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intestinal homeostasis

Rose L Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage E Foley, Christina S Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J Olive, Randall J Mrsny, Beth A McCormick
Neutrophil influx into the intestinal lumen is a critical response to infectious agents, but is also associated with severe intestinal damage observed in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. The chemoattractant hepoxilin A3, an eicosanoid secreted from intestinal epithelial cells by the apically restricted efflux pump multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), mediates this neutrophil influx. Information about a possible counterbalance pathway that could signal the lack of or resolution of an apical inflammatory signal, however, has yet to be described...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Di Chen, Rong Xie, Bing Shu, Alan L Landay, Changli Wei, Jochen Reiser, Anna Spagnoli, Alfonso Torquati, Christopher B Forsyth, Ali Keshavarzian, D Rick Sumner
Over the last two decades, it has become increasingly apparent that Wnt signaling plays a critical role in development and adult tissue homeostasis in multiple organs and in the pathogenesis of many diseases. In particular, a crucial role for Wnt signaling in bone development and bone tissue homeostasis has been well recognized. Numerous genome-wide association studies confirmed the importance of Wnt signaling in controlling bone mass. Moreover, ample evidence suggests that Wnt signaling is essential for kidney, intestine, and adipose tissue development and homeostasis...
August 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Mercedes Márquez-Coello, Montserrat Montes-de-Oca Arjona, Clotilde Fernández-Gutiérrez Del Álamo, Cristina Ruiz-Sánchez, José Antonio Girón-González
OBJECTIVE: Analysis of peripheral blood Th17 cells with the ability to home to gut mucosa (CD4+Th17+β7+) during recent or chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. The relationship between HIV load and systemic inflammation markers was studied. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with recent (n=10) or chronic (n=15) untreated HIV infections, 30 treated HIV-infected patients with undetectable HIV load at the time of inclusion and 30 healthy controls were included...
August 12, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Zhiyue Liao, Huabin Cao, Xueyan Dai, Chenghong Xing, Xiongwei Xu, Gaohui Nie, Caiying Zhang
To investigate the toxic effects of Molybdenum (Mo) and Cadmium (Cd) on trace elements in digestive organs of Shaoxing duck (Anas platyrhyncha), 120 Shaoxing ducks were randomly divided into control group and 5 treatment groups which were treated with a commercial diet containing different dosages of Mo and Cd. On the 60th and 120th days, the beak, esophagus, glandular stomach, muscular stomach, small intestine, large intestine and feces were collected to determine contents of Mo, Cd, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), then correlation analysis was performed...
August 8, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
David Bauché, Barbara Joyce-Shaikh, Renu Jain, Jeff Grein, Karin S Ku, Wendy M Blumenschein, Stephanie C Ganal-Vonarburg, Douglas C Wilson, Terrill K McClanahan, Rene de Waal Malefyt, Andrew J Macpherson, Lakshmanan Annamalai, Jennifer H Yearley, Daniel J Cua
Interleukin-22 (IL-22)-producing group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) maintains gut homeostasis but can also promote inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The regulation of ILC3-dependent colitis remains to be elucidated. Here we show that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) prevented ILC3-mediated colitis in an IL-10-independent manner. Treg cells inhibited IL-23 and IL-1β production from intestinal-resident CX3CR1+ macrophages but not CD103+ dendritic cells. Moreover, Treg cells restrained ILC3 production of IL-22 through suppression of CX3CR1+ macrophage production of IL-23 and IL-1β...
August 7, 2018: Immunity
Fabio S Pimenta, Maria Luaces-Regueira, Alyne Mm Ton, Bianca P Campagnaro, Manuel Campos-Toimil, Thiago Mc Pereira, Elisardo C Vasquez
The gut microbiota maintains a complex mutual interaction with different organs of the host. Whereas in normal conditions this natural community of trillions of microorganisms greatly contributes to the human health, gut dysbiosis is related with onset or worsening of diverse chronic systemic diseases. Thus, the reestablishment of gut microbiota homeostasis with consumption of prebiotics and probiotics may be a relevant strategy to prevent or attenuate several cardiovascular and metabolic complications. Among these functional foods, the synbiotic kefir, which is a fermented milk composed of a mixture of bacteria and yeasts, is currently the most used and has attracted the attention of health care professionals...
