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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921187/rotor-tracking-using-phase-of-electrograms-recorded-during-atrial-fibrillation
#1
Caroline H Roney, Chris D Cantwell, Norman A Qureshi, Rasheda A Chowdhury, Emmanuel Dupont, Phang Boon Lim, Edward J Vigmond, Jennifer H Tweedy, Fu Siong Ng, Nicholas S Peters
Extracellular electrograms recorded during atrial fibrillation (AF) are challenging to interpret due to the inherent beat-to-beat variability in amplitude and duration. Phase mapping represents these voltage signals in terms of relative position within the cycle, and has been widely applied to action potential and unipolar electrogram data of myocardial fibrillation. To date, however, it has not been applied to bipolar recordings, which are commonly acquired clinically. The purpose of this study is to present a novel algorithm for calculating phase from both unipolar and bipolar electrograms recorded during AF...
December 5, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921121/a%C3%A2-4d-ultrasound-real-time-tracking-system-for-external-beam-radiotherapy-of-upper-abdominal-lesions-under-breath-hold
#2
Dwi Seno Kuncoro Sihono, Lena Vogel, Christel Weiß, Johannes Thölking, Frederik Wenz, Frank Lohr, Judit Boda-Heggemann, Hansjörg Wertz
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To evaluate a novel four-dimensional (4D) ultrasound (US) tracking system for external beam radiotherapy of upper abdominal lesions under computer-controlled deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The tracking accuracy of the research 4D US system was evaluated using two motion phantoms programmed with sinusoidal and breathing patterns to simulate free breathing and DIBH. Clinical performance was evaluated with five healthy volunteers...
December 5, 2016: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921074/initial-performance-studies-of-a-wearable-brain-positron-emission-tomography-camera-based-on-autonomous-thin-film-digital-geiger-avalanche-photodiode-arrays
#3
Charles R Schmidtlein, James N Turner, Michael O Thompson, Krishna C Mandal, Ida Häggström, Jiahan Zhang, John L Humm, David H Feiglin, Andrzej Krol
Using analytical and Monte Carlo modeling, we explored performance of a lightweight wearable helmet-shaped brain positron emission tomography (PET), or BET camera, based on thin-film digital Geiger avalanche photodiode arrays with Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate (LYSO) or [Formula: see text] scintillators for imaging in vivo human brain function of freely moving and acting subjects. We investigated a spherical cap BET and cylindrical brain PET (CYL) geometries with 250-mm diameter. We also considered a clinical whole-body (WB) LYSO PET/CT scanner...
January 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920669/the-neurovestibular-challenges-of-astronauts-and-balance-patients-some-past-countermeasures-and-two-alternative-approaches-to-elicitation-assessment-and-mitigation
#4
REVIEW
Ben D Lawson, Angus H Rupert, Braden J McGrath
Astronauts and vestibular patients face analogous challenges to orientation function due to adaptive exogenous (weightlessness-induced) or endogenous (pathology-induced) alterations in the processing of acceleration stimuli. Given some neurovestibular similarities between these challenges, both affected groups may benefit from shared research approaches and adaptation measurement/improvement strategies. This article reviews various past strategies and introduces two plausible ground-based approaches, the first of which is a method for eliciting and assessing vestibular adaptation-induced imbalance...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920583/intellijoint-hip-%C3%A2-a-3d-mini-optical-navigation-tool-for-improving-intraoperative-accuracy-during-total-hip-arthroplasty
#5
Wayne G Paprosky, Jeffrey M Muir
Total hip arthroplasty is an increasingly common procedure used to address degenerative changes in the hip joint due to osteoarthritis. Although generally associated with good results, among the challenges associated with hip arthroplasty are accurate measurement of biomechanical parameters such as leg length, offset, and cup position, discrepancies of which can lead to significant long-term consequences such as pain, instability, neurological deficits, dislocation, and revision surgery, as well as patient dissatisfaction and, increasingly, litigation...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920364/an-optimal-wilcoxon-mann-whitney-test-of-mortality-and-a-continuous-outcome
#6
Roland A Matsouaka, Aneesh B Singhal, Rebecca A Betensky
We consider a two-group randomized clinical trial, where mortality affects the assessment of a follow-up continuous outcome. Using the worst-rank composite endpoint, we develop a weighted Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test statistic to analyze the data. We determine the optimal weights for the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test statistic that maximize its power. We derive a formula for its power and demonstrate its accuracy in simulations. Finally, we apply the method to data from an acute ischemic stroke clinical trial of normobaric oxygen therapy...
