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Drug Analysis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30518005/-a-multicenter-clinical-study-on-1-138-cases-of-invasive-pneumococcal-disease-in-children-from-2012-to-2017
#1
L Zhu, W H Li, X H Wang, K Tan, Q F Fang, Q X Zhu, K K Wu, Q Z Yang, A W Lin, H L Deng, J Bi, J Liu, S Y Zhao, Y Liu, S J Jing, Y M Wang, L M Li, Q Zhao, K H Yao, X Wang, L Jia, F Wang, J K Deng, J Sun, C H Zhu, K Zhou, J Liang, X Z Nie, S C Cao, D M Wang, S J Li, X X Chen, J Li, Y Wang, L Ye, Y H Zhang, F Dong, Z Li, Y H Yang, G Liu
Objective: To explore the clinical features, the serotype distribution and drug resistance of the isolates in patient with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Methods: By retrieving the laboratory information system in 18 children's hospitals from 2012 to 2017, the children with IPD were enrolled. Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) must be isolated from the sterile sites (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, hydrothorax and joint effusion etc.). The clinical characteristics, serotype, drug resistance, treatment and prognosis were reviewed and analyzed...
December 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517974/simultaneous-quantitation-of-metformin-and-dapagliflozin-in-human-plasma-by-lc-ms-ms-application-to-a-pharmacokinetic-study
#2
Priyanka A Shah, Pranav S Shrivastav, Jaivik V Shah, Archana George
A single LC-MS/MS assay is developed and validated for simultaneous determination of metformin and dapagliflozin in human plasma using ion-pair solid phase extraction. Chromatographic separation of the analytes and their internal standards was carried out on a reversed-phase ACE 5CN (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm) column using acetonitrile-15 mM ammonium acetate, pH 4.5 (70:30, v/v) as the mobile phase. To achieve higher sensitivity and selectivity for the analytes, mass spectrometric analysis was performed using polarity switching approach...
December 5, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517702/comparison-of-purified-%C3%AE-glucuronidases-in-patient-urine-samples-indicates-a-lack-of-correlation-between-enzyme-activity-and-drugs-of-abuse-metabolite-hydrolysis-efficiencies-leading-to-potential-false-negatives
#3
Pongkwan Sitasuwan, Cathleen Melendez, Margarita Marinova, Michelle Spruill, L Andrew Lee
Pain management laboratories analyze biological fluids (urine, saliva or blood) from patients treated for chronic pain to ensure compliance and to detect undisclosed drug use. The quantitation of multi-panel drugs in urine and tissues utilizes β-glucuronidase to cleave the glucuronic acid and liberate the parent drug for mass spectrometry analysis. This work focuses on the comparison of three different, purified and commercially available β-glucuronidases across 83 patient urine samples. One enzyme is genetically modified, expressed in bacteria and the other two enzymes are purified from abalone...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517632/pre-treatment-drug-resistance-and-hiv-1-subtypes-in-infants-from-argentina-with-and-without-exposure-to-antiretroviral-drugs-for-prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission
#4
Paula C Aulicino, Ines Zapiola, Silvia Kademian, María M Valle, Silvina Fernandez Giuliano, Rosana Toro, Gabriela Barbas, Ana M Cañizal, Paula Mayon, Marcelo D Golemba, Marcela Ortiz de Zarate, Marisa S Corazza, Analía Cudola, Débora Mecikovsky, Rosa Bologna, Andrea Mangano, Luisa Sen
Objectives: To assess the prevalence and patterns of pre-treatment HIV drug resistance (PDR) and HIV-1 subtype in infants from Argentina with exposure to different antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). Patients and methods: HIV-1 genotyping was performed in 115 infants (median age = 2.3 months) born between 2007 and 2014 to screen for drug resistance mutations (DRMs) before starting first-line ART. HIV-1 subtype was characterized by phylogenetic and recombination analysis...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517631/the-course-of-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-patients-with-dementia-in-primary-care
#5
Petra Borsje, Peter L B J Lucassen, Hans Bor, Roland B Wetzels, Anne Margriet Pot, Raymond T C M Koopmans
Background: During the course of dementia, most people develop some type of neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), which result in lower quality of life, high caregiver burden, psychotropic drug use and a major risk of institutionalization. Studies on NPS in people with dementia have been mainly conducted in clinical centres or psychiatric services. Objectives: To investigate the course of NPS in people with dementia in primary care. Methods: Analysis of (cumulative) prevalence and incidence, persistence and resolution based on data collected during an assessment at home of a prospective naturalistic cohort study in primary care in a sample of 117 people with dementia and their informal caregivers...
