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Splanchnic perfusion

Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nubaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
April 11, 2017: Shock
Alexandre Nuzzo, Damien Soudan, Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Léon Maggiori, Maxime Ronot, Jeanick Stocco, Yoram Bouhnik, Yves Castier, Olivier Corcos
INTRODUCTION: Persistent or chronic intestinal ischemic injury (i3) can lead to severe malnutrition and acute mesenteric ischemia. Although recommended, revascularization of splanchnic arteries is sometimes unrealizable. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a case series of iloprost use in consecutive stable patients with persistent i3 unsuitable for revascularization followed in a tertiary care center. The feasibility of revascularization was discussed and ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, and informed consent was obtained prior to consideration of a vasoactive therapy...
March 16, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Yang Liu, Wen Cao, Yu Liu, Yun Wang, Ren Lang, Yun Yue, An-Shi Wu
BACKGROUND: A moderate insufflation pressure and deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) have been recommended in laparoscopic surgery in consideration of the possible reduction in splanchnic perfusion due to the CO2-pneumoperitoneum. Since the liver is the major organ for rocuronium metabolism, the question of whether NMB of rocuronium would change with the variation of liver perfusion during pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery merits investigation. METHODS: In this prospective study, a total of sixty female patients scheduled for either selective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery (group laparoscopy) or laparotomy for gynaecological surgery (group control) were analyzed...
March 20, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
Claire Grant, Laura Harrison, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Eleanor Cox, Charlotte Buchanan, Carolyn Costigan, Susan Francis, Ka-Bik Lai, Cheuk-Chun Szeto, Penny Gowland, Christopher McIntyre
Endotoxemia is common in advanced chronic kidney disease and is particularly severe in those receiving dialysis. In hemodialysis patients, translocation from the bowel occurs as a consequence of recurrent circulatory stress leading to a reduction in circulating splanchnic volume and increased intestinal permeability. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are often volume expanded and have continuous direct immersion of bowel in fluid; these may also be important factors in endotoxin translocation and would suggest different therapeutic strategies to improve it...
January 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
Jun Qin, Yue He, Ming Duan, Meng Luo
OBJECTIVE: We explored the effects of Nuclear Factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) on splanchnic hemodynamics in portal hypertensive rats. METHODS: Experimental cirrhosis with portal hypertension was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. The expression of proteins was examined by immunoblotting. Hemodynamic studies were performed by radioactive microspheres. The vascular perfusion system was used to measure the contractile response of mesentery arterioles in rats...
May 2017: Microvascular Research
B M Belik
AIM: To substantiate pathogenetic expediency and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the drug use serotonin adipate (dinaton) in a complex correction enteral insufficiency syndrome (EIN) in patients with generalized peritonitis (GP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative analysis of results of treatment of 182 patients with GP, which in principle approach to EIN correction in the postoperative period were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 92 patients who received standard intensive therapy using conventional methods of stimulation of intestinal peristalsis...
2016: Khirurgiia
Daniela Verzola, Francesca Ansaldo, Samantha Milanesi, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Gian Marco Rosa, Antonella Sofia, Alice Bonanni, Francesca Viazzi, Manrico Balbi, Giacomo Garibotto
Fibroblast Growth Factor-23 (FGF-23) accumulates in blood of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated both with cardiovascular complications and disease progression. However, our knowledge of the sites and mechanisms which regulate plasma FGF-23 is still incomplete. We measured plasma intact FGF-23 across the kidney, splanchnic organs and lung in eleven patients (eGFR 60 ± 6 ml/min) during elective diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. In these patients FGF-23 was removed by the kidney, with a fractional extraction (FE) of ~22%...
August 24, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Naaventhan Palaniyappan, Eleanor Cox, Christopher Bradley, Robert Scott, Andrew Austin, Richard O'Neill, Greg Ramjas, Simon Travis, Hilary White, Rajeev Singh, Peter Thurley, Indra Neil Guha, Susan Francis, Guruprasad Padur Aithal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is currently the only validated technique to accurately evaluate changes in portal pressure. In this study, we evaluate the use of non-contrast quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a surrogate measure of portal pressure. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing HVPG measurement were prospectively recruited. MR parameters of longitudinal relaxation time (T1), perfusion of the liver and spleen (by arterial spin labelling), and blood flow in the portal, splanchnic and collateral circulation (by phase contrast MRI) were assessed...
