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Mitochondrial validation

Shaojuan Hao, Le Wang, Kun Zhao, Xiaodan Zhu, Fanglei Ye
BACKGROUND: MIAT may be implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related hearing loss (AHL). This study aimed to clarify the effect of a MIAT signaling pathway on the risk of AHL. METHODS: Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay, auditory brainstem response (ABR) and quantitative hair cell counts were used to compare the hearing functions in different groups of mice. 5,5,6,6-Tetrachloro-1,1,3,3-tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) dye method was used to establish the potential association between mitochondrial dysfunction and aging...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
A E Summerell, G J Frankham, P Gunn, R N Johnson
The illegal trade in wild animals being sold as 'captive bred' is an emerging issue in the pet and zoo industry and has both animal welfare and conservation implications. DNA based methods can be a quick, inexpensive, and definitive way to determine the source of these animals, thereby assisting efforts to combat this trade. The short beaked echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus) is currently one of the species suspected to be targeted in this trade. As this species is distributed throughout Australia and in New Guinea (currently comprising of five recognised sub-species), this project aimed to develop a DNA based method to definitively determine the source country of an echidna and explore the use of non-invasive sampling techniques...
December 5, 2018: Forensic Science International
Hong Zhang, Meiting Zhao, Yiran Liu, Zhongshi Zhou, Jianying Guo
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) are a large class of enzymes that play essential roles in metabolic processes such as hormone synthesis and the catabolism of toxins and other chemicals in insects. In the present study, we identified 82 P450 genes using comprehensive RNA sequencing in the flea beetle Agasicles hygrophila, and all of the sequences were validated by cloning and sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the P450 genes in A. hygrophila fell into the mitochondrial clan, CYP2 clan, CYP3 clan and CYP4 clan and were classified into 20 families and 48 subfamilies...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Fei Kong, Juan Jin, Xiaolin Lv, Yubo Han, Xue Liang, Yanyu Gao, Xinglin Duan
OBJECTIVE: Coronary heart disease is a common cause of death and disability worldwide and mainly results from myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. This study aimed to elucidate the roles and possible mechanism of long noncoding RNA Component Of Mitochondrial RNA Processing Endoribonuclease (RMRP) in protecting against ischemic myocardial injury. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The H9c2 cardiomyocytes were cultured under hypoxia condition to induce myocardial injury...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jeonghoon Han, Jun Chul Park, Atsushi Hagiwara, Heum Gi Park, Jae-Seong Lee
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are a large gene superfamily that are found in all living organisms. CYPs have a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous chemicals. Although aquatic invertebrate CYPs and their detoxification mechanisms have been reported, little is known about interspecific comparison of CYPs and their detoxification mechanism in the rotifer Brachionus spp. The aim of this study was to identify the entire CYPs in the rotifer Brachionus rotundiformis (B. rotundiformis) and compare B...
December 4, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part D, Genomics & Proteomics
Veronika Horsáková, Jeffrey C Nekola, Michal Horsák
Naive use of molecular data may lead to ambiguous conclusions, especially within the context of "cryptic" species. Here, we integrated molecular and morphometric data to evaluate phylogenetic relationships in the widespread terrestrial micro-snail genus, Euconulus. We analyzed mitochondrial (16S + COII) and nuclear (ITS1 + ITS2) sequence across 94 populations from Europe, Asia and North America within the nominate species E. alderi, E. fulvus and E. polygyratus, and used the southeastern USA E. chersinus, E...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Salik Hussain
Mitochondria hold a critical role in cell metabolism and homeostasis. Mitochondrial injury plays central part in deciding cell fate especially in programmed cell death pathways. Various nanomaterials lead to different cell death modalities by inducing mitochondrial injury. Mitochondrial injury is manifested as multiple biochemical events ranging from altered energy production, mitochondrial outer membrane permeability, release of pro-apoptotic BCl-2 family proteins, loss of mitochondrial inner membrane potential, mitochondrial swelling, and disruption of mitochondrial structure leading to eventual lysis of mitochondria...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Guillermo Cásedas, Amber C Bennett, E González-Burgos, M P Gómez-Serranillos, Víctor López, Carine Smith
Cyanidin and chlorogenic acid are polyphenols from plant origin that are present in many common fruits, particularly in berries. To corroborate the protective or detrimental effects of both compounds from a neuro-inflammatory perspective, in vitro experiments were carried out in human astrocytes (U-373). Astrocytes were pre-treated with a range of concentrations of either cyanidin, chlorogenic acid or a combined treatment for a period of 30 min, before exposure to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge for 23...
