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Cristian Ricci, Janet Carboo, Hannah Asare, Cornelius M Smuts, Robin Dolman, Martani Lombard
Child mortality is a major public health problem in Sub-Saharan Africa and is influenced by nutritional status. A conceptual framework were proposed to explain factors related to under nutrition. Previously proposed conceptual frameworks for under nutrition do not consider child mortality and describe factors related to under nutrition from a qualitative viewpoint only. A structural equation modelling approach was applied to the data from World Bank and FAO databases collected from over 37 Sub-Saharan Countries from 2000 to the most recent update...
October 13, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Martin Binder, Guido Buenstorf
A robust relationship between subjective well-being and mortality has been established in the literature, but few studies address how subjective well-being interacts with the impact of concrete diseases on survival. In addition, issues of endogeneity between bad health and subjective well-being are ignored when it comes to survival. We assess both for the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS; 1991-2008) and specifically analyze whether subjective well-being predicts better chances of surviving diseases such as cancer or heart conditions...
September 1, 2018: Economics and Human Biology
Abhishek Chaturvedi, Prabhakar Rajiah, Apeksha Chaturvedi
Acquired diaphragmatic defects occur secondary to trauma, infection, surgery or neoplasm. These defects can lead to abnormal thoraco-abdominal fistulous communications also. Examples of surgically created diaphragmatic defects are omental, colonic interposition and vascular grafts. Regardless of etiology, these transdiaphragmatic communications provide a direct path for spread of pathology between the abdomen and thorax. If left untreated and unrecognized, these fistulae portend a high morbidity and mortality...
October 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Seulkee Heo, Michelle L Bell, Jong-Tae Lee
Despite the active applications of thermal comfort indices for heat wave definitions, there is lack of evaluation for the impact of extended days of high temperature on health outcomes using many of the indices. This study compared the impact of heat waves on health outcomes among different heat wave definitions based on thermal comfort and air temperature. We compared heat waves in South Korea (cities and provinces) for the warm season for 2011-2014, using air temperature, heat index (HI), and web-bulb globe temperature (WBGT)...
September 26, 2018: Environmental Research
Letícia Vieira, Aline Aparecida Saldanha, Andreza Marinho Moraes, Flávio Martins de Oliveira, Débora Oliveira Lopes, Leandro Augusto de Oliveira Barbosa, Rosy Iara Maciel de Azambuja Ribeiro, Ralph Gruppi Thomé, Hélio Batista Dos Santos, José Augusto Ferreira Perez Villar, Adriana Cristina Soares
Recent findings have demonstrated new therapeutic functions of cardiotonic steroids, a process that is termed drug repositioning. Despite the confirmed anti-inflammatory effects of cardiotonic steroids, their clinical use has been discouraged due to toxicity related to inhibition of the Na+ /K+ ATPase. A novel synthetic compound derived from digoxin, 21‑benzylidene digoxin (21‑BD), does not inhibit this enzyme. Herein, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects and acute toxicity of 21‑BD...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Mira Holliday, Samantha Barratt Ross, Seakcheng Lim, Christopher Semsarian
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is an inherited cardiomyopathy with a prevalence of up to 1 in 200, which can result in significant morbidity and mortality. An iPSC line was generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from the whole blood of a 58-year-old male with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who carries the heterozygous pathogenic myosin binding protein C mutation p.Arg502Trp. Induced pluripotent stem cells express pluripotency markers, demonstrate trilineage differentiation potential, and display a normal karyotype...
October 6, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Jiro Okami, Yasushi Shintani, Meinoshin Okumura, Hiroyuki Ito, Takashi Ohtsuka, Shinichi Toyooka, Takeshi Mori, Shun-Ichi Watanabe, Hiroshi Date, Kohei Yokoi, Hisao Asamura, Takeshi Nagayasu, Etsuo Miyaoka, Ichiro Yoshino
INTRODUCTION: The Japanese Joint Committee of Lung Cancer Registry (JJCLCR) performed the fourth nationwide registry study of surgical cases. Demographics, safety and quality, prognostic information, and correlations between the 7th and the 8th editions of the TNM classification were investigated. The principal results were compared with previous JJCLCR studies. METHODS: The clinicopathologic profiles, staging, and prognosis of patients who underwent surgery for primary lung cancer in 2010 were retrospectively collected in 2016 and analyzed...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Laura Salgado-López, Cristian de Quintana-Schmidt, Robert Belvis Nieto, Carles Roig Arnall, Rodrigo Rodríguez Rodriguez, María Jesús Álvarez Holzapfel, Joan Molet-Teixidó
BACKGROUND: There are just short series of radiofrequency of sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) to treat chronic refractory cluster headache (CCHr) with variable results. Furthermore, there is no consensus on which methodology to use: radiofrequency ablation (RFA) or pulsed radiofrequency (PRF). METHODS: We conducted a prospective analysis of 37 patients with CCHr who underwent RFA or PRF of the SPG in our center between 2004-2015. RESULTS: N=37 patients...
