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Iro Fragkaki, Maaike Cima, Maaike Verhagen, Dominique F Maciejewski, Marco P Boks, Pol A C van Lier, Hans M Koot, Susan J T Branje, Wim H J Meeus
Although the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is involved in aggression and social affiliation, it has not been examined in gene-environment interaction studies. This longitudinal study examined the effect of genetic variants in OXTR and its gene-environment interaction with perceived deviant peer affiliation in the trajectories of antisocial behavior in 323 adolescents (182 males) from 13 to 18 years. Annual assessments of reactive and proactive aggression, delinquency, and friends' delinquency, as well as DNA at age 17 were collected...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
Nathaniel E Anderson, J Michael Maurer, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Keith A Harenski, Carla L Harenski, Michael R Koenigs, Jean Decety, Kent A Kiehl
BACKGROUND: Psychopathy is a personality disorder associated with severe emotional and interpersonal consequences and persistent antisocial behavior. Neurobiological models of psychopathy emphasize impairments in emotional processing, attention, and integration of information across large-scale neural networks in the brain. One of the largest integrative hubs in the brain is the corpus callosum (CC) - a large white matter structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. METHOD: The current study examines CC volume, measured via Freesurfer parcellation, in a large sample (n = 495) of incarcerated men who were assessed for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R)...
October 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Joseph Murray, Yulia Shenderovich, Frances Gardner, Christopher Mikton, James H Derzon, Jianghong Liu, Manuel Eisner
Violent crime is a major cause of social instability, injury, and death in low- and middle-income countries. Longitudinal studies in high-income countries have provided important evidence on developmental precursors of violence and other antisocial behaviors. However, there may be unique influences or different risk factor effects in other social settings. Extensive searches in seven languages and screening of over 60,000 references identified 39 longitudinal studies of antisocial behavior in low- and middle-income countries...
March 26, 2018: Crime and justice
C Stönner, A Edtbauer, B Derstroff, E Bourtsoukidis, T Klüpfel, J Wicker, J Williams
Humans emit numerous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) through breath and skin. The nature and rate of these emissions are affected by various factors including emotional state. Previous measurements of VOCs and CO2 in a cinema have shown that certain chemicals are reproducibly emitted by audiences reacting to events in a particular film. Using data from films with various age classifications, we have studied the relationship between the emission of multiple VOCs and CO2 and the age classifier (0, 6, 12, and 16) with a view to developing a new chemically based and objective film classification method...
2018: PloS One
Barbara Schulte Holthausen, Ute Habel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to give an overview on the current literature on sex differences in personality disorders and to highlight the potential of dimensional approaches. RECENT FINDINGS: Empirical findings on sex differences in personality disorders are inconsistent and appear to be highly dependent on study settings. Current studies have mainly focused on borderline and antisocial personality disorder and the question whether these are sex-specific representations of a common substrate...
October 11, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Christopher J Trentacosta, Rebecca Waller, Jenae M Neiderhiser, Daniel S Shaw, Misaki N Natsuaki, Jody M Ganiban, David Reiss, Leslie D Leve, Luke W Hyde
Callous-unemotional (CU) behaviors increase children's risk for subsequent antisocial behavior. This risk process may begin in early childhood with reciprocal pathways between CU behaviors and harsh parenting. In a sample of 561 linked triads of biological mothers, adoptive parents, and adopted children, the present study examined bidirectional links between CU behaviors and harsh parenting across three time points from 18 to 54 months and investigated moderation by inherited risk for psychopathic traits. Child CU behaviors and harsh parenting were measured using adoptive mother and adoptive father reports, and biological mothers provided reports of their personality characteristics...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Jessica L Bourdon, Ashlee A Moore, Elizabeth C Long, Kenneth S Kendler, Danielle M Dick
Little research exists into the trends associated with on-campus service utilization for mental health concerns of college students. Rates of broad service utilization exist, but no published study has examined the direct relationship between a range of common mental health symptoms and on-campus service utilization. The aims of the present study are to explore (1) which common mental health concerns are associated with specific on-campus service utilization in undergraduate students and (2) whether endorsement of more mental health concerns will predict a higher number of services utilized...
October 8, 2018: Psychological Services
Rashelle J Musci, Amie F Bettencourt, Jill Rabinowitz, Nicholas S Ialongo, Sharon F Lambert
PURPOSE: Control-related beliefs are defined as beliefs in one's ability to cause an effect in one's environment. With recent increases in violence in some cities, understanding the impact of exposure to violence on these beliefs is important. The present study examined whether witnessing severe community violence during early adolescence was associated with trajectories of control-related beliefs, and whether these trajectories were associated with mental and behavioral health outcomes in early adulthood...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
Colin E Vize, Katherine L Collison, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality is the dominant hierarchical model of personality. Previous work has demonstrated the importance of the FFM domains and facets in understanding a variety of antisocial behaviors ranging from non-violent antisocial behavior to a variety of aggression outcomes. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to quantitatively summarize the empirical work that has examined these relations, as well as update and expand previous work in this area using Bayesian meta-analytic methods...
September 13, 2018: Clinical Psychology Review
Georgina MacArthur, Deborah M Caldwell, James Redmore, Sarah H Watkins, Ruth Kipping, James White, Catherine Chittleborough, Rebecca Langford, Vanessa Er, Raghu Lingam, Keryn Pasch, David Gunnell, Matthew Hickman, Rona Campbell
BACKGROUND: Engagement in multiple risk behaviours can have adverse consequences for health during childhood, during adolescence, and later in life, yet little is known about the impact of different types of interventions that target multiple risk behaviours in children and young people, or the differential impact of universal versus targeted approaches. Findings from systematic reviews have been mixed, and effects of these interventions have not been quantitatively estimated. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of interventions implemented up to 18 years of age for the primary or secondary prevention of multiple risk behaviours among young people...
