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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737583/callosal-injury-induced-working-memory-impairment-a-computational-network-modeling-study
#1
Jianxia Cui, Laurel J Ng, Vladislav Volman
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) often results in working memory (WM) impairment, but the mechanistic relationship between the two remains elusive. We used a computational model of two cortical neuronal networks linked by myelinated callosal axons with distance-dependent conduction delays to simulate callosal dysfunction in mTBI and quantify its impact on WM. WM maintenance and termination in the model network depended on short-term synaptic plasticity. In injured networks, WM duration depended on the extent of callosal injury, consistent with clinical data...
July 21, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736930/technical-note-mobile-accelerator-guidance-using-an-optical-tracker-during-docking-in-ioert-procedures
#2
Eugenio Marinetto, Juan González Victores, Mónica García-Sevilla, Mercedes Muñoz, Felipe Ángel Calvo, Carlos Balaguer, Manuel Desco, Javier Pascau
PURPOSE: Intraoperative electron radiation therapy (IOERT) involves the delivery of a high radiation dose during tumor resection in a shorter time than other radiation techniques, thus improving local control of tumors. However, a linear accelerator device is needed to produce the beam safely. Mobile linear accelerators have been designed as dedicated units that can be moved into the operating room and deliver radiation in situ. Correct and safe dose delivery is a key concern when using mobile accelerators...
July 24, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736356/finite-element-analysis-of-influence-of-axial-position-of-center-of-rotation-of-a-cervical-total-disc-replacement-on-biomechanical-parameters-simulated-two-level-replacement-based-on-a-validated-model
#3
Yang Li, Zhenjun Zhang, Zhenhua Liao, Zhongjun Mo, Weiqiang Liu
Finite element (FE) models have been widely used to predict biomechanical parameters of the cervical spine. Previous studies investigated the influence of position of rotational centers (RCs) of prostheses on the cervical biomechanical parameters after one-level total disc replacement (TDR). The purpose of this study was to make a further step by exploring the effects of axial position of RCs of prostheses on the cervical biomechanics after 2-level TDR. A validated FE model of C3-C7 segments and 2 prostheses, including the RC located at the superior endplate (SE) and inferior endplate (IE), was developed...
July 20, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736125/minimally-invasive-treatment-of-displaced-femoral-shaft-fractures-with-a-teleoperated-robot-assisted-surgical-system
#4
Qing Zhu, Bin Liang, Xingsong Wang, Xiaogang Sun, Liming Wang
BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive surgical operation of intramedullary (IM) nailing is a standard technique for treating diaphyseal fractures. However, in addition to its advantages, there are some drawbacks such as the frequent occurrence of malalignment, physical fatigue and high radiation exposure to medical staff. The use of robotic and navigation techniques is promising treatments for femoral fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This paper presents a novel robot-assisted manipulator for femoral shaft fracture reduction with indirect contact with the femur...
July 12, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734644/postmastectomy-radiation-therapy-technique-and-cardiopulmonary-sparing-a-dosimetric-comparative-analysis-between-photons-and-protons-with-free-breathing-versus-deep-inspiration-breath-hold
#5
Sagar A Patel, Hsiao-Ming Lu, Jacqueline A Nyamwanda, Rachel B Jimenez, Alphonse G Taghian, Shannon M MacDonald, Nicolas Depauw
PURPOSE: Dosimetric studies have suggested greater cardiopulmonary sparing with protons over photons for left-sided postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Modern techniques such as deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) can help spare the heart. This analysis compares photon and proton delivery with and without DIBH. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Ten women with left breast cancer referred for PMRT on a prospective clinical trial with unfavorable cardiac anatomy underwent free breathing (FB) and DIBH computed tomography simulation...
June 21, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734489/the-mediating-effect-of-self-reflection-and-learning-effectiveness-on-clinical-nursing-performance-in-nursing-students-a-follow-up-study
#6
Hsiang-Chu Pai, Hui-Ling Ko, Cheng-Joo Eng, Wen-Jiuan Yen
The effectiveness of simulation learning and the effects of anxiety in the simulated situation have been understudied. In addition, research on the association between learning effectiveness and students' clinical care performance in the hospital setting is very limited in Taiwan. The aim of this study is to examine the mediating effect of self-reflection and simulation learning effectiveness on the clinical nursing performance of nursing students. A Prospective, longitudinal, and correlational design was used...
