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Splanchnic perfusion

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162665/the-beneficial-effects-of-curcumin-in-cirrhotic-rats-with-portal-hypertension
#1
Shao-Jung Hsu, Jing-Yi Lee, Te-Yueh Lin, Yu-Hsin Hsieh, Hui-Chun Huang, Fa-Yauh Lee, Han-Chieh Lin, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
In liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension, the uneven distribution of vasoactive substances leads to increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and splanchnic vasodilatation. Angiogenesis also induces increased portal inflow and portosystemic collaterals. The collaterals may induce lethal complications such as gastroesophageal variceal hemorrhage, but the therapeutic effect of vasoconstrictors is still suboptimal due to poor collateral vasoresponsivenss. Curcumin has aroused much attention for its anti-fibrosis, vasoactive and anti-angiogenesis actions...
November 21, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960522/near-infrared-spectroscopy-is-a-promising-noninvasive-technique-for-monitoring-the-effects-of-feeding-regimens-on-the-cerebral-and-splanchnic-regions
#2
Alice Grometto, Benedetta Pizzo, Maria Chiara Strozzi, Francesca Gazzolo, Diego Gazzolo
AIM: The effects of different milk and, or, administration regimens on cerebro-splanchnic perfusion are still a matter of debate. We investigated the effects of the bolus administration of breast milk or formula on cerebro-splanchnic oximetry, function and perfusion, assessed by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). METHODS: This observational study of 30 infants fed with breast (n = 15) or formula (n = 15) milk, and matched for gestational age and birth weight, was carried out in the neonatal intensive care unit of the C Arrigo Children's Hospital, Alessandria, Italy, a tertiary-level referral centre, from October 2015 to December 2016...
September 27, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915214/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#3
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nußbaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure, and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
October 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725436/factors-associated-with-increased-pancreatic-enzymes-in-septic-patients-a-prospective-study
#4
Anis Chaari, Karim Abdel Hakim, Nevine Rashed, Kamel Bousselmi, Vipin Kauts, Mahmoud Etman, William Francis Casey
BACKGROUND: The perfusion of splanchnic organs is deeply altered in patients with septic shock. The aim of the study is to identify the predictive factors of septic shock-induced increase of serum lipase and amylase and to assess and evaluate its prognostic impact. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study. All adult patients admitted with septic shock were eligible for our study. Serum lipase and amylase were measured on admission. Patients with and those without increased pancreatic enzymes were compared...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709662/neonatal-aortic-arch-reconstruction-with-direct-splanchnic-perfusion-avoids-deep-hypothermia
#5
Muhammad Aanish Raees, Clinton D Morgan, Venessa L Pinto, Ashly C Westrick, Chevis N Shannon, Karla G Christian, Bret A Mettler, David P Bichell
BACKGROUND: Neonatal aortic arch reconstruction, typically performed with deep hypothermia and selective cerebral perfusion, leaves splanchnic organ protection dependent on hypothermia alone. A simplified method of direct in-field descending aortic perfusion during neonatal arch reconstruction permits the avoidance of deep hypothermia. We hypothesize that direct splanchnic perfusion at mild hypothermia provides improved or equivalent safety compared with deep hypothermia and may contribute to postoperative extracardiac organ recovery...
July 11, 2017: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704836/abdominal-near-infrared-spectroscopy-detects-low-mesenteric-perfusion-early-in-preterm-infants-with-hemodynamic-significant-ductus-arteriosus
#6
Ana Ledo, Marta Aguar, Antonio Núñez-Ramiro, Pilar Saénz, Máximo Vento
BACKGROUND: The therapeutic decision to close patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants entails great uncertainty. Near-infrared spectroscopy is a noninvasive bedside technique used to monitor mixed regional oxygen saturation. We hypothesized that near-infrared spectroscopy could identify preterm infants at risk of mesenteric hypoperfusion associated with hemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus. METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including consecutively admitted preterm infants with a gestational age <32 weeks...
2017: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684188/ascorbate-lacks-significant-influence-in-rats-with-bile-duct-ligation-induced-liver-injury
#7
Hsin-Ling Ho, Teh-Ia Huo, Ting Chang, Wen-Shin Lee, I-Fang Hsin, Fa-Yauh Lee, Hui-Chun Huang, Ming-Chih Hou, Shou-Dong Lee
BACKGROUND: Liver inflammation may induce fibrogenesis, cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Liver cirrhosis is characterized by increased intrahepatic resistance and enhanced vasoconstrictive response. The splanchnic vasodilatation, angiogenesis and portosystemic collaterals formation further bring about lethal complications. Ascorbate is a potent antioxidant with anti-inflammation, anti-fibrosis, and anti-angiogenesis effects. However, the relevant influences in chronic liver injury have not been sufficiently explored...
July 3, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673081/enteral-feeding-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-preterm-infants-theoretical-risks-and-practical-implications
#8
Valentina Bozzetti, Paolo E Tagliabue
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) infants are thought to have impaired gut function after birth secondary to intrauterine redistribution of the blood flow, due to placental insufficiency, with a consequent reduction of gut perfusion. For this reason, infants complicated by IUGR have been considered at higher risk of feeding intolerance. Postnatal evaluation of splanchnic perfusion, through Doppler of the superior mesenteric artery, and of splanchnic oxygenation, through near infrared spectroscopy measurements, may be useful in evaluating the persistence (or not) of the redistribution of blood flow occurred in utero...
