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Drug Analysis

Preeti Prajapati, Jaya Pandey, Poonam Tandon, Kirti Sinha
Molecular structure, chemical and physical reactivity, spectroscopic behavior, intermolecular interactions play an important role in understanding the biological nature of pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the study is to combine the spectroscopic and computational methodology for the investigation of structural behavior of ezetimibe (EZT). Computational study was done on monomeric, dimeric and trimeric models of EZT using B3LYP/6-311G(d,p). Hydrogen bond interactions were taken into consideration to validate the theoretical results with the experimental one...
August 13, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Zhenning Li, Cong Chen, Yusheng Ci, Guohui Zhang, Qiong Wu, Cathy Liu, Zhen Sean Qian
Traffic crashes are more likely to occur at intersections where the traffic environment is complicated. In this study, a hybrid approach combining cluster analysis and hierarchical Bayesian models is developed to examine driver injury severity patterns in intersection-related crashes based on two-year crash data in New Mexico. Three clusters are defined by K-means cluster analysis based on weather and roadway environmental conditions in order to reveal drivers' risk compensation instability under diverse external environment...
August 15, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Bradley J Peters, Andrew D Rule, Kianoush B Kashani, John C Lieske, Kristin C Mara, Ross A Dierkhising, Erin F Barreto
STUDY OBJECTIVE: Serum creatinine concentration (SCr) is used to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) for medication dosing. Serum cystatin C concentration (CysC) has been proposed as an adjunct or alternative to SCr. This study sought to evaluate the impact that using CysC in eGFR equations could have on drug dose recommendations in hospitalized patients with infections. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Large academic tertiary care medical center...
August 18, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
Abhinav Sharma, Andrew P Ambrosy, Adam D DeVore, Kenneth B Margulies, Steven E McNulty, Robert J Mentz, Adrian F Hernandez, Gary Michael Felker, Lauren B Cooper, Anuradha Lala, Justin Vader, John D Groake, Barry A Borlaug, Eric J Velazquez
AIMS: Obesity is present in up to 45% of patients with heart failure (HF). Liraglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor antagonist, facilitates weight loss in obese patients. The efficacy of liraglutide as a weight loss agent among patients with HF and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and a recent acute HF hospitalization remains unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Functional Impact of GLP-1 for Heart Failure Treatment study randomized 300 patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤ 40%), both with and without diabetes and a recent HF hospitalization to liraglutide or placebo...
August 17, 2018: ESC Heart Failure
Linling He, Bo Liu, Jiewei Tian, Fengjuan Lu, Xiaoguang Li, Yongqiang Tian
The development of insecticide resistance is attributed to evolutionary changes in pest insect genomes, such as alteration of drug target sites, upregulation of degrading enzymes, and enhancement of drug excretion. Beyond these well-known mechanisms, symbiotic bacteria may confer insecticide resistance to host crickets. The current study was designed to screen all possible culturable bacterial groups found living in and on the bodies of Teleogryllus occipitalis crickets. We recovered 263 visible bacterial colonies and cultured them individually...
August 17, 2018: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Juan Peris-Vicente, Jesús Javier Iborra Millet, Jaume Albiol-Chiva, Samuel Carda-Broch, Josep Esteve-Romero
BACKGROUND: Micellar liquid chromatography - fluorescence detection was used to determine the antibiotics flumequine, marbofloxacin, difloxacin and sarafloxacin in porcine, bovine, poultry, ovine, caprine, rabbit and equine meat, to verify their compliance with the EU Regulation 37/2010 about the occurrence of veterinary drugs in food. RESULTS: The analytes were isolated from matrix by ultrasonication-assisted leaching in a micellar solution, and the supernatant was filtered and directly injected...
August 17, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
György Jermendy, Zoltán Kiss, György Rokszin, Zsolt Abonyi-Tóth, István Wittmann, Péter Kempler
INTRODUCTION: Adequate persistence to antidiabetic treatment is highly important to achieve proper glycemic control. In this study we evaluate the persistence to treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors, and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists in a nationwide cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Using a central database in Hungary, we analyzed the persistence to the treatment with dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (n = 59,900), sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (n = 26,052), and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (n = 17,332) at treatment intensification between 2014 and 2016...