December 13, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Thomas C Beadnell, Adam D Scheid, Carolyn J Vivian, Danny R Welch
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for only a fraction of the proteins that are encoded within the nucleus, and therefore has typically been regarded as a lesser player in cancer biology and metastasis. Accumulating evidence, however, supports an increased role for mtDNA impacting tumor progression and metastatic susceptibility. Unfortunately, due to this delay, there is a dearth of data defining the relative contributions of specific mtDNA polymorphisms (SNP), which leads to an inability to effectively use these polymorphisms to guide and enhance therapeutic strategies and diagnosis...
December 12, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Nada Lukkahatai, Brian Walitt, Enrique J Deandrés-Galiana, Juan Luis Fernández-Martínez, Leorey N Saligan
Objectives: Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic and often debilitating condition that is characterized by persistent fatigue, pain, bowel abnormalities, and sleep disturbances. Currently, there are no definitive prognostic or diagnostic biomarkers for FMS. This study attempted to utilize a novel predictive algorithm to identify a group of genes whose differential expression discriminated individuals with FMS diagnosis from healthy controls. Methods: Secondary analysis of gene expression data from 28 women with FMS and 19 age-and race-matched healthy women...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
L Nájera, M Alonso-Juarranz, M Garrido, C Ballestín, L Moya, M Martínez-Díaz, R Carrillo, A Juarranz, F Rojo, J M Cuezva, J L Rodríguez-Peralto
BACKGROUND: Reprogramming of energy metabolism to enhanced aerobic glycolysis has been defined as a hallmark of cancer. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of the mitochondrial proteins, β-subunit of the H+ -ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase), and heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60), and the glycolytic markers, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2), as well as the bioenergetic cellular (BEC) index, in melanoma progression. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The expression of energy metabolism proteins were assessed on a set of different melanoma cells representing the natural biological history of the disease: primary cultures of melanocytes, radial (WM35) and vertical (WM278) growth phases, and poorly (C81-61-PA) and highly (C8161-HA) aggressive melanoma cells...
December 7, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Lindsey M Ludwig, Katrina L Maxcy, James L LaBelle
The BCL-2 family of proteins orchestrates a complex signaling network that governs the balance between cellular survival and death. A comprehensive understanding of the mechanistic interactions between these proteins continues to evolve in normal and malignant cells. The functional variation by individual BCL-2 proteins in different cell types has driven clinical therapeutic development in targeting individual BCL-2 members with the goal of fine-tuning cell death in diseased cells. Given the importance of understanding and validating the effect of activating or inhibiting BCL-2 protein interactions in individual cells, the methods used to measure apoptotic cell death have undergone increased scrutiny...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jonathan Lopez, Stephen W G Tait
The majority of apoptotic stimuli trigger cell death through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Invariably, mitochondrial apoptosis requires engagement of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization or MOMP to initiate cell death. We have developed a new method, called mito-priming, that allows for rapid and synchronous induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in an on-target manner. Mito-priming uses coexpression of pro- and antiapoptotic Bcl-2 proteins to render cells sensitive to the addition of Bcl-2 targeting BH3-mimetic drugs...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Eman A Toraih, Hani G Alrefai, Mohammad H Hussein, Ghada M Helal, Moataz S Khashana, Manal S Fawzy
OBJECTIVE: Identification of new molecular markers to enhance early diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a need. TOM34 (34 kDa-translocase of the outer mitochondrial membrane) protein expression deregulation has demonstrated to be involved in the growth of many cancers. Here, we aimed at evaluating serum TOM34 and some heat shock proteins (HSPA4, HSPA1B, and HSP90AA1) expressions in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis and HCV-induced HCC relative to controls and correlating these expressions to the clinicopathological data...