August 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Hyeseon Cho, Henrique Jaime, Rafael Pires de Oliveira, Byunghyun Kang, Rosanne Spolski, Tina Vaziri, Timothy G Myers, Vishal Thovarai, Zeli Shen, James G Fox, Warren J Leonard, Brian L Kelsall
Despite studies indicating the effects of IL-21 signaling in intestinal inflammation, its roles in intestinal homeostasis and infection are not yet clear. Here, we report potent effects of commensal microbiota on the phenotypic manifestations of IL-21 receptor deficiency. IL-21 is produced highly in the small intestine and appears to be critical for mounting an IgA response against atypical commensals such as segmented filamentous bacteria and Helicobacter, but not to the majority of commensals. In the presence of these atypical commensals, IL-21R-deficient mice exhibit reduced numbers of germinal center and IgA+ B cells and expression of activation-induced cytidine deaminase in Peyer's patches as well as a significant decrease in small intestine IgA+ plasmablasts and plasma cells, leading to higher bacterial burdens and subsequent expansion of Th17 and Treg cells...
August 7, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Lu Wang, Kewei Yu, Xiang Zhang, Shuwen Yu
The myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein in regulation of the innate immunity, functions to regulate immune responses against viral and bacterial infections in the human body. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and interleukin 1 receptors (IL-1R) can recognize microbes or endogenous ligands and then recruit MyD88 to activate the MyD88-dependent pathway, while MyD88 mutation associated with lymphoma development and altered MyD88 signaling also involved in cancer-associated cell intrinsic and extrinsic inflammation progression and carcinogenesis...
August 4, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Colm B Collins, Pamela R Puthoor, Tom T Nguyen, Paul Jedlicka, Jacob E Friedman, Edwin F de Zoeten
Background and Aims: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal inflammatory conditions in part mediated by CD4+ T cells. Anti-inflammatory Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) maintain immune homeostasis and protect against IBD development via multiple mechanisms including cytokine secretion and cell-cell interaction. CCAAT enhancer binding protein-beta (C/EBPβ) is a stress-responsive transcription factor linked with IBD susceptibility. Whole-body C/EBPβ deficiency induces CD4+ T cell-predominant hyperproliferation and we hypothesize that this may be due to impaired Treg function...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Monica Deiana, Gessica Serra, Giulia Corona
Dietary habits have been strongly linked to the maintenance of intestinal epithelium homeostasis, whose alteration may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases and cancer. Polyphenols are among those dietary components suggested to be beneficial for gut health. Within a balanced Mediterranean type diet, a good portion of ingested polyphenols comes from olives and extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Most of them reach the intestine, where they may be directly absorbed or metabolized under absorption...
August 7, 2018: Food & Function
Shin Takayama, Ryutaro Arita, Akiko Kikuchi, Minoru Ohsawa, Soichiro Kaneko, Tadashi Ishii
Frailty is defined as a state of increased vulnerability to poor resolution of homeostasis following stress, which increases the risk of adverse outcomes such as falls, delirium, and disability in the elderly. Recently in Japan, clinical practice guidelines (CPG) have recommended kampo treatment. We conducted a search for reports on Japanese CPG and kampo medicine in the treatment of symptoms in the elderly. The search was performed using the databases PubMed, Ichushi Web, J-Stage, Japan Medical Publishers Association, Medical Information Network Distribution Service, and CPG containing kampo products in Japan; reports from January 1st, 2012 to October 31st, 2017 were reviewed...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Sungjin Kim, Derek Sieburth
The Nrf2 antioxidant transcription factor promotes redox homeostasis in part through reciprocal signaling between neurons and neighboring cells, but the signals involved in inter-tissue signaling in response to Nrf2 activation are not well defined. In C. elegans , activation of SKN-1/Nrf2 in the intestine negatively regulates neuropeptide secretion from motor neurons. Here we show that sphingosine kinase, SPHK-1, functions downstream of SKN-1/Nrf2 in the intestine to regulate neuropeptide secretion from motor neurons during the oxidative stress response in C...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Anna Jovanovich, Jessica Kendrick
Chronic kidney disease mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD) is common in end-stage renal disease and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Mainstays of treatment include decreasing serum phosphorus level toward the normal range with dietary interventions and phosphate binders and treating increased parathyroid hormone levels with activated vitamin D and/or calcimimetics. There is significant variation in serum levels of mineral metabolism markers, intestinal absorption of phosphorus, and therapeutic response among individual patients and subgroups of patients with end-stage renal disease...