July 2017: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733016/interaction-between-cavitation-microbubble-and-cell-a-simulation-of-sonoporation-using-boundary-element-method-bem
#7
Xiasheng Guo, Chenliang Cai, Guangyao Xu, Yanye Yang, Juan Tu, PinTong Huang, Dong Zhang
Sonoporation has been widely accepted as a significant tool for gene delivery as well as some bio-effects like hemolysis, bringing in high demands of looking into its underlying mechanism. A two-dimensional (2D) boundary element method (BEM) model was developed to investigate microbubble-cell interaction, especially the morphological and mechanical characteristics around the close-to-bubble point (CP) on cell membrane. Based on time evolution analysis of sonoporation, detailed information was extracted from the model for analysis, including volume expansion ratio of the bubble, areal expansion ratio of the cell, jet velocity and CP displacement...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732948/real-time-monitoring-of-controllable-cavitation-erosion-in-a-vessel-phantom-with-passive-acoustic-mapping
#8
Shukuan Lu, Aiwei Shi, Bowen Jing, Xuan Du, Mingxi Wan
Cavitation erosion in blood vessel plays an important role in ultrasound thrombolysis, drug delivery, and other clinical applications. The controllable superficial vessel erosion based on ultrasonic standing wave (USW) has been used to effectively prevent vessel ruptures and haemorrhages, and optical method is used to observe the experiments. But optical method can only work in transparent media. Compared with standard B-mode imaging, passive acoustic mapping (PAM) can monitor erosion in real time and has better sensitivity of cavitation detection...
November 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732525/effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-embedded-simulation-in-occupational-therapy-clinical-practice-education-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#9
Christine Imms, Eli Mang Yee Chu, Stephen Guinea, Loretta Sheppard, Elspeth Froude, Rob Carter, Susan Darzins, Samantha Ashby, Susan Gilbert-Hunt, Nigel Gribble, Kelli Nicola-Richmond, Merrolee Penman, Elena Gospodarevskaya, Erin Mathieu, Mark Symmons
BACKGROUND: Clinical placements are a critical component of the training for health professionals such as occupational therapists. However, with growing student enrolments in professional education courses and workload pressures on practitioners, it is increasingly difficult to find sufficient, suitable placements that satisfy program accreditation requirements. The professional accrediting body for occupational therapy in Australia allows up to 200 of the mandatory 1000 clinical placement hours to be completed via simulation activities, but evidence of effectiveness and efficiency for student learning outcomes is lacking...
July 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732149/beware-of-the-origin-of-numbers-standard-scoring-of-the-sf-12-and-sf-36-summary-measures-distorts-measurement-and-score-interpretations
#10
Peter Hagell, Albert Westergren, Kristofer Årestedt
The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) is a generic health rating scale developed to reproduce the Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS, respectively) of a longer survey, the SF-36. The standard PCS/MCS scoring algorithm has been criticized because its expected dimensionality often lacks empirical support, scoring is based on the assumption that physical and mental health are uncorrelated, and because scores on physical health items influence MCS scores, and vice versa. In this paper, we review the standard PCS/MCS scoring algorithm for the SF-12 and consider alternative scoring procedures: the RAND-12 Health Status Inventory (HSI) and raw sum scores...
August 2017: Research in Nursing & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730782/human-glioma-cells-conditioned-medium-promotes-proliferation-and-migration-of-human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-in-vitro
#11
Rusen Zhu, Xinggui Chen, Jinghong Li, Liubo Lan
PURPOSE: To investigate changes in cell proliferation and migration of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in glioma environment, in order to assess the tumorigenic risk of hMSCs in the clinical application to treat human gliomas. METHODS: hMSCs were obtained from normal adult persons and identified by their morphological characteristics and test of their stemness. The U251 glioma cell-conditioned medium (U251-CM) was obtained to simulate the human glioma environment in vitro...
May 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728997/sepsis-reconsidered-identifying-novel-metrics-for-behavioral-landscape-characterization-with-a-high-performance-computing-implementation-of-an-agent-based-model
#12
Chase Cockrell, Gary An
OBJECTIVES: Sepsis affects nearly 1 million people in the United States per year, has a mortality rate of 28-50% and requires more than $20 billion a year in hospital costs. Over a quarter century of research has not yielded a single reliable diagnostic test or a directed therapeutic agent for sepsis. Central to this insufficiency is the fact that sepsis remains a clinical/physiological diagnosis representing a multitude of molecularly heterogeneous pathological trajectories. Advances in computational capabilities offered by High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms call for an evolution in the investigation of sepsis to attempt to define the boundaries of traditional research (bench, clinical and computational) through the use of computational proxy models...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728865/mass-spring-models-for-the-simulation-of-mitral-valve-function-looking-for-a-trade-off-between-reliability-and-time-efficiency
#13
O A Pappalardo, F Sturla, F Onorati, G Puppini, M Selmi, G B Luciani, G Faggian, A Redaelli, E Votta
Patient-specific finite element (FE) models can assess the impact of mitral valve (MV) repair on the complex MV anatomy and function. However, FE excessive time requirements hamper their use for surgical planning; mass-spring models (MSMs) represent a more approximate approach but can provide almost real-time simulations. On this basis, we implemented MSMs of three healthy MVs from cardiac magnetic resonance (cMR) imaging to simulate the systolic MV closure, including the in vivo papillary muscles and annular kinematics, and the anisotropic and non-linear mechanical response of MV tissues...
