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Samuel P Wiles, Charles R Lane, Ali Ataya, Mourad H Senussi, Madhu Sasidhar, Xiaofeng Wang, Tarik Hanane
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate outcomes in MICU lung transplant recipients with acute respiratory failure treated with non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) and identify factors associated with NPPV failure (need for intubation). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all lung transplant recipients who were admitted with acute respiratory failure to the MICU from January 2009-August 2016 was completed. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine which factors were independently associated with NPPV failure...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
Gensheng Zhang, Kai Zhang, Wei Cui, Yucai Hong, Zhongheng Zhang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of enteral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 23 trials containing 6478 patients met our inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION: A systematical literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials in electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO and Cochrane Library...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Haizea Ziarrusta, Leire Mijangos, Sergio Picart-Armada, Mireia Irazola, Alexandre Perera-Lluna, Aresatz Usobiaga, Ailette Prieto, Nestor Etxebarria, Maitane Olivares, Olatz Zuloaga
The extensive use of the organic UV filter oxybenzone has led to its ubiquitous occurrence in the aquatic environment, causing an ecotoxicological risk to biota. Although some studies reported adverse effects, such as reproductive toxicity, further research needs to be done in order to assess its molecular effects and mechanism of action. Therefore, in the present work, we investigated metabolic perturbations in juvenile gilt-head bream (Sparus aurata) exposed over 14 days via the water to oxybenzone (50 mg/L)...
August 4, 2018: Chemosphere
Ting Yu, Yunren Fan, Yunfeng Xu, Liangdie Xu, Guangda Xu, Fangchuan Cao, Hailong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Early brain injury (EBI) plays a critical role in determining the outcome of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The present study was designed to investigate the role of EGb 761, a standardized extract of Ginkgo biloba, in SAH-induced EBI and to explore its potential mechanism of action. METHOD: A rat SAH model was established by the endovascular perforation process. Doses of 10, 50 and 100 mg/kg EGb 761 were injected intraperitoneally 2 h after SAH was induced...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Matthew M Lander, Nicole Kunz, Elizabeth Dunn, Andrew D Althouse, Kathy Lockard, Michael A Shullo, Robert L Kormos, Jeffrey J Teuteberg
BACKGROUND: Driveline infection (DLI) is a cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (CF-LVADs). We hypothesized that an alternative dressing protocol would decrease the rate of DLIs. METHODS AND RESULTS: Retrospective review of CF-LVAD implants at a single institution from January 2010 to October 2015 was conducted. Patients were divided into implants before (Group 1) or after (Group 2) the introduction of the new protocol on 9/1/2012...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Failure
Saeed Khoshnood, Mohsen Heidary, Mehri Haeili, Michel Drancourt, Davood Darban-Sarokhalil, Mohammad Javad Nasiri, Vahid Lohrasbi
Tuberculosis (TB) is now among the top ten causes of mortality worldwide being resulted in 1.7 million deaths in 2016. The Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG) is the only available TB vaccine which fails to provide consistent protection against pulmonary TB in adults and adolescents despite being efficacious at protecting infants and young children from the most severe, often deadly forms of TB disease. To achieve the goal of global TB elimination by 2050 we will need new interventions including more improved vaccines that are effective in adult individuals who have not been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis as well as latently infected or immunocompromised subjects...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Hallysson D A de Araújo, Ana M M A Melo, Williams N Siqueira, Mônica C B Martins, André L Aires, Mônica C P A Albuquerque, Nicácio H da Silva, Vera L M Lima
The snail Biomphalaria glabrata is the most important vector for Schistosoma mansoni. Control of this vector to prevent the spread of schistosomiasis is currently performed with the application of a niclosamide molluscicide, which is highly toxic to the environment. Screening of substances that show embryotoxic molluscicidal potential as well as have detrimental effects on cercariae is very relevant for the control of schistosomiasis, as the efficacy of prevention of the disease is increased if it acts as a molluscicide as well as on the cercariae of S...
August 8, 2018: Acta Tropica
Sho-Ichi Yamagishi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 11, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
J C Pickup
There continues to be uncertainty about the effectiveness in Type 1 diabetes of insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, CSII) vs. multiple daily insulin injections (MDI). This narrative review discusses the reasons for this uncertainty, summarizes the current evidence base for CSII and suggests some future research needs. There are difficulties in interpreting trials of CSII because effectiveness varies widely due to factors such as differing baseline control, suboptimal use of best CSII practices, and psychological factors, for example, high external locus of control, non-adherence and lack of motivation...
August 11, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Rafael E Marques, Anne-Gaëlle Besnard, Isabelle Maillet, Caio T Fagundes, Danielle G Souza, Bernhard Ryffel, Mauro M Teixeira, Foo Y Liew, Rodrigo Guabiraba
The excessive inflammation often present in patients with severe dengue infection is considered both a hallmark of disease and a target for potential treatments. IL-33 is a pleiotropic cytokine with pro-inflammatory effects whose role in dengue has not been fully elucidated. Here we demonstrate that IL-33 plays a disease-exacerbating role during experimental dengue infection in immunocompetent mice. Mice infected with Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) produced high levels of IL-33. DENV2-infected mice treated with recombinant IL-33 developed markedly more severe disease compared to untreated mice as assessed by mortality, granulocytosis, liver damage and pro-inflammatory cytokine production...
August 11, 2018: Immunology
Xiaoye Li, Zi Wang, Qibing Wang, Qing Xu, Qianzhou Lv
Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) has become a vital disease with high mortality worldwide. A combined anti-platelet therapy (aspirin and a P2Y12 antagonist) is commonly used to prevent re-infarction in ACS patients who have undergone percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Clopidogrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, plays an important role in the inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA). However, it is a pro-drug requiring bio-transformation by cytochrome P450 (CYP450). The aim of this study is to unravel the effect of clopidogrel-associated genetic variants on inhibition of platelet activity and clinical outcomes in ACS patients...
