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Laura Palmer, Gursimran Thandi, Sam Norton, Margaret Jones, Nicola T Fear, Simon Wessely, Roberto J Rona
The aim of this study was to examine trajectories of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms over a 14-year period and the risk factors associated with each trajectory. 1885 UK military personnel provided information at four time points since 2002. The PTSD Check list-Civilian Version (PCL-C) was used at all time points. Growth mixture models (GMM) were estimated to examine whether individuals could be clustered into discrete groups with similar trajectories. Multinomial logistic regressions were carried out to investigate factors associated with class membership...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Oscar F Garcia, Olatz Lopez-Fernandez, Emilia Serra
Families can play an essential role in preventing violent and antisocial behaviors, which are considered a significant public health issue. However, some studies argue that most children are antisocial only during adolescence, and even teenagers can mimic antisocial behavior in ways that are normative and well-adjusted. This study analyzed patterns of competence and adjustment in young adults with and without an antisocial tendency during adolescence from authoritative (characterized by warmth and strictness), authoritarian (strictness but not warmth), indulgent (warmth but not strictness), and neglectful (neither warmth nor strictness) families...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Irwin D Waldman, Richard Rowe, Khrista Boylan, Jeffrey D Burke
Dimensions of irritability and defiant behavior, though correlated within the structure of ODD, convey separable developmental risks through adolescence and adulthood. Irritability predicts depression and anxiety, whereas defiant behavior is a precursor to antisocial outcomes. Previously we demonstrated that a bifactor model comprising irritability and defiant behavior dimensions, in addition to a general factor, provided the best-fitting structure of ODD symptoms in five large datasets. Herein we extend our previous work by externally validating the bifactor model of ODD using multiple regression and multivariate behavior genetic analyses...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Tom Rosenström, Nikolai Olavi Czajkowski, Eivind Ystrom, Robert F Krueger, Steven H Aggen, Nathan A Gillespie, Espen Eilertsen, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Fartein Ask Torvik
A statistical mediation model was developed within a twin design to investigate the etiology of alcohol use disorder (AUD). Unlike conventional statistical mediation models, this biometric mediation model can detect unobserved confounding. Using a sample of 1410 pairs of Norwegian twins, we investigated specific hypotheses that DSM-IV personality-disorder (PD) traits mediate effects of childhood stressful life events (SLEs) on AUD, and that adulthood SLEs mediate effects of PDs on AUD. Models including borderline PD traits indicated unobserved confounding in phenotypic path coefficients, whereas models including antisocial and impulsive traits did not...
December 7, 2018: Behavior Genetics
Arpit Parmar, Gaurishanker Kaloiya
Comorbidity of personality disorders (PDs) and substance use disorders (SUDs) is common in clinical practice. Borderline PD and antisocial PD are particularly found to be associated with SUDs. Our review suggests that the overall prevalence of PD ranges from 10% to 14.8% in the normal population and from 34.8% to 73.0% in patients treated for addictions. Even though the types of PD seen in patients with drug and alcohol use disorder are similar, the prevalence of any PD is higher among patients with drug use disorder than alcohol use disorder...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Brooke L Slawinski, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt
BACKGROUND: Prior work has indicated both theoretical and empirical overlap between social and physical aggression. The extent to which their covariance can be explained by the same underlying genetic or environmental factors, however, remains unclear. It is also uncertain whether or how the origins of their covariance might vary across sex. The current study sought to fill these gaps in the literature. METHODS: We examined maternal and teacher reports of youth physical and social aggression in over 1000 6-10 years old (mean age = 8...
December 11, 2018: Psychological Medicine
(no author information available yet)
The American Psychological Association Award for Distinguished Scientific Applications of Psychology is presented to a person who, in the opinion of the Committee on Scientific Awards, has made distinguished theoretical or empirical advances leading to the understanding or amelioration of important practical problems. Kenneth A. Dodge is the recipient of the 2018 award "for his achievements in connecting public policy and psychology and in building on models of antisocial behavioral development to create effective intervention programs...