December 2016: Journal of Hepatology
Valentina Bozzetti, Giuseppe Paterlini, Paola De Lorenzo, Diego Gazzolo, Maria Grazia Valsecchi, Paolo E Tagliabue
OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in splanchnic perfusion and oxygenation induced by 2 different feeding regimens in infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and those without IUGR. STUDY DESIGN: This was a randomized trial in 40 very low birth weight infants. When an enteral intake of 100 mL/kg/day was achieved, patients with IUGR and those without IUGR were randomized into 2 groups. Group A (n = 20) received a feed by bolus (in 10 minutes), then, after at least 3 hours, received the same amount of formula by continuous nutrition over 3 hours...
September 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Marco Di Pascoli, Francesca Zampieri, Alberto Verardo, Paola Pesce, Cristian Turato, Paolo Angeli, David Sacerdoti, Massimo Bolognesi
UNLABELLED: In cirrhosis, 11,12-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) induces mesenteric arterial vasodilation, which contributes to the onset of portal hypertension. We evaluated the hemodynamic effects of in vivo inhibition of EET production in experimental cirrhosis. Sixteen control rats and 16 rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced cirrhosis were studied. Eight controls and eight rats with cirrhosis were treated with the specific epoxygenase inhibitor N-(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide (MS-PPOH; 20 mg/kg/day) for 3 consecutive days...
September 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Lina Carlbom, Daniel Espes, Mark Lubberink, Olof Eriksson, Lars Johansson, Leif Jansson, Olle Korsgren, Håkan Ahlström, Per-Ola Carlsson
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to investigate pancreatic perfusion and its response to a glucose load in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus compared with non-diabetic ('healthy') individuals. METHODS: Eight individuals with longstanding type 1 diabetes and ten sex-, age- and BMI-matched healthy controls underwent dynamic positron emission tomography scanning with (15)O-labelled water before and after intravenous administration of glucose. Perfusion in the pancreas was measured...
September 2016: Diabetologia
Mario Meola, Federico Nalesso, Ilaria Petrucci, Sara Samoni, Claudio Ronco
Renal failure commonly occurs in patients affected by cirrhosis, especially when there is ascites. It is typically secondary to intercurrent events that can further compromise blood flow in conditions of relatively decreased renal perfusion. Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a particular and common type of kidney failure that affects patients with liver cirrhosis or, less frequently, with fulminant hepatic failure. The syndrome is characterized by splanchnic vasodilation and renal vasoconstriction. The classification of HRS identifies 2 categories of kidney failure, known as type 1 and type 2 HRS, that occur in patients with either cirrhosis or fulminant hepatic failure...
2016: Contributions to Nephrology
Olivier Windisch, Claudia-Paula Heidegger, Raphaël Giraud, Philippe Morel, Léo Bühler
This review article analyzes, through a nonsystematic approach, the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis (AP) with a focus on the effects of thoracic epidural analgesia (TEA) on the disease. The benefit-risk balance is also discussed. AP has an overall mortality of 1 %, increasing to 30 % in its severe form. The systemic inflammation induces a strong activation of the sympathetic system, with a decrease in the blood flow supply to the gastrointestinal system that can lead to the development of pancreatic necrosis...
May 4, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Anne E Richter, Trijntje E Schat, Koenraad N J A Van Braeckel, Sicco A Scherjon, Arend F Bos, Elisabeth M W Kooi
BACKGROUND: Drugs with antihypertensive action are frequently used in obstetrics for the treatment of preeclampsia (labetalol) and tocolysis (nifedipine) or for neuroprotection (MgSO4), and may affect the hemodynamics of preterm born neonates. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether maternal antihypertensive drugs affect multisite oxygenation levels of the neonate. METHODS: Eighty preterm neonates of ≤32 weeks of gestational age were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy...