August 17, 2018: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
Kayla N Tormohlen, Karin E Tobin, Carl Latkin
Stress, drug use, and depression are interconnected, but less is understood about sources of stress among adults with co-occurring drug use and depressive symptoms. The current study aimed to identify sources of stress and correlates among these adults. Data come from a cross-sectional baseline survey, including participants (n = 336) 18 to 55 years old, who reported past 6-month heroin or cocaine use and depressive symptoms. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to identify sources of stress. Chi-square and multivariable Poisson regression with robust error variance were used to explore correlates of each factor...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Thomas A Cavanaugh
Among the oldest extant medical ethics, the Hippocratic Oath prohibits the giving of a deadly drug, regarding this act as an egregious violation of a medical ethic that is exclusively therapeutic. Proportionate palliative sedation involves the administration of a deadly drug. Hence it seems to violate the venerable Hippocratic promise associated with the dawn of Western medicine not to give a deadly drug. Relying on distinctions commonly employed in the analysis and evaluation of human actions, this article distinguishes physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, as acts that necessarily violate the prohibition against giving a deadly drug, from proportionate palliative sedation, as an act that does not...
August 17, 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Christian Thomas, Maximilian P Brandt, Stephanie Baldauf, Igor Tsaur, Sebastian Frees, Hendrik Borgmann, Wolfgang Jäger, Georg Bartsch, Meike Schneider, Robert Dotzauer, Andreas Neisius, Axel Haferkamp
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to define clinical factors for successful treatment response and re-exposure to docetaxel in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS: An mCRPC database of patients receiving first-line docetaxel and rechallenge courses was established. Several clinical factors were evaluated for prediction of treatment response. Multivariate cox-regression analysis was used to define pre-treatment and treatment factors for survival...
August 17, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Sahand Imani, Hergen Buscher, Richard Day, Sheridan Gentili, Graham R D Jones, Debbie Marriott, Ross Norris, Indy Sandaradura
To determine whether target concentration non-attainment can be anticipated in critically ill patients prior to initiating empiric β-lactam antibiotic therapy based on readily available clinical factors. Retrospective review of consecutive patients treated with piperacillin or meropenem and who underwent therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) at St Vincent's Hospital (Sydney, Australia) between January 2013 and December 2015 was performed. Predefined subgroups were patients who received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and those who did not (non-CRRT)...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Yuezhou Zhang, Henri Xhaard, Leo Ghemtio
Betulin derivatives have been proven effective in vitro against Leishmania donovani amastigotes, which cause visceral leishmaniasis. Identifying the molecular targets and molecular mechanisms underlying their action is a currently an unmet challenge. In the present study, we tackle this problem using computational methods to establish properties essential for activity as well as to screen betulin derivatives against potential targets. Recursive partitioning classification methods were explored to develop predictive models for 58 diverse betulin derivatives inhibitors of L...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Cheminformatics
Florent Puisset, Laurence Bigay-Game, Marie Noëlle Paludetto, Audrey Martel, Sophie Perriat, Audrey Rabeau, Jean Marie Canonge, Julien Mazieres
PURPOSE: Hydration is needed before and after cisplatin infusion for reducing the risk of nephrotoxicity. Even though there is no standard regimen, patients receive mostly intravenous hydration before and after cisplatin leading hospitalization during at least one night. Since the feasibility has been published, oral hydration after cisplatin was implemented in our practice. The safety of this new way of hydration needs to be assessed in clinical practice. METHODS: We collected medical records from patients treated by cisplatin for lung cancer in our unit between 2010 and 2016...
