in duration discrimination. However, no studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have investigated whether these duration discrimination deficits are underpinned by the same or different underlying neurofunctional processes. In this study, we used fMRI to compare the neurofunctional correlates of duration discrimination between young adult males with ASD ( n = 23), ADHD ( n = 25), the comorbid condition of ASD+ADHD ( n = 24), and typical development (TD, n = 26) using both region of interest (ROI) and whole brain analyses...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Randi J Hagerman, Dragana Protic, Akash Rajaratnam, Maria J Salcedo-Arellano, Elber Yuksel Aydin, Andrea Schneider
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by the full mutation (>200 CGG repeats) in the Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 ( FMR1 ) gene. It is the most common inherited cause of intellectual disability (ID) and autism. This review focuses on neuropsychiatric disorders frequently experienced by premutation carriers with 55 to 200 CGG repeats and the pathophysiology involves elevated FMR1 mRNA levels, which is different from the absence or deficiency of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) seen in FXS. Neuropsychiatric disorders are the most common problems associated with the premutation, and they affect approximately 50% of individuals with 55 to 200 CGG repeats in the FMR1 gene...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Alana J McVey, Hillary K Schiltz, Angela D Haendel, Bridget K Dolan, Kirsten S Willar, Sheryl S Pleiss, Jeffrey S Karst, Mary Carlson, Wendy Krueger, Christina C Murphy, Christina L Casnar, Brianna Yund, Amy Vaughan Van Hecke
Social difficulties inherent to autism spectrum disorder are often linked with co-occurring symptoms of anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The present study sought to examine the relation between such co-occurring symptoms and social challenges. Parents of adolescents with autism (N = 113) reported upon social challenges via the social responsiveness scale (SRS) and anxiety and ADHD symptomatology via the Child Behavior Checklist. Results revealed differences in SRS scores across co-occurring symptom subgroups (Anxiety, ADHD, Both, Neither)-namely, adolescents with autism and anxiety as well as those with autism, anxiety, and ADHD showed greater scores on the SRS than the other groups...
November 26, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
C Stordeur, A Boele, H Peyre, R Delorme, E Acquaviva
OBJECTIVES: The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) is an instrument that is commonly used to screen for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder (ADHD) frequently occurs with ASD and both disorders share some phenotypic similarities. In the present study, we aimed to determine the psychometric properties of the French version of the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS) and its 5 subscales (social awareness, social cognition, social communication, social motivation, and autistic mannerisms) to discriminate between children with ADHD and those with ASD (differential diagnosis) and children with ADHD from those with a dual diagnosis of ADHD and ASD (comorbid diagnosis)...
November 20, 2018: L'Encéphale
Marzieh Moghadas, Musthafa Mohamed Essa, Taher Ba-Omar, Aisha Al-Shehi, M Walid Qoronfleh, Elsadig A Eltayeb, Gilles J Guillemin, Thamilarasan Manivasagam, Arokiasamy Justin-Thenmozhi, Buthaina Saleh Al-Bulushi, Samir Al-Adawi, Mohammad Amin Edalatmanesh
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder among children and adults. Impulsivity, inattention, and hyperactivity are hallmark of ADHD. While ADHD is not on the autism spectrum, they are related in several ways as they have some overlapping symptoms. The pathogenesis of ADHD has so far remained enigmatic, however, there is some evidence suggesting critical association among ADHD and the level of oxidative stress which trigger cell membrane damage, changes in inner structure and function of proteins, as well as structural damage to DNA which eventually culminate into development of ADHD...
January 1, 2019: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
Sharda Singh, Lokesh Kumar Singh, Manoj Sahu, Sai Krishna Tikka
Distribution of comorbidities in patients with mental retardation or intellectual disabilities (MR/ID) across various age groups is not recognized adequately. Data from 426 patients diagnosed with MR/ID was collected out of 546 samples referred for intelligence assessment. 42.3% had psychiatric comorbidities. The prevalence ratio of psychiatric comorbidity associated with MR/ID was 2.11. Frequency of comorbidities in the order of occurrence was "behavioral impairment > Epilepsy > autism/ADHD" for age-groups 10years and below, and "behavioral impairment > Epilepsy > depression/anxiety" for age-groups 11years and above...