June 28, 2017: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554928/epidural-analgesia-in-critically-ill-patients-with-acute-pancreatitis-the-multicentre-randomised-controlled-epipan-study-protocol
#9
Stéphanie Bulyez, Bruno Pereira, Elodie Caumon, Etienne Imhoff, Laurence Roszyk, Lise Bernard, Leo Bühler, Claudia Heidegger, Samir Jaber, Jean-Yves Lefrant, Russell Chabanne, Pierre-Marie Bertrand, Pierre-François Laterre, Philippe Guerci, Pierre-Eric Danin, Etienne Escudier, Achille Sossou, Dominique Morand, Vincent Sapin, Jean-Michel Constantin, Matthieu Jabaudon
BACKGROUND: Acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with high morbidity and mortality in its most severe forms. Most patients with severe AP require intubation and invasive mechanical ventilation, frequently for more than 7 days, which is associated with the worst outcome. Recent increasing evidence from preclinical and clinical studies support the beneficial effects of epidural analgesia (EA) in AP, such as increased gut barrier function and splanchnic, pancreatic and renal perfusion, decreased liver damage and inflammatory response, and reduced mortality...
May 29, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550589/carbon-dioxide-co2-angiography-as-an-option-for-endovascular-abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-repair-evar-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-ckd
#10
Chiara De Angelis, Francesco Sardanelli, Matteo Perego, Marco Alì, Francesco Casilli, Luigi Inglese, Giovanni Mauri
To assess feasibility, efficacy and safety of carbon dioxide (CO2) digital subtraction angiography (DSA) to guide endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) in a cohort of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). After Ethical Committee approval, the records of 13 patients (all male, mean age 74.6 ± 8.0 years) with CKD, who underwent EVAR to exclude an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) under CO2 angiography guidance, were reviewed. The AAA to be excluded had a mean diameter of 52.0 ± 8.0 mm. CO2 angiography was performed by automatic (n = 7) or hand (n = 6) injection...
November 2017: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520696/an-ovine-model-of-hyperdynamic-endotoxemia-and-vital-organ-metabolism
#11
Liam Byrne, Nchafatso G Obonyo, Sara Diab, Kimble Dunster, Margaret Passmore, Ai Ching Boon, Louise See Hoe, Karen Hay, Frank Van Haren, John-Paul Tung, Louise Cullen, Kiran Shekar, Kathryn Maitland, John F Fraser
BACKGROUND: Animal models of endotoxemia are frequently used to understand the pathophysiology of sepsis and test new therapies. However, important differences exist between commonly used experimental models of endotoxemia and clinical sepsis. Animal models of endotoxemia frequently produce hypodynamic shock in contrast to clinical hyperdynamic shock. This difference may exaggerate the importance of hypoperfusion as a causative factor in organ dysfunction. This study sought to develop an ovine model of hyperdynamic endotoxemia and assess if there is evidence of impaired oxidative metabolism in the vital organs...
May 17, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499865/implication-of-altered-autonomic-control-for-orthostatic-tolerance-in-sci
#12
REVIEW
Jill Maria Wecht, William A Bauman
Neural output from the sympathetic and parasympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) are integrated to appropriately control cardiovascular responses during routine activities of daily living including orthostatic positioning. Sympathetic control of the upper extremity vasculature and the heart arises from the thoracic cord between T1 and T5, whereas splanchnic bed and lower extremity vasculature receive sympathetic neural input from the lower cord between segments T5 and L2. Although the vasculature is not directly innervated by the parasympathetic nervous system, the SA node is innervated by post-ganglionic vagal nerve fibers via cranial nerve X...
May 3, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403066/non-hemodynamic-effects-of-catecholamines
#13
Clair Hartmann, Peter Radermacher, Martin Wepler, Benedikt Nubaum
Circulatory shock is defined as an imbalance between tissue oxygen supply and demand, and mostly results from a loss of blood volume, cardiac pump failure and/or reduction of vasomotor tone. The clinical hallmarks of circulatory shock are arterial hypotension and lactate acidosis. Since the degree and duration of hypotension are major determinants of outcome, vasopressor administration represents a cornerstone therapy to treat these patients. Current guidelines recommend the use of catecholamines as the drug of first choice...
April 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323233/iloprost-use-in-patients-with-persistent-intestinal-ischemia-unsuitable-for-revascularization
#14
Alexandre Nuzzo, Damien Soudan, Lore Billiauws, Julie Bataille, Léon Maggiori, Maxime Ronot, Jeanick Stocco, Yoram Bouhnik, Yves Castier, Olivier Corcos
BACKGROUND: Persistent or chronic intestinal ischemic injury (i3) can lead to severe malnutrition and acute mesenteric ischemia. Although recommended, revascularization of splanchnic arteries is sometimes unrealizable. METHODS: We report a case series of iloprost use in consecutive stable patients with persistent i3 unsuitable for revascularization followed in a tertiary care center. The feasibility of revascularization was discussed and ruled out by a multidisciplinary team, and informed consent was obtained prior to consideration of a vasoactive therapy...