December 2018: American Psychologist
Koen van Lith, Dick Johan Veltman, Moran Daniel Cohn, Louise Else Pape, Marieke Eleonora van den Akker-Nijdam, Amanda Wilhelmina Geertruida van Loon, Pierre Bet, Guido Alexander van Wingen, Wim van den Brink, Theo Doreleijers, Arne Popma
OBJECTIVE: Although the neural underpinnings of antisocial behavior have been studied extensively, research on pharmacologic interventions targeting specific neural mechanisms remains sparse. Hypoactivity of the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) has been reported in antisocial adolescents, which could account for deficits in fear learning (amygdala) and impairments in decision making (vmPFC), respectively. Limited clinical research suggests positive effects of methylphenidate, a dopamine agonist, on antisocial behavior in adolescents...
December 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Nicholas D Thomson, Kent A Kiehl, James M Bjork
Psychopathy is one of the most researched risk factors for violence. Yet, research in women is sparse. The present study aimed to test if the link between the four-facet structure of psychopathy and interpersonal violence and aggression was moderated by neurobiological function (indexed by resting respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Results showed the lifestyle and affective facets were associated with reactive aggression and these associations were moderated by low resting RSA. The interpersonal, affective, and antisocial facets were associated with proactive aggression but no moderation effect was found...
December 3, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ali Al-Yaaribi, Maria Kavussanu, Christopher Ring
The purpose of this experiment was to investigate whether prosocial and antisocial teammate behaviors affect emotions (i.e., happiness, anxiety, anger), attention, and performance. Undergraduate sport and exercise science students (N = 102) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: prosocial behavior, antisocial behavior, and control. They performed a basketball free-throw shooting task for 2 min in baseline and experimental phases and completed measures of emotions and attention. Free-throw shooting performance was also recorded...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Dorothee Maria Gescher, Kai G Kahl, Thomas Hillemacher, Helge Frieling, Jens Kuhn, Thomas Frodl
Objective: Epigenetic mechanisms have been described in several mental disorders, such as mood disorders, anxiety disorders and schizophrenia. However, less is known about the influence of epigenetic mechanisms with regard to personality disorders (PD). Therefore, we conducted a literature review on existing original data with regards to epigenetic peculiarities in connection with personality disorders. Methods: Systematic literature review using PRISMA guidelines. Search was performed via NCBI PubMed by keywords and their combinations...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Maryann Davis, Ashli J Sheidow, Michael R McCart, Rachael T Perrault
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine whether vocational supports for emerging adults with serious mental health conditions who are at high risk for rearrest are more effectively served within Multisystemic Therapy for Emerging Adults (MST-EA) through vocationally enhanced MST-EA Coaches or through referral to state vocational rehabilitation services. METHOD: A pilot randomized controlled trial examined two MST-EA Coaching approaches. In the Standard Coach + VR condition (n = 16), MST-EA Coaches delivered standard skills curricula to participants and referred them to state vocational rehabilitation (VR) services for vocational supports...
December 2018: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
Scott Tillem, Grace Brennan, Jia Wu, Linda Mayes, Arielle Baskin-Sommers
Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with callous, impulsive, and antisocial behaviors. Decades of research indicate that individuals higher on psychopathy exhibit abnormal allocation of attention during goal pursuit. However, the manner in which attention is allocated to goal-relevant information and the downstream neurocognitive consequences of this attention abnormality remain unclear. The present study addresses this gap by examining the relationship between psychopathy and the allocation of attention during an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based continuous performance task in a sample of 61 adolescents and young adults...