December 4, 2018: Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517582/tuberculosis-control-from-the-perspective-of-health-professionals-working-in-street-clinics
#6
Paula Hino, Aline Aparecida Monroe, Renata Ferreira Takahashi, Káren Mendes Jorge de Souza, Tania Maria Ribeiro Monteiro de Figueiredo, Maria Rita Bertolozzi
PURPOSE: to present the opinion of professionals about street dwellers undergoing treatment of tuberculosis and identify strategies of control of tuberculosis in this population. METHOD: an exploratory and descriptive study involving 17 health professionals working in street clinics. A semi-structured study composed of closed questions and a guiding question. The statements were analyzed using the discourse analysis technique, resulting in the identification of two analytical categories: 1...
November 29, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517577/validation-of-vulnerability-markers-of-dysfunctions-in-the-socioemotional-development-of-infants
#7
Daniel Ignacio da Silva, Débora Falleiros de Mello, Renata Ferreira Takahashi, Cody Stonewall Hollist, Verônica de Azevedo Mazza, Maria de La Ó Ramallo Veríssimo
OBJECTIVES: to validate the vulnerability markers of dysfunctions in the socioemotional development of infants. METHODS: study with a sequential exploratory mixed-method design. The vulnerability markers elaborated in the qualitative phase were analyzed by experts in the quantitative phase using the Delphi technique with a minimum consensus of 70%. Seventeen judges answered the questionnaire in the first round of analysis and 11 answered in the second round. RESULTS: in the first round, two markers did not reach minimum consensus: the presence of instability in family relationships (66%) and delinquency and/or drug abuse by parents/caregivers (65%)...
November 29, 2018: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517503/-molecular-diagnosis-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-sputum-samples-by-melting-curve-analysis
#8
Marco Galarza, Heinner Guio, Jenny Reques, Omar Piscoya, Mitzi Rodríguez
OBJECTIVES.: To analyze melting curves for the diagnosis of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis from sputum samples. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Sputum samples (n = 250) were collected from patients with clinical suspicion of pulmonary tuberculosis as a result of bacilloscopy and cultured in solid medium Lowenstein Jensen. According to the reference method, 124 samples sensitive to rifampicin and isoniazid, 24 resistant to rifampicin, 33 resistant to isoniazid, and 69 multidrug-resistant were used...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517478/in-vivo-study-of-the-action-of-a-topical-anti-inflammatory-drug-in-rat-teeth-submitted-to-dental-bleaching
#9
Francine Benetti, André Luiz Fraga Briso, Luciana Louzada Ferreira, Marina Carminatti, Larissa Álamo, Edilson Ervolino, Eloi Dezan-Júnior, Luciano Tavares Angelo Cintra
Bleaching gel containing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) cause damages in pulp tissue. This study investigated the action of a topical anti-inflammatory, the Otosporin®, in rats' bleached teeth with the null hypothesis of which the Otosporin® is no able to minimize the pulp inflammation that bleaching gel generates. The rat's molars were divided into groups: BLE: bleached (35% H2O2 concentration /single application of 30 min); BLE-O: bleached followed by Otosporin® (10 min); and control: placebo gel. In the second day after dental bleaching, the rats were killed, and the jaws were processed for hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry analysis for tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-17...