March 18, 2017: Annals of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320323/changes-in-duration-of-action-of-rocuronium-following-decrease-in-hepatic-blood-flow-during-pneumoperitoneum-for-laparoscopic-gynaecological-surgery
#15
Yang Liu, Wen Cao, Yu Liu, Yun Wang, Ren Lang, Yun Yue, An-Shi Wu
BACKGROUND: A moderate insufflation pressure and deep neuromuscular blockade (NMB) have been recommended in laparoscopic surgery in consideration of the possible reduction in splanchnic perfusion due to the CO2-pneumoperitoneum. Since the liver is the major organ for rocuronium metabolism, the question of whether NMB of rocuronium would change with the variation of liver perfusion during pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic surgery merits investigation. METHODS: In this prospective study, a total of sixty female patients scheduled for either selective laparoscopic gynaecological surgery (group laparoscopy) or laparotomy for gynaecological surgery (group control) were analyzed...
March 20, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153967/endotoxemia-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-a-pilot-study-to-examine-the-role-of-intestinal-perfusion-and-congestion
#16
Claire Grant, Laura Harrison, Caroline Hoad, Luca Marciani, Eleanor Cox, Charlotte Buchanan, Carolyn Costigan, Susan Francis, Ka-Bik Lai, Cheuk-Chun Szeto, Penny Gowland, Christopher McIntyre
Endotoxemia is common in advanced chronic kidney disease and is particularly severe in those receiving dialysis. In hemodialysis patients, translocation from the bowel occurs as a consequence of recurrent circulatory stress leading to a reduction in circulating splanchnic volume and increased intestinal permeability. Peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients are often volume expanded and have continuous direct immersion of bowel in fluid; these may also be important factors in endotoxin translocation and would suggest different therapeutic strategies to improve it...
January 2017: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025064/effects-of-nuclear-factor-e2-related-factor-2-heme-oxygenase-1-on-splanchnic-hemodynamics-in-experimental-cirrhosis-with-portal-hypertension
#17
Jun Qin, Yue He, Ming Duan, Meng Luo
OBJECTIVE: We explored the effects of Nuclear Factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and Heme Oxygenase 1 (HO-1) on splanchnic hemodynamics in portal hypertensive rats. METHODS: Experimental cirrhosis with portal hypertension was induced by intraperitoneal injection of carbon tetrachloride. The expression of proteins was examined by immunoblotting. Hemodynamic studies were performed by radioactive microspheres. The vascular perfusion system was used to measure the contractile response of mesentery arterioles in rats...
May 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723700/-evaluation-of-clinical-efficacy-of-serotonin-adipate-in-treatment-and-prevention-of-enteral-insufficiency-syndrome-at-generalized-peritonitis
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
B M Belik
AIM: To substantiate pathogenetic expediency and to evaluate the clinical efficacy of the drug use serotonin adipate (dinaton) in a complex correction enteral insufficiency syndrome (EIN) in patients with generalized peritonitis (GP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The comparative analysis of results of treatment of 182 patients with GP, which in principle approach to EIN correction in the postoperative period were divided into two groups. Group I consisted of 92 patients who received standard intensive therapy using conventional methods of stimulation of intestinal peristalsis...
2016: Khirurgiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558560/interorgan-handling-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-humans
#19
Daniela Verzola, Francesca Ansaldo, Samantha Milanesi, Emanuele Luigi Parodi, Gian Marco Rosa, Antonella Sofia, Alice Bonanni, Francesca Viazzi, Manrico Balbi, Giacomo Garibotto
Fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) accumulates in blood of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated both with cardiovascular complications and disease progression. However, our knowledge of the sites and mechanisms that regulate plasma FGF-23 is still incomplete. We measured plasma intact FGF-23 across the kidney, splanchnic organs, and lung in 11 patients [estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 60 ± 6 ml/min] during elective diagnostic cardiac catheterizations. In these patients FGF-23 was removed by the kidney, with a fractional extraction (FE) of ∼22%...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475617/non-invasive-assessment-of-portal-hypertension-using-quantitative-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Naaventhan Palaniyappan, Eleanor Cox, Christopher Bradley, Robert Scott, Andrew Austin, Richard O'Neill, Greg Ramjas, Simon Travis, Hilary White, Rajeev Singh, Peter Thurley, Indra Neil Guha, Susan Francis, Guruprasad Padur Aithal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) measurement is currently the only validated technique to accurately evaluate changes in portal pressure. In this study, we evaluate the use of non-contrast quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a surrogate measure of portal pressure. METHODS: Thirty patients undergoing HVPG measurement were prospectively recruited. MR parameters of longitudinal relaxation time (T1), perfusion of the liver and spleen (by arterial spin labelling), and blood flow in the portal, splanchnic and collateral circulation (by phase contrast MRI) were assessed...
December 2016: Journal of Hepatology
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