July 17, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728780/detecting-regional-stiffness-changes-in-aortic-aneurysmal-geometries-using-pressure-normalized-strain
#14
Doran S Mix, Ling Yang, Camille C Johnson, Nathan Couper, Ben Zarras, Isaac Arabadjis, Lauren E Trakimas, Michael C Stoner, Steven W Day, Michael S Richards
Transabdominal ultrasound elasticity imaging could improve the assessment of rupture risk for abdominal aortic aneurysms by providing information on the mechanical properties and stress or strain states of vessel walls. We implemented a non-rigid image registration method to visualize the pressure-normalized strain within vascular tissues and adapted it to measure total strain over an entire cardiac cycle. We validated the algorithm's performance with both simulated ultrasound images with known principal strains and anatomically accurate heterogeneous polyvinyl alcohol cryogel vessel phantoms...
July 17, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728594/implementing-the-efftox-dose-finding-design-in-the-matchpoint-trial
#15
Kristian Brock, Lucinda Billingham, Mhairi Copland, Shamyla Siddique, Mirjana Sirovica, Christina Yap
BACKGROUND: The Matchpoint trial aims to identify the optimal dose of ponatinib to give with conventional chemotherapy consisting of fludarabine, cytarabine and idarubicin to chronic myeloid leukaemia patients in blastic transformation phase. The dose should be both tolerable and efficacious. This paper describes our experience implementing EffTox in the Matchpoint trial. METHODS: EffTox is a Bayesian adaptive dose-finding trial design that jointly scrutinises binary efficacy and toxicity outcomes...
July 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728559/effect-of-insulin-therapy-and-dietary-adjustments-on-safety-and-performance-during-simulated-soccer-tests-in-people-with-type-1-diabetes-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Javier Calvo-Marín, Gabriel Torrealba-Acosta, Matthew Campbell, Jesse Gaboury, Ajmol Ali, Chih Hao Chen-Ku
BACKGROUND: Despite the reduction in glycemic derangement in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) through dietary and therapeutic adjustments implemented before, during and after continuous exercise, evidence for its effectiveness with intermittent forms of exercise, such as soccer, is still lacking. METHODS/DESIGN: We designed a study protocol for a randomized, crossover, double-blinded, controlled trial, for the evaluation of the effect that a strategy of dietary and therapeutic modifications may have on safety and performance of persons with T1D in soccer training sessions and cognitive testing...
July 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728442/an-integrated-platform-for-small-animal-hyperthermia-investigations-under-ultra-high-field-mri-guidance
#17
Sergio Curto, Pegah Faridi, Tej B Shrestha, Marla Pyle, Leila Maurmann, Deryl Troyer, Stefan H Bossmann, Punit Prakash
PURPOSE: Integrating small-animal experimental hyperthermia instrumentation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) affords real-time monitoring of spatial temperature profiles. This study reports on the development and preliminary in vivo characterisation of a 2.45 GHz microwave hyperthermia system for pre-clinical small animal investigations, integrated within a 14 T ultra-high-field MRI scanner. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The presented system incorporates a 3.5 mm (OD) directional microwave hyperthermia antenna, positioned adjacent to the small-animal target, radiating microwave energy for localised heating of subcutaneous tumours...
July 21, 2017: International Journal of Hyperthermia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728434/economic-model-predictive-control-of-bihormonal-artificial-pancreas-system-based-on-switching-control-and-dynamic-r-parameter
#18
Fengna Tang, Youqing Wang
BACKGROUND: Blood glucose (BG) regulation is a long-term task for people with diabetes. In recent years, more and more researchers have attempted to achieve automated regulation of BG using automatic control algorithms, called the artificial pancreas (AP) system. In clinical practice, it is equally important to guarantee the treatment effect and reduce the treatment costs. The main motivation of this study is to reduce the cure burden. METHODS: The dynamic R-parameter economic model predictive control (R-EMPC) is chosen to regulate the delivery rates of exogenous hormones (insulin and glucagon)...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727944/computer-based-case-simulations-for-assessment-in-health-care-a-literature-review-of-validity-evidence
#19
Robyn C Ward, Timothy J Muckle, Michael J Kremer, Mary Anne Krogh
Simulation for education and training in health-care professions has been widely applied. However, its value as an assessment tool for competence is not fully known. Logistical barriers of simulation-based assessments have led some health-care organizations to utilize computer-based case simulations (CCSs) for assessment. This article provides a review of the literature on the identification of psychometrically sound, CCS instruments designed to measure decision-making competence in health-care professionals...
January 1, 2017: Evaluation & the Health Professions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727637/evaluation-and-student-perceptions-of-an-ob-boot-camp-simulation-for-undergraduate-nursing-students-a-mixed-method-approach
#20
Cynthia S Crews, Lisa C Minor
Obstetrical nursing offers unique challenges as a specialty clinical area as the process of birth and the nature of the setting are unpredictable. Traditional undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students may not have experience with maternal/newborn care. An eight-hour OB Boot Camp was developed to prepare students for their first obstetrical clinical rotation. An explanatory sequential mixed-method research study was used to explore student perceptions and evaluate the experience. On the basis of the results of this research study, the OB Boot Camp was a valuable instructional method to prepare students for obstetrical clinical rotations and coursework...
July 19, 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
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