December 5, 2016: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920331/3d-model-analysis-of-ankle-flexion-on-anatomic-reduction-of-a-syndesmotic-injury
#7
Jason M Schon, Jacob D Mikula, Jonathon D Backus, Melanie B Venderley, Grant J Dornan, Robert F LaPrade, Thomas O Clanton
BACKGROUND: The effect of ankle positioning during suture-button fixation for syndesmosis repair on range of motion (ROM) and anatomic reduction has yet to be investigated. The purpose of this cadaveric study was to compare the effects of 3 different ankle positions during suture-button repair on volumetric reduction of the syndesmosis, fibular displacement, and ROM of the ankle using 3-dimensional computed tomography (CT) analysis. The null hypothesis was that ankle position during fixation would not affect syndesmotic volume restoration, fibular displacement, or ROM...
December 5, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919430/carbon-dioxide-insufflation-deflects-airborne-particles-from-an-open-surgical-wound-model
#8
P Kokhanenko, G Papotti, J E Cater, A C Lynch, J A van der Linden, C J T Spence
BACKGROUND: Surgical site infections remain a significant burden on healthcare systems and may benefit from new countermeasures. AIM: To assess the merits of open surgical wound CO2 insufflation via a gas diffuser to reduce airborne contamination, and to determine the distribution of CO2 in and over a wound. METHODS: An experimental approach with engineers and clinical researchers was employed to measure the gas flow pattern and motion of airborne particles in a model of an open surgical wound in a simulated theatre setting...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919393/business-analysis-for-a-sustainable-multi-stakeholder-ecosystem-for-leveraging-the-electronic-health-records-for-clinical-research-ehr4cr-platform-in-europe
#9
Danielle Dupont, Ariel Beresniak, Mats Sundgren, Andreas Schmidt, John Ainsworth, Pascal Coorevits, Dipak Kalra, Marc Dewispelaere, Georges De Moor
INTRODUCTION: The Electronic Health Records for Clinical Research (EHR4CR) technological platform has been developed to enable the trustworthy reuse of hospital electronic health records data for clinical research. The EHR4CR platform can enhance and speed up clinical research scenarios: protocol feasibility assessment, patient identification for recruitment in clinical trials, and clinical data exchange, including for reporting serious adverse events. Our objective was to seed a multi-stakeholder ecosystem to enable the scalable exploitation of the EHR4CR platform in Europe, and to assess its economic sustainability...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919355/model-observational-bridging-study-on-the-effectiveness-of-ezetimibe-on-cardiovascular-morbidity-and-mortality-in-france-a-population-based-study
#10
Jean Ferrières, Jean Dallongeville, Michel Rossignol, Jacques Bénichou, J Jaime Caro, Denis Getsios, Luis Hernandez, Lucien Abenhaim, Lamiae Grimaldi-Bensouda
BACKGROUND: To evaluate the real-life impact of ezetimibe on cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality in France. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the number of non-fatal and fatal CV events that could be prevented and corresponding number of patients needed to treat (NNT) with ezetimibe to prevent one CV event over 5 years. METHODS: Non-interventional 48-month follow-up cohort conducted in hypercholesterolemic patients starting on ezetimibe <3 months at study entry, either as monotherapy or combined with statins...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919185/modeling-the-effect-of-succimer-dmsa-dimercaptosuccinic-acid-chelation-therapy-in-patients-poisoned-by-lead
#11
Jan C H van Eijkeren, J Daniël N Olie, Sally M Bradberry, J Allister Vale, Irma de Vries, Harvey J Clewell, Jan Meulenbelt, Claudine C Hunault
CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model...
December 5, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918892/the-effects-of-muscle-weakness-on-degenerative-spondylolisthesis-a-finite-element-study
#12
Rui Zhu, Wen-Xin Niu, Zhi-Li Zeng, Jian-Hua Tong, Zhi-Wei Zhen, Shuang Zhou, Yan Yu, Li-Ming Cheng
BACKGROUND: Whether muscle weakness is a cause, or result, of degenerative spondylolisthesis is not currently well understood. Little biomechanical evidence is available to offer an explanation for the mechanism behind exercise therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the effects of back muscle weakness on degenerative spondylolisthesis and to tease out the biomechanical mechanism of exercise therapy. METHODS: A nonlinear 3-D finite element model of L3-L5 was constructed...
November 26, 2016: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918612/generalized-semiparametric-varying-coefficient-model-for-longitudinal-data-with-applications-to-adaptive-treatment-randomizations
#13
Li Qi, Yanqing Sun, Peter B Gilbert
This article investigates a generalized semiparametric varying-coefficient model for longitudinal data that can flexibly model three types of covariate effects: time-constant effects, time-varying effects, and covariate-varying effects. Different link functions can be selected to provide a rich family of models for longitudinal data. The model assumes that the time-varying effects are unspecified functions of time and the covariate-varying effects are parametric functions of an exposure variable specified up to a finite number of unknown parameters...