December 3, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Fabio Ciccarone, Serena Castelli, Laura Ioannilli, Maria Rosa Ciriolo
SCOPE: Epigenetic aberrations caused by environmental factors and lifestyle choices have been associated with the development of a number of pathologies including cardiovascular disorders. However, whether obesity-related heart dysfunction can occur via epigenetic mechanisms is largely undisclosed. The manifested role of DNA hydroxymethylation in heart pathophysiology prompted us to investigate its levels/machinery in heart of mice fed with high fat diet (HFD) and its possible relation with genes linked to obesity-associated cardiac remodelling...
December 4, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Suparna Sarkar-Banerjee, Sourav Chowdhury, Dwipanjan Sanyal, Tulika Mitra, Sib Sankar Roy, Krishnananda Chattopadhyay
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The conformation, folding and lipid binding properties of the intestinal fatty acid binding proteins (IFABP) have been extensively investigated. In contrast, the functional aspects of these proteins are not understood and matter of debates. In this study, we aim to address the deleterious effects of FA overload on cellular components, particularly mitochondria; and how IFABP helps in combating this stress by restoring the mitochondrial dynamics. METHODS: In the present study the functional aspect of IFABP under conditions of lipid stress was studied by a string of extensive in-cell studies; flow cytometry by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS), confocal imaging, western blotting and quantitative real time PCR...
November 30, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Shashank Ranjan Srivastava, Punit Zadafiya, Radhakrishnan Mahalakshmi
The human mitochondrial outer membrane protein voltage-dependent anion channel isoform 2 (hVDAC2) is a β-barrel metabolite flux channel that is indispensable for cell survival. It is well established that physical forces imposed on a transmembrane protein by its surrounding lipid environment decide protein structure and stability. Yet, how the mitochondrial membrane and protein-lipid interplay together regulate hVDAC2 stability is unknown. Here, we combine experimental biophysical investigations of protein stability with all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to study the effect of the most abundant mitochondrial phosphocholine (PC) lipids on hVDAC2...
November 7, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Bao-Ping Tian, Fangyuan Li, Ruiqing Li, Xi Hu, Tian-Wen Lai, Jingxiong Lu, Yun Zhao, Yang Du, Zeyu Liang, Chen Zhu, Wei Shao, Wen Li, Zhi-Hua Chen, Xiaolian Sun, Xiaoyuan Chen, Songmin Ying, Daishun Ling, Huahao Shen
Elimination of airway inflammatory cells is essential for asthma control. As Bcl-2 protein is highly expressed on the mitochondrial outer membrane in inflammatory cells, we chose a Bcl-2 inhibitor, ABT-199, which can inhibit airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness by inducing inflammatory cell apoptosis. Herein, we synthesized a pH-sensitive nanoformulated Bcl-2 inhibitor (Nf-ABT-199) that could specifically deliver ABT-199 to the mitochondria of bronchial inflammatory cells. The proof-of-concept study of an inflammatory cell mitochondria-targeted therapy using Nf-ABT-199 was validated in a mouse model of allergic asthma...
June 18, 2018: Biomaterials
Chenming Zhao, Yuri Tolkach, Doris Schmidt, Marieta Toma, Michael H Muders, Glen Kristiansen, Stefan C Müller, Jörg Ellinger
PURPOSE: PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) have been suggested to serve as biomarkers in cancer. In this study, we validated the expression profile of two piRNAs derived from mitochondria, piR-34536 and piR-51810, in tissue and serum of a cohort of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) patients. METHODS: Tissue and serum samples of patients with ccRCC were collected prospectively in our biobank. Total RNA was isolated from 118 ccRCC tissues, 75 normal renal tissues as well as 30 serum samples from patients with ccRCC, and 15 serum samples from patients with non-malignant diseases...
November 28, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Stephen Mahony, Rachunliu G Kamei, Emma C Teeling, S D Biju
The Megophrys major species group (MMSG) is composed of typically medium to large sized frogs. Within the genus, it is the most geographically widespread clade ranging from the western Himalayas to southern Indochina. In this study, we examined in detail the extent of cryptic diversity within the MMSG-Indian populations based on molecular data (up to ten genes) using multigene concatenation and coalescent-based phylogenetic techniques, species delimitation analyses and extensive morphological data.Molecular evidence suggests a high level of hidden cryptic diversity within the MMSG, particularly within the M...
November 18, 2018: Zootaxa
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