October 5, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Raimo Palmu, Timo Partonen, Kirsi Suominen, Jyrki Vuola
OBJECTIVE: Impulsiveness is a tendency to act quickly based on a whim without reflection or consideration of consequences. We studied its correlations with burn variables and mental disorders among burn patients. METHODS: Consecutive acute burn patients (N=107) admitted to the Helsinki Burn Center were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV mental disorders (SCID) at baseline and at 6 months. All patients filled out the 30-item Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), the most commonly administered self-report measure and a standard point of reference in research on impulsiveness...
October 1, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Juan J Madrid-Valero, Juan R Ordoñana, Kelly L Klump, S Alexandra Burt
There is a strong relationship between sleep and behavioral problems. These findings are often interpreted via environmental explanations, such that poor sleep directly exacerbates or causes symptoms of aggression and behavior problems. However, there are other possible explanations, such that the genes predicting poor sleep also predict aggression or rule-breaking. The current study sought to elucidate the origin of this relationship. The sample was composed of 1030 twin pairs (426 monozygotic and 604 dizygotic)...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Terrie E Moffitt
Male antisocial behavior is concentrated in the adolescent period of the life course, as documented by the curve of crime over age. This article reviews recent evidence regarding the hypothesis that the age-crime curve conceals two groups with different causes. Life-course persistent males show extreme, pervasive, persistent antisocial behavior from early childhood to adulthood. They are hypothesized to be rare, with pathological risk factors and poor life outcomes. In contrast, adolescence-limited males show similar levels of antisocial behavior but primarily during the adolescent stage of development...
2018: Nature Human Behaviour
Kelly E Moore, Katherine C Milam, Johanna B Folk, June P Tangney
Those involved in the criminal justice system are swiftly identified as "criminals." Receipt of this label may promote self-stigma, a process wherein criminal stereotypes are internalized and produce negative psychological and behavioral consequences. Research has yet to identify which types of offenders are at risk for, or in contrast, protected from, experiencing self-stigma. The current study examines whether risk and protective factors predict multiple components of the self-stigma process (i...
August 2018: Stigma and Health
Jeremy Cheng, Megan E O'Connell, J Stephen Wormith
Recent research expanded theoretical frameworks of criminality to include biosocial perspectives. This article advances the biosocial integration into traditional criminological theories by focusing on the potential contribution of executive function (EF) to Andrews and Bonta's risk-need-responsivity (RNR) model. EF encompasses a collection of abilities critical to adaptive human functioning, many of which seem to underlie criminogenic risk and need factors. Although the assessment of EF can be elusive, research suggests that offenders with antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) experience EF deficits...
September 30, 2018: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
Tonguç Utku Yılmaz, Halil İbrahim Taş, Ezgi Uçar, Cem Cerit, Altay Çelebi, Sertaç Ata Güler, Zafer Utkan
OBJECTIVES: Constipation is the most commonly seen defecation problem and related with several environmental factors. Learning defecation is learned in the childhood anal period in which anal characteristic features appear. Problems in the anal period of childhood may affect not only the characters but also the defecation function. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between constipation and anal characteristic features of participants with functional constipation. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with functional constipation were included in the study according to the ROME III criteria...
September 21, 2018: Turkish Journal of Surgery
Laura Mezquita, Adrian J Bravo, Generós Ortet, Angelina Pilatti, Matthew R Pearson, Manuel I Ibáñez
BACKGROUND: Previous research has identified different, but not mutually exclusive, etiological pathways (i.e., the positive affect regulation pathway, the negative affect regulation pathway and the deviance proneness pathway) to alcohol use and misuse in which personality characteristics play a key role. OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to simultaneously and cross-culturally examine all these personality pathways to alcohol use in a large sample of young adult drinkers (N = 1280) from the US, Argentina, and Spain...
September 18, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Brian M Quigley, Rebecca J Houston, Daniel Antonius, Maria Testa, Kenneth E Leonard
Diagnosis of mental illness (MI) inconsistently predicts aggressive behavior although co-occurrence of substance use appears to increase the frequency of aggression in MI populations. We propose that alcohol use should moderate the relationship between mental disorders marked by deficits in self-control and aggression and victimization. In the present study, alcohol use, physical aggression perpetration, physical aggression victimization, injury and psychiatric symptoms were assessed in a sample of 297 substance use disorder patients (102 women; M age = 38...
September 27, 2018: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
Nirvana Morgan, Giada Del Fabbro
Aims: This study examines common factors associated with recidivism among state patients at a South African forensic psychiatric hospital. More specifically, demographic, clinical and criminological factors of a recidivist group are compared to a non-recidivist group with the intention of understanding to what extent these factors might determine the likelihood of re-offending. Method: A retrospective case file review of 293 inpatients and a random selection of 120 outpatients was conducted...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Jana Volkert, Thorsten-Christian Gablonski, Sven Rabung
BACKGROUND: Personality disorder is a severe health issue. However, the epidemiology of personality disorders is insufficiently described and surveys report very heterogeneous rates.AimsWe aimed to conduct a meta-analysis on the prevalence of personality disorders in adult populations and examine potential moderators that affect heterogeneity. METHOD: We searched PsycINFO, PSYNDEX and Medline for studies that used standardised diagnostics (DSM-IV/-5, ICD-10) to report prevalence rates of personality disorders in community populations in Western countries...
September 28, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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