October 10, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Kristine Doney, Kerry McMillen, Laura Buono, H Joachim Deeg, Ted Gooley
This retrospective analysis of 2503 adult (≥20 years of age) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients assessed the effect of body mass index (BMI) on transplant outcome. Median patient age was 51.7 years. Both nonmalignant and malignant diagnoses were included. Patients received either a myeloablative (52%) or reduced-intensity (48%) conditioning regimen. Donors were either related (42%) or unrelated (58%). Cord blood recipients were excluded. G-CSF mobilized peripheral blood cells were the stem cell source in 86% of transplants...
October 10, 2018: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Chengliang Luo, Qiang Yang, Yuancai Liu, Shuanhu Zhou, Jiying Jiang, Russel J Reiter, Pallab Bhattacharya, Yongchun Cui, Hongwei Yang, He Ma, Jiemin Yao, Sean E Lawler, Xinmu Zhang, Jianfang Fu, Renato Rozental, Hany Aly, Mark D Johnson, E Antonio Chiocca, Xin Wang
Melatonin is a neurohormone associated with sleep and wakefulness and is mainly produced by the pineal gland in animals. Numerous physiological functions of melatonin have been demonstrated including anti-inflammation, suppressing neoplastic growth, circadian and endocrine rhythm regulation, and its potent antioxidant activity as well as its role in regeneration of various tissues including the nervous system, liver, bone, kidney, bladder, skin, and muscle, among others. In this review, we summarize the recent advances related to the multiple protective roles of melatonin receptor agonists, melatonin and N-acetylserotonin (NAS) in brain injury, liver damage, and bone health...
October 10, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Genliang Li, Hui Qian
To investigate the possible effects of epigenetic modification of testis protein-encoding genes on precocious puberty of Eriocheir sinensis, we used MeDIP-seq and hMeDIP-seq techniques to compare the methylation and hydroxymethylation of 263 E. sinensis protein-encoding genes known in the NCBI database in precocious testes with those in normally developing testes. The results showed that total methylation level of those genes was lower than their total hydroxymethylation level. Moreover, their total hydroxymethylation level in precocious testes was significantly lower than that in normal testes...
October 10, 2018: Gene
C Miglis, N J Rhodes, J Liu, J Gener, E Hang, M Scheetz
The quantitative importance of active antibiotic treatment relative to other modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for mortality has not been well defined in the literature. Here we quantify the impact of active antibiotic treatment on mortality relative to other disease modifiers in patients with Gram-negative bacteremia. Patients with at least one positive blood culture who were treated with ≥24 hours of cefepime for GNBSI were included for study. To examine in-hospital survival, a full primary model and a base model with the least significant covariate from the primary model were established...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Laura Escolà-Vergé, Nuria Fernández-Hidalgo, Dolors Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos Pigrau, Juan José González-López, Rosa Bartolomé, Benito Almirante
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of teicoplanin for treating enterococcal infective endocarditis (EIE). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of a prospective cohort of definite EIE patients treated with teicoplanin in a referral center (January 2000-September 2017). Primary outcome was mortality during treatment. Secondary outcomes were mortality during a 3-month follow-up, adverse effects, and relapse...
