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Carlos Blanco, Melanie M Wall, Wilson M Compton, Shoshana Kahana, Tianshu Feng, Tulshi Saha, Jennifer C Elliott, H Irene Hall, Bridget F Grant
We used the 2012-2013 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions III (NESARC-III), a nationally representative sample of US adults (n = 34,653), to estimate the prevalence and correlates of HIV testing and HIV status. The diagnostic interview used was the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-5 Version. We found that in 2012-2013, the prevalence of a history of HIV testing was 53.0% among females and 47.0% among males. Among individuals tested, the prevalence of HIV was 1...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Athanasios Apostolopoulos, Ioannis Michopoulos, Ioannis Zachos, Emmanouil Rizos, Georgios Tzeferakos, Vasiliki Manthou, Charalambos Papageorgiou, Athanasios Douzenis
Background: Personality disorders (PDs) have been associated with both violent crimes and homicides in many studies. The proportion of PDs among prisoners reaches up to 80%. For male prisoners, the most common PD in the literature is antisocial PD. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between PDs and violent crimes/homicides of male prisoners in Greece. Methods: A sample of 308 subjects was randomly selected from a population of 1300 male prisoners incarcerated in two Greek prisons, one urban and one rural...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
A Apostolopoulos, I Michopoulos, E Rizos, V Manthou, G Tzeferakos, G Kalemi, Ch Papageorgiou, A Douzenis
Previous literature shows an association between several psychosocial factors or life events in general and delinquency. Factors such as gender, cannabis and drugs use are firmly connected to delinquency. Similarly, interpersonal violent behavior appears to be more frequent in people with lower socioeconomic status and people with lower education. The association of these factors with the violent or non-violent crimes, especially in Greek research literature, is very limited. The present study is an attempt to examine in a Greek prison population the correlation of demographic and psychosocial factors with violent and non-violent crime...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
Katharina Reiter-Scheidl, Ilona Papousek, Helmut K Lackner, Manuela Paechter, Elisabeth M Weiss, Nilüfer Aydin
The experience of social exclusion may provoke prosocial, avoidant, or antisocial (aggressive) behaviors. Multiple situational and personal factors seem to affect which course of action people adopt, and to which degree. The present study examined the relevance of the most spontaneous initiation of more passive, avoidant (disengagement) or action-oriented (engagement) coping immediately following a social exclusion experience to subsequent aggressive behavior. In a sample of n = 85 healthy female students, an ostensible discussion group excluded (versus included) the participant on the basis of her personal traits and preferences...
August 9, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Madeleine Stevens
BACKGROUND: Many childhood risk factors are known to be associated with children's future antisocial and criminal behaviour, including children's conduct disorders and family difficulties such as parental substance abuse. Some families are involved with many different services but little is known about what middle childhood factors moderate the risk of poor outcomes. This paper reports the quantitative component of a mixed methods study investigating what factors can be addressed to help families improve children's outcomes in the longer term...
August 10, 2018: BMC Psychology
Graham Reynolds, Cecily Portillo, Mark R Serper
BACKGROUND: This cross-sectional study contrasted chronically hospitalized schizophrenia (SZ) spectrum disorder inpatients to SZ community dwelling patients on measures of psychopathology, social competence, neuropsychological performance and real-world functioning in order to discern factors predictive of patients' residency status and to characterize the contrasting ends of the SZ outcome continuum. METHOD: Subjects included 26 chronic SZ patients hospitalized continuously on average for 12...