December 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Daniel T Burley, Nicola S Gray, Robert J Snowden
Psychopathy is a form of personality disorder associated with a deficit in emotional processing. However, there is debate whether this deficit applies to all emotions or exists only for negative emotions. The pupil dilates rapidly in response to emotional stimuli, allowing a time-sensitive index of emotional processing. Across 3 experiments using (a) visual images of real-world scenes, (b) auditory sound clips, and (c) videos of dynamic facial expressions, we measured emotional modulation of the pupil response to both negative and positive stimuli...
December 3, 2018: Personality Disorders
Anna Krasnova, William W Eaton, Jack F Samuels
PURPOSE: Little is known about the effect of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) on the risks of cause-specific mortality in the community. This study aimed to close this gap by evaluating if ASPD increases risks of cause-specific mortality in population-based residential and institutionalized samples with 27 years of follow-up. METHODS: Data were collected in four metropolitan sites as part of the Epidemiologic Catchment Area (ECA) study during 1979-1983. Records were linked to the National Death Index through the end of 2007...
December 1, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
Alan E Kazdin, Adam Glick, Jennifer Pope, Ted J Kaptchuk, Bernadette Lecza, Erin Carrubba, Emily McWhinney, Natasha Hamilton
Background/Objective: The study evaluated two variations of Parent Management Training (PMT) for children referred to treatment for oppositional, aggressive, and antisocial behavior. The goal was to evaluate the impact of multiple enhancements to optimize common and placebo factors to augment therapeutic change. Method: The families of all children ( N =138, 39 girls and 99 boys, ages 6-13) received PMT. One half of the families were assigned to receive an enhanced version with multiple additions designed to increase bonding of the parent to the therapist, professionalism of treatment and setting, credibility of the intervention, and expectancies for therapeutic change...
May 2018: International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology: IJCHP
Erin T Kelly, Justen B Whittall, Janice S Edgerly
The names of two cryptic species of Haploembia found in California are resolved and methods for identification are summarized. Molecular data of the Histone III subunit was used to evaluate color and behavior as species identifiers, confirming that antisocial behavior is a good identifier for the parthenogenetic species (Haploembia tarsalis), whereas the more variable coloration patterns were helpful, but less so. A genome size ratio of 1.44 between the parthenogenetic H. tarsalis and the sexually reproducing H...
October 24, 2018: Zootaxa
Andrew C Hale, Jessica L Rodriguez, Theodore P Wright, Scott A Driesenga, C Richard Spates
OBJECTIVE: Cognitive processing therapy is an evidence-based treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, questions remain regarding variability in treatment response. METHOD: A total of 123 veterans participated in group-based cognitive processing therapy (CPT) in residential PTSD treatment. Change over time in PTSD symptoms was modeled as a function of selected demographic and clinical variables. RESULTS: PTSD checklist (PCL) scores decreased by an average of 1 point per session (standard deviation [SD] = 0...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychology
Stefania A Barzeva, Wim H J Meeus, Albertine J Oldehinkel
Social withdrawal during adolescence and early adulthood is particularly problematic due to the increasing importance of social interactions during these ages. Yet little is known about the changes, trajectories, or correlates of being withdrawn during this transition to adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine the normative change and distinct trajectories of withdrawal in order to identify adolescents and early adults at greatest risk for maladjustment. Participants were from a Dutch population-based cohort study (Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey), including 1917 adolescents who were assessed at four waves from the age of 16 to 25 years...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Adrian Raine
The neuromoral theory of antisocial behaviors argues that impairment to the neural circuitry underlying morality provides a common foundation for antisocial, violent, and psychopathic behavior in children, adolescents, and adults. This article reviews new findings in two research fields since this theory was first proposed: brain mechanisms underlying moral decision-making, and brain systems subserving antisocial behaviors. The neuromoral theory is updated to take into account new empirical findings. Key areas implicated in both moral decision-making and the spectrum of antisocial behaviors include fronto-polar, medial, and ventral prefrontal cortical regions, and the anterior cingulate, amygdala, superior temporal gyrus, and angular gyrus / temporoparietal junction...
November 14, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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