2016: Neonatology
Trijntje E Schat, Fardou H Heida, Maarten Schurink, Michelle E van der Laan, Christian V Hulzebos, Arend F Bos, Elisabeth M W Kooi, Jan B F Hulscher
OBJECTIVES: The underlying pathophysiology of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) remains incompletely understood, particularly the role of intestinal perfusion. We aimed to determine the relation between cerebral and splanchnic fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), a marker for tissue underperfusion, with intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in plasma (I-FABPp), a marker for intestinal damage, in infants with NEC. Furthermore, we investigated the combined courses of cerebral and splanchnic FTOE values and I-FABPp levels in uncomplicated (conservative treatment) and complicated NEC (surgery or death)...
April 5, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
Kohei Eguchi, Hideaki Kashima, Akiko Yokota, Kohei Miura, Masako Yamaoka Endo, Harutoyo Hirano, Toshio Tsuji, Yoshiyuki Fukuba
Little is known about the effect of sweet taste stimulus on gastrointestinal motility and splanchnic blood flow. We examined whether gastric myoelectrical activity and/or celiac artery blood flow (CABF), which perfuses the stomach, are increased following an oral sensation of sweetness. After overnight fasting, 11 subjects rested for 5min and sipped, but not swallowed, one of four solutions for 1min. The fluid was then spat out, and subjects remained at rest for a further 10min. Fluids were approximately 15ml of three glucose solutions (4, 16, or 48%) or distilled water...
May 2016: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
Erika M Boerman, Jesse E Everhart, Steven S Segal
Aging is associated with vascular dysfunction that impairs tissue perfusion, physical activity, and the quality of life. Calcium signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) is integral to vasomotor control, exemplified by localized Ca(2+) signals within EC projections through holes in the internal elastic lamina (IEL). Within these microdomains, endothelium-derived hyperpolarization is integral to smooth muscle cell (SMC) relaxation via coupling through myoendothelial gap junctions. However, the effects of aging on local EC Ca(2+) signals (and thereby signaling between ECs and SMCs) remain unclear, and these events have not been investigated in vivo...
May 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
V Mezger, F Balzer, M Habicher, M Sander
Venous saturation is an important parameter to assess the ratio between oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption for both intensive care medicine and during perioperative care. Mixed venous saturation (SvO2) is the most reliable parameter in this setting. Due to the high invasiveness of measuring mixed venous saturation, the less invasive central venous saturation (ScvO2) has been entrenched for determining the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. However, central venous saturation is inferior compared to mixed venous saturation as it does not cover the lower part of the body, including splanchnic perfusion...
March 1, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Tzu-Hao Li, Chia-Chang Huang, Ying-Ying Yang, Kuei-Chuan Lee, Shie-Liang Hsieh, Yun-Cheng Hsieh, Lin Alan, Han-Chieh Lin, Shou-Dong Lee, Chang-Youh Tsai
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: By blocking TNFα-related effects, thalidomide not only inhibits hepatic fibrogenesis but improves peripheral vasodilatation and portal hypertension in cirrhotic rats. Nonetheless, the investigation of thalidomide's effects on splanchnic and collateral microcirculation has been limited. Our study explored the roles of intestinal and mesenteric TNFα along with inflammasome-related pathway in relation to cirrhosis and the splanchnic/collateral microcirculation. METHODS: Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, mechanisms of the effects of thalidomide on intestinal and mesenteric inflammatory, vasodilatory and angiogenic cascades-related abnormalities were explored in cirrhotic rats that had received 1-month thalidomide (C-T) treatment...
2016: PloS One
Ahmed Mukhtar, Hany Dabbous
Splanchnic circulation is the primary mechanism that regulates volumes of circulating blood and systemic blood pressure in patients with cirrhosis accompanied by portal hypertension. Recently, interest has been expressed in modulating splanchnic circulation in patients with liver cirrhosis, because this capability might produce beneficial effects in cirrhotic patients undergoing a liver transplant. Pharmacologic modulation of splanchnic circulation by use of vasoconstrictors might minimize venous congestion, replenish central blood flow, and thus optimize management of blood volume during a liver transplant operation...
January 28, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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