August 11, 2018: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
Markus Ruhnke, Gerhard Behre, Dieter Buchheidt, Maximilian Christopeit, Axel Hamprecht, Werner Heinz, Claus-Peter Heussel, Marius Horger, Oliver Kurzai, Meinolf Karthaus, Jürgen Löffler, Georg Maschmeyer, Olaf Penack, Christina Rieger, Volker Rickerts, Jörg Ritter, Martin Schmidt-Hieber, Nikolai Schuelper, Stefan Schwartz, Andrew Ullmann, Jörg-Janne Vehreschild, Marie von Lilienfeld-Toal, Thomas Weber, Hans-H Wolf
Invasive fungal diseases (IFD) are a primary cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with haematological malignancies. These infections are mostly life-threatening and an early diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy are essential for the clinical outcome. Most commonly, Aspergillus and Candida species are involved. However, other Non-Aspergillus moulds are increasingly identified in case of documented IFD. For definite diagnosis of IFD, a combination of diagnostic tools have to be applied, including conventional mycological culture and non-conventional microbiological tests such as antibody / antigen and molecular tests, as well as histopathology and radiology...
August 11, 2018: Mycoses
Liron Sinvani, Jessy Warner-Cohen, Andrew Strunk, Travis Halbert, Ruchika Harisingani, Colm Mulvany, Michael Qiu, Andrzej Kozikowski, Vidhi Patel, Tara Liberman, Maria Carney, Renee Pekmezaris, Gisele Wolf-Klein, Corey Karlin-Zysman
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether a multicomponent intervention improves care in hospitalized older adults with cognitive impairment. DESIGN: One-year retrospective chart review with propensity score matching on critical demographic and clinical variables was used to compare individauls with cognitive impairmenet on intervention and nonintervention units. SETTING: Large tertiary medical center. PARTICIPANTS: All hospitalized individuals age 65 and older with cognitive impairment admitted to medicine who required constant or enhanced observation for behavioral and psychological symptoms...
August 11, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Zhi Ven Fong, Peter J Fagenholz
Necrotizing pancreatitis has historically been treated with open necrosectomy, which carries a high morbidity and mortality rate. More recently, there has been a shift towards endoscopic and percutaneous approaches employed as part of a minimally invasive step-up approach. Herein, we describe the technical approaches to video-assisted retroperitoneal debridement and sinus tract endoscopic debridement of pancreatic necrosis. Additionally, we review important patient selection considerations and the strengths and weaknesses of each of the approaches...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
Syed Yaseen Naqvi, Anas Jawaid, Ilan Goldenberg, Valentina Kutyifa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an effective treatment option for therapy-refractory mild to severe heart failure (HF) patients with reduced ejection fraction and left ventricular (LV) conduction delay. Multiple clinical trials have shown that CRT improves cardiac function and overall quality of life, as well as reduces HF hospitalizations, health care costs, and mortality. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite its effectiveness, the "non-response" rate to CRT is around 30%, remaining a major challenge that faces electrophysiologists and researchers...
August 10, 2018: Current Heart Failure Reports
Francisco Tustumi, Wanderley M Bernardo, Marco A Santo, Ivan Cecconello
Weight loss following bariatric surgery increases risk for biliary stones. This study performed a meta-analysis evaluating cholecystectomy risks in bariatric patients. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. We evaluated the incidence rate for biliary complications in patients followed after bariatric surgery. We compared the risks for mortality, complications, and in hospital stay among patient submitted to cholecystectomy before, concomitantly with or after bariatric surgery, as well as patients submitted to bariatric surgery and cholecystectomy, and patients submitted only to bariatric surgery in order to evaluate when to perform cholecystectomy in morbidly obese patients...
August 10, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Samuel W D Merriel, Garth Funston, Willie Hamilton
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy seen worldwide. The incidence has risen in recent decades, mainly fuelled by more widespread use of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing, although prostate cancer mortality rates have remained relatively static over that time period. A man's risk of prostate cancer is affected by his age and family history of the disease. Men with prostate cancer generally present symptomatically in primary care settings, although some diagnoses are made in asymptomatic men undergoing opportunistic PSA screening...
August 10, 2018: Advances in Therapy
Nasrollah Ahmadifard, Vahid Rezaei Aminlooi, Amir Tukmechi, Naser Agh
The present study investigated the effect of enriched Artemia with Bacillus subtilis on growth performance, reproductive factors, proximate composition, intestinal microflora, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila of ornamental fish, Poecilia latipinna. Using a completely randomized design, the experiment included three groups. The first group was fed with commercial food without any probiotic. The second group was fed with unenriched Artemia, and the last group consumed long-time enriched Artemia with Bacillus subtilis...
August 10, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
I Mizrahi, M Abu-Gazala, A S Rickles, L M Fernandez, A Petrucci, J Wolf, D R Sands, S D Wexner
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leak (AL) after low anterior resection (LAR) is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, cost and cancer recurrence rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluorescence angiography (FA) on AL following LAR for low rectal cancer. METHODS: This is a single surgeon retrospective cohort study with a historical, consecutively sampled case matched control group. The institution's prospectively maintained institutional review board (IRB)-approved database was queried for all patients who underwent a laparoscopic LAR for rectal neoplasia with a colorectal or coloanal anastomosis < 5 cm from the anal verge between 2013 and 2016...
August 10, 2018: Techniques in Coloproctology
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