August 17, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Mohan Stewart, Jolanda Cibere, Eric C Sayre, Jacek A Kopec
OBJECTIVE: Pain management is a cornerstone of osteoarthritis (OA) management. The aim of this review is to obtain current, literature-based estimates of the effect of common pharmacologic treatments on pain reduction in OA. METHODS: A MEDLINE search (2006-2016) was conducted for randomized controlled trials studying acetaminophen, oral NSAIDs, topical NSAIDs, COX-2 inhibitors, and opioids in the treatment of OA pain. Drug effect on pain was estimated using relative change in pain, and expressed as percentage change...
August 17, 2018: Rheumatology International
Margherita Cacaci, Caroline Giraud, Loic Leger, Riccardo Torelli, Cecilia Martini, Brunella Posteraro, Valentina Palmieri, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Francesca Bugli, Axel Hartke
Enterococcus faecium is an important health care-associated pathogen that is difficult to treat due to the high level of antibiotic resistance of clinical isolates. The identification of new potential therapeutic targets or vaccination strategies is therefore urgently needed. In this regard, we carried out a transcriptomic analysis of the E. faecium vancomycin-resistant strain AUS0004, comparing the gene expression of bacteria grown under laboratory conditions and bacteria isolated from an infection site. This analysis highlighted more than 360 genes potentially induced under infection conditions...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Michael T White, Patrick Walker, Stephan Karl, Manuel W Hetzel, Tim Freeman, Andreea Waltmann, Moses Laman, Leanne J Robinson, Azra Ghani, Ivo Mueller
Plasmodium vivax poses unique challenges for malaria control and elimination, notably the potential for relapses to maintain transmission in the face of drug-based treatment and vector control strategies. We developed an individual-based mathematical model of P. vivax transmission calibrated to epidemiological data from Papua New Guinea (PNG). In many settings in PNG, increasing bed net coverage is predicted to reduce transmission to less than 0.1% prevalence by light microscopy, however there is substantial risk of rebounds in transmission if interventions are removed prematurely...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Jia Liu, Min Liu, Zhe Chen, Yumei Jia, Guang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) is the most common autoimmune thyroid disease. Longitudinal relaxation time mapping (T1-mapping) measured by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a new technique for assessing interstitial fibrosis of some organs, such as heart and liver. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between T1-mapping value and thyroid function, and determine the usefulness of T1-mapping in identifying thyroid destruction in AIT patients. METHODS: This case-control study recruited 57 drug-naïve AIT patients and 17 healthy controls...
August 17, 2018: Endocrine Connections
A Vysakh, Kuriakose Jayesh, Lal Raisa Helen, Mathew Jyothis, M S Latha
BACKGROUND: The plant Rotula aquatica Lour. was traditionally well known due to its large number of pharmacological action and medicinal uses. The plant is a necessary component of many Ayurvedic drug preparations since historical times. It is widely used as a crucial ancient drug for kidney and bladder stones. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity and anti inflammatory efficacy of methanolic extract of R.aquatica Lour. in in vivo models...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
Ali Mohebbi, Saeid Yaripour, Mir Ali Farajzadeh, Mohammad Reza Afshar Mogaddam
A dispersive solid phase extraction coupled with deep eutectic solvent-based air-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction has been developed and applied to the extraction and preconcentration of some tricyclic antidepressant drugs in the human urine and plasma samples prior to their determination by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In this method, a sorbent (C18 ) is first added into an alkaline aqueous sample and dispersed by vortexing. By this action, the analytes are adsorbed onto the sorbent. Then, the sorbent particles are isolated from the aqueous solution by centrifugation...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ambrose H Wong, R Andrew Taylor, Jessica M Ray, Steven L Bernstein
STUDY OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of agitation among emergency department (ED) patients is increasing. Physical restraints are routinely used to prevent self-harm and to protect staff, but are associated with serious safety risks. To date, characterization of physical restraint use in the emergency setting has been limited. We thus aim to describe restraint patterns in the general ED to guide future investigation in the management of behavioral disorders. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients presenting to 5 adult EDs within a large regional health system for 2013 to 2015, and with a physical restraint order during their visit...
August 14, 2018: Annals of Emergency Medicine
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