August 2, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Andrea Bulbena-Cabre, Anahita Bassir Nia, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the existing literature on gene-environment interactions (G×E) and epigenetic changes primarily in borderline personality disorder (BPD) but also in antisocial, schizotypal, and avoidant personality disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Research supports that susceptibility genes to BPD or its underlying traits may be expressed under certain environmental conditions such as physical or childhood sexual abuse. Epigenetic modifications of neurodevelopment- and stress-related genes are suggested to underlie the relationship between early life adversary and borderline personality disorder...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Richard Border, Robin P Corley, Sandra A Brown, John K Hewitt, Christian J Hopfer, Shannon K McWilliams, Sally Ann Rhea, Christen L Shriver, Michael C Stallings, Tamara L Wall, Kerri E Woodward, Soo Hyun Rhee
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Adolescents with conduct and substance use problems are at increased risk for premature mortality, but the extent to which these risk factors reflect family- or individual-level differences and account for shared or unique variance is unknown. This study examined common and independent contributions to mortality hazard in adolescents ascertained for conduct disorder (CD) and substance use disorder (SUD), their siblings and community controls, hypothesizing that individual differences in CD and SUD severity would explain unique variation in mortality risk beyond that due to clinical/control status and demographic factors...
August 9, 2018: Addiction
Andrew M Parker, Wändi Bruine de Bruin, Baruch Fischhoff, Joshua Weller
Decision-making competence is the ability to follow normative principles when making decisions. In a longitudinal analysis, we examine the robustness of decision-making competence over time, as measured by two batteries of paper-and-pencil tasks. Participants completed the youth version (Y-DMC) at age 19 and/or the adult version (A-DMC) eleven years later at age 30, as part of a larger longitudinal study. Both measures are comprised of tasks adapted from ones used in experimental studies of decision-making skills...
July 2018: Journal of Behavioral Decision Making
Sean M Mitchell, Sarah L Brown, Angelea D Bolaños, Benjamin Rose, Darci Delgado, Robert D Morgan, Susan Velasquez, Kelly C Cukrowicz
Individuals forensically committed to a state hospital are at an increased risk of suicide; however, there is extremely limited research examining suicide risk estimates and risk factors among inpatients deemed not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI). This study aimed to determine (a) rates of suicidal ideation history, suicide attempt history, and current distress due to suicidal ideation, and (b) the associations between psychiatric symptom severity, criminal risk factors, and suicide risk. NGRI inpatients (n = 207) from 2 state hospitals were administered assessments of psychiatric symptom severity and criminal risk factors (i...
August 2018: Psychological Services
Allyson Kelley, Desiree Restad, Jace Killsback
Suicide is the leading cause of injury-related death in the United States, and between 1999 and 2009 the greatest increases in suicide were among American Indians and Alaska Natives. The present study highlights the efforts of 1 American Indian community to prevent suicide using the public health approach as a framework. A survey was developed and administered by the community between March 2014 and July 2014 at various community events. The sample included 100 participants with a mean age of 15.62 years. Questions related to stress, suicide ideation, anxiety, self-esteem, and antisocial behaviors...
August 2018: Psychological Services
Laura Murray, Rebecca Waller, Luke W Hyde
Antisocial Behavior (AB) has a tremendous societal cost, motivating investigation of the mechanisms that cause individuals to engage and persist in AB. Recent theories of AB emphasize the role of reward-related neural processes in the etiology of severe and chronic forms of AB, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, no systematic reviews have evaluated the hypothesis that reward-related neural dysfunction is an etiologic factor in AB in adult samples. Moreover, it is unclear whether AB is linked to a hyper- or hyposensitive reward system and whether AB is related to neural sensitivity to losses...
August 6, 2018: Personality Disorders
Jordan Sparks Waldron, Stephen M Malone, Matt McGue, William G Iacono
OBJECTIVE: The effect of drinking during adolescence on adult functioning is a public health concern. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed where drinking in adolescence has an adverse impact on later outcomes; unfortunately, few studies have included methodologies that account for confounding influences that might link adolescent drinking with subsequent problems. To address this limitation, the current study used a co-twin control design, which uses members of twin pairs that differ from each other on their adolescent drinking...