October 10, 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Walid Ben Ali, Ismail Bouhout, Paul Khairy, Denis Bouchard, Nancy Poirier
BACKGROUND: There is growing awareness of the long-term impact of a Fontan circulation on the associated morbidity and mortality. Comparative data on the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmia and sinus node dysfunction following extra cardiac (EC) and lateral tunnel (LT) Fontans are controversial. We performed a meta-analysis pooling all available long-term results comparing the EC and LT Fontan with a special focus on arrhythmia. METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for articles reporting long-term results of Fontan comparing the EC and the LT Fontan...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Keiichiro Kasama, Keiji Uchida, Norihisa Karube, Shigeo Takebayashi, Kiyotaka Imoto, Munetaka Masuda
BACKGROUND: In aortic surgery, a severely atherosclerotic aorta is a known risk factor for perioperative stroke. We adopted a novel procedure of selective cerebral perfusion, named isolated cerebral perfusion (ICP), for the prevention of stroke during aortic arch surgery. METHODS: Between January 2010 and June 2016, 48 patients (mean age, 80 ± 3 years) underwent total aortic arch replacement at our institute, which included nine emergency cases with rupture. ICP was routinely performed for extracorporeal circulation during total arch replacement...
October 10, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Po-Ku Chen, Chun-Hung Hua, Hui-Ting Hsu, Tzer-Min Kuo, Chia-Min Chung, Chi-Pin Lee, Ming-Hsui Tsai, Kun-Tu Yeh, Ying-Chin Ko
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant cancer with high mortality rates in advanced stages. Recent studies have shown that the expression of ALPK1 mRNA and its inhibitory differentiation function are associated with cancer progression. However, the expression and clinicopathological features of ALPK1 in OSCC remain unexplored. Here we investigated the expression patterns of ALPK1 in 39 matched OSCC patients and examined the relationship between ALPK1 protein expression and clinicopathological factors using immunohistochemical scores...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Hatice T Aksoy, Nilüfer Güzoğlu, Zeynep Eras, F Emre Canpolat, Nurdan Uraş
PURPOSE: To compare complete blood count (CBC) parameters in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born to mothers with and without preeclampsia and to evaluate whether these parameters could be used to determine the prognosis of infants born to mothers with preeclampsia. METHOD: Thirty-eight infants of preeclamptic mothers (IPM) and 77 infants of non-preeclamptic mothers (INPM) were included in the study. The CBC parameters of ELBW infants were evaluated at the sixth hour of life...
September 22, 2018: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
Viola Knop, Wolf Peter Hofmann, Peter Buggisch, Hartwig Klinker, Stefan Mauss, Rainer Günther, Holger Hinrichsen, Dietrich Hüppe, Heike Pfeiffer-Vornkahl, Karl-Georg Simon, Thomas Berg, Michael P Manns, Mireen Friedrich-Rust, German Hepatitis C-Registry
Treatment decisions are based on extent of fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Non-invasive diagnostic tools may help to avoid liver biopsy. We investigated the diagnostic accuracy of non-commercial serum scores in comparison to transient elastography (TE).Data analysis was undertaken based on 2458 patients enrolled in the German Hepatitis C Registry, in a prospective, observational study. Aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index (APRI), FORNS index and FIB-4 score were calculated and the diagnostic accuracy was compared to TE...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Samira Asgari, Nimisha Chaturvedi, Petar Scepanovic, Christian Hammer, Nasser Semmo, Emiliano Giostra, Beat Müllhaupt, Peter Angus, Alexander J Thompson, Darius Moradpour, Jacques Fellay
Acute liver failure (ALF) or fulminant hepatitis is a rare, yet severe outcome of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) that carries a high mortality rate. The occurrence of a life-threatening condition upon infection with a prevalent virus in individuals without known risk factors is suggestive of pathogen-specific immune dysregulation. In the absence of established differences in HBV virulence, we hypothesized that ALF upon primary infection with HBV could be due to rare deleterious variants in the human genome...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Manon Gijtenbeek, Enrico Lopriore, Sylke J Steggerda, Arjan B Te Pas, Dick Oepkes, Monique C Haak
BACKGROUND: Newborns with anemia are at increased risk of persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN), yet reports on the association between fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) and PPHN are rare. To optimize care for pregnancies complicated by FMH, clinicians should be aware of the risks of FMH and the possible diagnostic and therapeutic options. To increase the current knowledge, the incidence of PPHN and short-term neurologic injury in FMH cases were studied. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We included all FMH cases (≥30 mL fetal blood transfused into the maternal circulation) admitted to our neonatal unit between 2006 and 2018...
October 13, 2018: Transfusion
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