December 5, 2016: Biometrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918346/electrical-stimulation-for-seizure-induction-and-functional-mapping-in-stereoelectroencephalography
#14
Agnès Trébuchon, Patrick Chauvel
The challenge in epilepsy surgery is to remove the epileptogenic zone without compromising postoperative function. Electrical stimulation (ES) was developed to identify with greater anatomical and physiological precision cortical structures essential to language and motor function. Because the language network is widely distributed in the left (dominant) hemisphere, and often varies among patients, brain mapping should delineate eloquent areas at the individual level. Although ES for language is commonly performed during a presurgical investigation, the procedure remains nonstandardized among centers, and differences between grids and intracerebral depth electrodes (stereoelectroencephalography) should be taken into account when comparing results from different series...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917685/phosphodiesterase-10-inhibitors-in-clinical-development-for-cns-disorders
#15
Hugo Geerts, Athan Spiros, Patrick Roberts
Phosphodiesterase 10 inhibitors (PDE10-I), are conceptually attractive drugs with a potential great therapeutic window as their enriched striatal localization may likely stimulate D1R and reduce D2R downstream effects. However, so far selective PDE10-I with efficacy in animal models have not shown benefit in clinical trials and unexpectedly revealed a substantial dyskinesia motor side-effect. Areas covered: This paper reviews the underlying biological rationale of PDE10 as a target in schizophrenia, Parkinson's and Huntington's disease based on peer-reviewed published articles, the status of the different PDE10-I in clinical development for various CNS indications and explores possible reasons for the clinical trial failures and translational disconnect...
December 3, 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917529/accuracy-precision-and-reproducibility-of-myocardial-t1-mapping-a-comparison-of-four-t1-estimation-algorithms-for-modified-look-locker-inversion-recovery-molli
#16
Jiaxin Shao, Dapeng Liu, Kyunghyun Sung, Kim-Lien Nguyen, Peng Hu
PURPOSE: To compare the accuracy and precision of four different T1 estimation algorithms for modified Look-Locker inversion recovery (MOLLI). METHODS: Four T1 estimation algorithms, including the original fit, inversion group (IG) fit, instantaneous signal loss simulation (InSiL), and Bloch equation simulation with slice profile correction (BLESSPC) were studied. T1 estimation accuracy, precision, reproducibility, and sensitivity to heart rate (HR), flip angle (FA), and acquisition scheme (AcS) variations were compared in simulation, phantom, and volunteer studies...
December 4, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917386/transmission-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-during-the-incubation-period-in-pigs
#17
Carolina Stenfeldt, Juan M Pacheco, Barbara P Brito, Karla I Moreno-Torres, Matt A Branan, Amy H Delgado, Luis L Rodriguez, Jonathan Arzt
Understanding the quantitative characteristics of a pathogen's capability to transmit during distinct phases of infection is important to enable accurate predictions of the spread and impact of a disease outbreak. In the current investigation, the potential for transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) during the incubation (preclinical) period of infection was investigated in seven groups of pigs that were sequentially exposed to a group of donor pigs that were infected by simulated-natural inoculation...
2016: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917367/the-role-of-interaction-model-in-simulation-of-drug-interactions-and-qt-prolongation
#18
REVIEW
Barbara Wiśniowska, Sebastian Polak
Computational modelling is a cornerstone of Comprehensive In Vitro Proarrhythmia Assay and is re-increasingly being used in drug development. Electrophysiological effects of drug-drug interactions can be predicted in silico, e.g. with the use of in vitro cardiac ion channel data, PK profiles and human ventricular cardiomyocyte models. There are, however, several approaches with different assumptions used to assess the combined effect of multiple drugs, and there is no agreed standard interaction model. The aim of this study was to assess whether the choice of the drug-drug interaction (DDI) model (Bliss independence, Loewe additivity, or simple sum) influences the results of QT interval simulation trial...
2016: Current Pharmacology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917312/a-4d-ct-digital-phantom-of-an-individual-human-brain-for-perfusion-analysis
#19
Rashindra Manniesing, Christoph Brune, Bram van Ginneken, Mathias Prokop
Brain perfusion is of key importance to assess brain function. Modern CT scanners can acquire perfusion maps of the cerebral parenchyma in vivo at submillimeter resolution. These perfusion maps give insights into the hemodynamics of the cerebral parenchyma and are critical for example for treatment decisions in acute stroke. However, the relations between acquisition parameters, tissue attenuation curves, and perfusion values are still poorly understood and cannot be unraveled by studies involving humans because of ethical concerns...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916341/hospital-influenza-pandemic-stockpiling-needs-a-computer-simulation
#20
Mark N Abramovich, John C Hershey, Byron Callies, Amesh A Adalja, Pritish K Tosh, Eric S Toner
BACKGROUND: A severe influenza pandemic could overwhelm hospitals but planning guidance that accounts for the dynamic interrelationships between planning elements is lacking. We developed a methodology to calculate pandemic supply needs based on operational considerations in hospitals and then tested the methodology at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN. METHODS: We upgraded a previously designed computer modeling tool and input carefully researched resource data from the hospital to run 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations using various combinations of variables to determine resource needs across a spectrum of scenarios...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Infection Control
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