July 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Christopher J Mehus, Myriam Forster, Gary Chan, Sheryl A Hemphill, John W Toumbourou, Barbara J McMorris
INTRODUCTION: Poor family management and antisocial peer associations are related risk factors for negative outcomes such as adolescent substance misuse and conduct disorders. The relationship between family management and antisocial peer associations is complex. The purpose of this study was to test the reciprocal relationships between youth-reports of poor family management and antisocial peer associations over multiple time-points. METHODS: We used four data points (5th-11th grade) from the Australian arm of the longitudinal International Youth Development Study (IYDS) to test a random-intercepts cross-lagged path model (N = 922)...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Verena Hofmann, Christoph Michael Müller
INTRODUCTION: Prior research has shown that classmates' behavior serves as a descriptive norm for adolescents' individual behavior. While earlier studies primarily focused on negative peer influence, classmates' prosocial behavior might be associated with positive individual development. We hypothesized more classroom-level prosocial behavior predicts a lower likelihood of future antisocial behavior of individual students over and above the effect of classmates' antisocial behavior. We further assumed this effect is mediated by adolescents' attitudes toward antisocial behavior...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Enda Tan, Amori Yee Mikami, J Kiley Hamlin
Recent studies suggest that infants and toddlers evaluate others based on their prosocial and antisocial behaviors and engage in prosocial behaviors themselves. It is unknown to what extent infants' responses in such studies reveal stable individual differences in social and/or moral competence that persist throughout development. The current study (N = 63) demonstrates that infants' performance in sociomoral evaluation and action studies (mean age = 12 months) predicts social and behavioral adjustment at age 4 years...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Dustin A Pardini, Amy L Byrd, Samuel W Hawes, Meagan Docherty
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine whether dispositional interpersonal callousness, negative emotionality, and hyperactivity/impulsivity uniquely influence the development of childhood-onset conduct problems and persistent criminal behavior in males, and to determine whether specific facets of negative emotionality (dysregulated anger versus anxiety) in childhood are differentially associated with the development of chronic antisocial behavior. METHOD: Childhood dispositional features and conduct problems were assessed semiannually using parent- and teacher-report measures across 9 consecutive assessments in a school-based sample of 503 boys (∼7-11 years of age)...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
María A Ramos-Olazagasti, Francisco Xavier Castellanos, Salvatore Mannuzza, Rachel G Klein
OBJECTIVE: Little is known of the factors that influence the course of childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Objectives were to identify early features predictive of the adult outcome of children with ADHD. In the longest prospective follow-up to date of children with ADHD, predictors of multiple functional domains were examined: social, occupational, and overall adjustment and educational and occupational attainment. METHOD: White boys (6-12 years, mean age 8 years) with ADHD (N = 135), selected to be free of conduct disorder, were assessed longitudinally through adulthood (mean age 41) by clinicians blinded to all previous characteristics...
August 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Stéphanie Habersaat, Julie Ramain, Gregory Mantzouranis, Julie Palix, Cyril Boonmann, Jörg M Fegert, Klaus Schmeck, Christian Perler, Marc Schmid, Sébastien Urben
BACKGROUND: Substance-use disorder (SUD) was found to be an aggravating factor to delinquency and is closely related to personality disorders (PDs). OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate sex differences in the relationship between PD traits and SUD in adolescents institutionalized in child welfare and juvenile justice institutions. METHODS: PD traits were measured dimensionally in a sample of 282 boys (69 with an SUD diagnosis) and 143 girls (45 with an SUD diagnosis) from child welfare and juvenile-justice institutions...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
William Hart, Gregory K Tortoriello, Kyle Richardson, Christopher J Breeden
OBJECTIVE: The present research profiled antisocial personality constructs in relation to tactical self-presentation behaviors and various beliefs associated with such tactical behavior. METHOD: An MTurk sample (N = 524; Mage  = 37.89; 61% female) completed indices of the Dark Triad (DT; narcissism, Machiavellianism, psychopathy) and self-reported their use of various self-presentation tactics, their beliefs about the subjective logic for executing the tactics (which encompassed ratings of the tactics' utility, ease of execution, and normativity), and the potential for each tactic to arouse self-recrimination...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Personality
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