November 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517469/characteristics-associated-to-a-poor-self-rated-health-in-brazilian-adolescents-national-adolescent-school-based-health-survey-2015
#10
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Max Moura de Oliveira, Isis Eloah Machado, Rogério Ruscito Prado, Sheila Rizzato Stopa, Claudio Dutra Crespo, Ada Ávila Assunção
Health self-assessment (HSA) is a widely studied indicator among adults and the elderly, but not often explored in adolescents. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of poor self-rated health in Brazilian schoolchildren and associated factors. Data from the 2015 National Adolescent School-based Health Survey (PeNSE) were analyzed; prevalences and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated for poor self-rated health and associated factors. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517457/factors-associated-with-the-use-of-waterpipe-and-other-tobacco-products-among-students-brazil-2015
#11
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Ana Luiza Curi Hallal, Ísis Eloah Machado, Rogério Ruscitto do Prado, Patrícia Pereira Vasconcelos de Oliveira, Maryane Oliveira Campos, Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza
OBJECTIVE: To identify the frequency and factors associated with the use of waterpipe and other tobacco products among Brazilian students. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study based on data from the National Adolescent Student Health Survey. The sample consisted of 9th-grade students from elementary school. We conducted a descriptive analysis of the use of tobacco products in 2012 and 2015. To explore the relationship between the use of other tobacco products and factors such as sociodemographic characteristics, family, mental health, and life habits, we calculated the adjusted odds ratio...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517455/use-of-psychoactive-substances-among-brazilian-adolescents-and-associated-factors-national-school-based-health-survey-2015
#12
Deborah Carvalho Malta, Ísis Eloah Machado, Mariana Santos Felisbino-Mendes, Rogério Ruscitto do Prado, Alessandra Maria Silva Pinto, Maryane Oliveira-Campos, Maria de Fátima Marinho de Souza, Ada Ávila Assunção
AIM: To analyze the consumption of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drugs among schoolchildren according to demographic factors, family context and mental health. METHODS: We used data from the National School-based Health Survey 2015 and included in the sample 102,301 schoolchildren in the 9th grade. We estimated the prevalence of tobacco and alcohol use in the last 30 days and drug experimentation according to demographic, mental health and family context variables...
November 29, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, Brazilian Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517441/effect-of-local-application-of-alendronate-and-parathyroid-hormone-on-craniofacial-bone-repair-a-preliminary-study
#13
Frederico Ribeiro Deliberador, Aline Monise Sebastiani, Jennifer Gerber, Luana Bonetto, Gabriela Tórtora, Allan Fernando Giovanini, Tatiana Miranda Deliberador, Joao César Zielak, Rafaela Scariot
This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two methods of local application of alendronate and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone repair and the systemic implications. A critically sized defect (5 mm) was created in the cranial region of twenty-five male Wistar rats, and the bone removed was particulated, and grafted back to the defect with different treatments. The animals were randomly divided into five groups: A1- bone graft immersion in alendronate solution (3 mg/kg) for 5 minutes; P1- bone graft immersion in PTH solution (20 µg); A2- weekly local applications of alendronate 1 mg/kg; P2- weekly local applications of PTH (20 µg); C- no drugs were used...
September 2018: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517434/accountability-and-participation-how-to-overcome-the-tutelary-character-in-the-psychosocial-care-center-for-alcohol-and-drug-users
#14
Jacqueline Macedo Dos Santos, Juliana Ávila Baptista, Cíntia Nasi, Marcio Wagner Camatta
OBJECTIVE: Analyze the degree of accountability and participation of user under treatment at the Psychosocial Care Center for Alcohol and Drug Users (CAPS-ad) from the harm reduction policy perspective. METHODS: It is a qualitative approach study, case study type, with 12 users and four professionals from CAPS-ad in a county of Minas Gerais state. Data were collected from April to September 2017, by means of semi-structured interview, participant observation and documental analysis...
November 29, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517308/familiar-factors-and-illicit-drug-use-among-brazilian-adolescents-an-analysis-of-the-brazilian-national-survey-of-school-health-pense-2015
#15
Hellen de Araújo Antunes, María Fernanda Rivadeneira-Guerrero, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de Goulart, Nágila Soares Xavier Oenning
Illicit drug use is related to individual characteristics; however, social and family environments seem to be associated with this consumption. The aim of this study was to analyze the association of the relationships between parents or guardians and Brazilian adolescents that use illicit drugs. This is a cross-sectional study with data from the Brazilian National Survey of School Health (PeNSE, 2015), in which the target population was school children from the ninth grade (eighth year). A total of 102,072 students were included in the current research, being 52,782 females and 49,290 males...