November 13, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
Andrea G Edlow, Ruthy M Glass, Caroline J Smith, Phuong Kim Tran, Kaitlyn James, Staci Bilbo
Fetal placental macrophages and microglia (resident brain macrophages) have a common origin in the fetal yolk sac. Yolk-sac-derived macrophages comprise the permanent pool of brain microglia throughout an individual's lifetime. Inappropriate fetal microglial priming may therefore have lifelong neurodevelopmental consequences, but direct evaluation of microglial function in a living fetus or neonate is impossible. We sought to test the hypothesis that maternal obesity would prime both placental macrophages and fetal brain microglia to overrespond to an immune challenge, thus providing a window into microglial function using placental cells...
November 20, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Olof Svensson, Karolina Sörman, Natalie Durbeej, Paul Lichtenstein, Henrik Anckarsäter, Nora Kerekes, Thomas Nilsson
Previous research has found a complex relationship between psychopathic traits, neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs), and conduct disorder (CD) in children. This study explores associations between psychopathic traits, assessed with the Child Problematic Traits Inventory-Short Version (CPTI-SV), and CD in children with and without coexisting NDPs (i.e., attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD] and autism spectrum disorder [ASD]) in a community-based sample of Swedish twins ( n  = 8762). Findings indicate weak to moderately strong correlations between psychopathic traits and CD, ADHD, and ASD, respectively...
2018: Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment
Yaffa Serur, Dafna Sofrin Frumer, Keren Daon, Dolly Sobol-Havia, Ronnie Weinberger, Cory Shulman, Doron Gothelf
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is a neurogenetic condition characterized by high rates of psychiatric disorders. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess psychiatric disorders in young children with 22q11DS using a structured psychiatric diagnostic interview, and one of few studies to use the complete gold standard diagnostic evaluation to examine the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children with 22q11DS and compare it to a matched control group with iASD...
November 15, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Francesco Craig, Rosa Savino, Antonio Trabacca
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review was to examine the incidence and prevalence of comorbidity between Cerebral Palsy (CP), Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). METHODS: We searched for articles indexed in PubMed, EBSCOhost, Scopus, Web of Science and other potentially relevant internet sources using a combination of expressions including "cerebral palsy" AND "autism" OR "ASD" OR "pervasive development disorder" AND "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder" OR "ADHD"...
November 2, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Nicole N Lønfeldt, Frank C Verhulst, Katrine Strandberg-Larsen, Kerstin J Plessen, Eli R Lebowitz
Experts have raised concerns that oxytocin for labor induction and augmentation may have detrimental effects on the neurodevelopment of children. To investigate whether there is the reason for concern, we reviewed and evaluated the available evidence by searching databases with no language or date restrictions up to 9 September 2018. We included English-language studies reporting results on the association between perinatal oxytocin exposure and any cognitive impairment, psychiatric symptoms or disorders in childhood...
November 16, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Francesca Waddington, Catharina Hartman, Yvette de Bruijn, Martijn Lappenschaar, Anoek Oerlemans, Jan Buitelaar, Barbara Franke, Nanda Rommelse
BACKGROUND: Emotion recognition dysfunction has been reported in both autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This suggests that emotion recognition is a cross-disorder trait that may be utilised to understand the heterogeneous psychopathology of ASD and ADHD. We aimed to identify emotion recognition subtypes and to examine their relation with quantitative and diagnostic measures of ASD and ADHD to gain further insight into disorder comorbidity and heterogeneity...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Belen Rosello, Carmen Berenguer, Inmaculada Baixauli, Carla Colomer, Ana Miranda
In spite of its importance for education, the relationship between learning behaviors (LB), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms (ADHD) and executive functioning (EF) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has hardly been explored. The first objective of the present study was to compare children with ASD without intellectual disability and children with typical development (TD) on ADHD symptoms and learning behaviors: Motivation/competence, attitude toward learning, persistence on the task, and strategy/flexibility...
2018: PloS One
Mu-Hong Chen, Ju-Wei Hsu, Kei-Lin Huang, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai, Chih-Ming Cheng, Wen-Han Chang, Tai-Long Pan, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Ya-Mei Bai
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable mental illness that transmits intergeneratively. Previous studies supported that first-degree relatives (FDRs), such as parents, offspring, and siblings, of patients with bipolar disorder, had a higher risk of bipolar disorder. However, whether FDRs of bipolar patients have an increased risk of schizophrenia, major depressive disorder (MDD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remains unclear...
November 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
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