November 29, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517301/profile-of-medicines-used-via-oral-and-gastrointestinal-catheter-in-a-walk-in-service
#16
Moara Avila de Jesus Moreira, Paula Pereira de Figueiredo, Rosemary Silva da Silveira, Valdecir Zavarese da Costa, Eliana Cardia de Pinho, Miriã Soares de Bittencourt Coutinho
OBJECTIVE: To identify the profile of drugs prescribed via oral and gastrointestinal catheter in a Walk-in Service of a University Hospital. METHOD: Quantitative cross-sectional study in which data were collected from the medical records of hospitalized patients using medication via oral or gastrointestinal catheter at least once a day between April and October 2015. The analysis was performed through descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Out of 568 prescriptions (total), there were 143 different medications...
December 3, 2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517253/acute-kidney-injury-after-cardiac-surgery-in-patients-without-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Kátia Alves Ramos, Cristiane Bitencourt Dias
INTRODUCTION: Among patients undergoing cardiac surgery, the occurrence of acute renal injury appears to be associated with worse prognosis and increased mortality. The objective of this study was to evaluate risk factors and the impact this complication on mortality and survival after cardiac surgery among patients without chronic kidney disease. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we reviewed the medical records of 142 patients who underwent elective coronary artery bypass grafting, valve replacement (single or multiple), or both (simultaneously) at a tertiary care hospital...
September 2018: Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517092/bioinformatics-a-rational-combine-approach-used-for-the-identification-and-in-vitro-activity-evaluation-of-potent-%C3%AE-glucuronidase-inhibitors
#18
Maria Yousuf, Nimra Naveed Shaikh, Zaheer Ul-Haq, M Iqbal Choudhary
Identification of hotspot drug-receptor interactions through in-silico prediction methods (Pharmacophore mapping, virtual screening, 3DQSAR, etc), is considered as a key approach in drug designing and development process. In the current design study, advanced in-silico based computational techniques were used for the identification of lead-like molecules against the targeted receptor β-glucuronidase. The binding pattern of a potent inhibitor in the ligand-receptor X-ray co-crystallize complex was used to identify and extract the structure-base Pharmacophore features...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517072/multiple-therapy-resistant-major-depressive-disorder-a-clinically-important-concept
#19
R H McAllister-Williams, D M B Christmas, A J Cleare, A Currie, J Gledhill, L Insole, A L Malizia, M McGeever, R Morriss, L J Robinson, M Scott, P R A Stokes, P S Talbot, A H Young
SummaryMany novel therapeutic options for depression exist that are either not mentioned in clinical guidelines or recommended only for use in highly specialist services. The challenge faced by clinicians is when it might be appropriate to consider such 'non-standard' interventions. This analysis proposes a framework to aid this decision.Declaration of interestIn the past 3 years R.H.M.W. has received support for research, expenses to attend conferences and fees for lecturing and consultancy work (including attending advisory boards) from various pharmaceutical companies including Astra Zeneca, Cyberonics, Eli Lilly, Janssen, LivaNova, Lundbeck, MyTomorrows, Otsuka, Pfizer, Roche, Servier, SPIMACO and Sunovion...
May 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516815/durability-data-for-bioprosthetic-surgical-aortic-valve-a-systematic-review
#20
Benish Fatima, Divyanshu Mohananey, Fazal W Khan, Yash Jobanputra, Ramyashree Tummala, Kinjal Banerjee, Amar Krishnaswamy, Stephanie Mick, E Murat Tuzcu, Eugene Blackstone, Lars Svensson, Samir Kapadia
Importance: Although several studies have reported data on surgical aortic valve durability, variability in study methodologies and definitions as well as inadequate follow-up make the interpretation of data from these studies difficult to interpret. Objective: To review available data on structural valve deterioration (SVD) of surgical bioprosthetic aortic valves by examining the published literature as well as data reported to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
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