July 2018: Seminars in Nephrology
Emily E Hohman, Joanna K Hodges, Meryl E Wastney, Pamela J Lachcik, Chun-Ya Han, Denise Dwyer, Munro Peacock, Paul J Kostenuik, Connie M Weaver
Serum calcium is maintained in a narrow range through regulation of Ca metabolism in the intestine, kidney, and bone. Calcium is incorporated and resorbed from bone during bone remodeling via cellular processes as well as by exchange. Both routes contribute to calcium homeostasis. To assess the magnitude of bone turnover contribution to calcium homeostasis we labeled bone with a Ca tracer and measured Ca release following stimulation or suppression of bone resorption. Young growing male rats (n = 162) were dosed with 45 Ca to label skeletal Ca...
August 2, 2018: Bone
J A Uranga, G Vera, R Abalo
Cannabis sp and their products (marijuana, hashish...), in addition to their recreational, industrial and other uses, have a long history for their use as a remedy for symptoms related with gastrointestinal diseases. After many reports suggesting these beneficial effects, it was not surprising to discover that the gastrointestinal tract expresses endogenous cannabinoids, their receptors, and enzymes for their synthesis and degradation, comprising the so-called endocannabinoid system. This system participates in the control of tissue homeostasis and important intestinal functions like motor and sensory activity, nausea, emesis, the maintenance of the epithelial barrier integrity, and the correct cellular microenvironment...
August 1, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
David Fast, Aashna Duggal, Edan Foley
Adult Drosophila melanogaster raised in the absence of symbiotic bacteria have fewer intestinal stem cell divisions and a longer life span than their conventionally reared counterparts. However, we do not know if increased stem cell divisions are essential for symbiont-dependent regulation of longevity. To determine if individual symbionts cause aging-dependent death in Drosophila , we examined the impacts of common symbionts on host longevity. We found that monoassociation of adult Drosophila with Lactobacillus plantarum , a widely reported fly symbiont and member of the probiotic Lactobacillus genus, curtails adult longevity relative to germfree counterparts...
July 31, 2018: MBio
Simon Ducheix, Claudia Peres, Jennifer Härdfeldt, Carla Frau, Gabriele Mocciaro, Elena Piccinin, Jean-Marc Lobaccaro, Stefania Desantis, Marcello Chieppa, Justine Bertrand-Michel, Michelina Plateroti, Julian L Griffin, Carlo Sabbà, James M Ntambi, Antonio Moschetta
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The enzyme stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1 (SCD or SCD1) produces mono-unsaturated fatty acids by introducing double bonds into saturated bonds between carbons 9 and 10, with oleic acid as the main product. SCD1 is present in the intestinal epithelium and fatty acids regulate cell proliferation, so we investigated the effects of SCD1-induced production of oleic acid in enterocytes in mice. METHODS: We generated mice with disruption of Scd1 selectively in the intestinal epithelium (iScd1-/- mice) on a C57BL/6 background; iScd1+/+ mice were used as controls...
July 28, 2018: Gastroenterology
Hisako Kayama, Masako Kohyama, Daisuke Okuzaki, Daisuke Motooka, Soumik Barman, Ryu Okumura, Masato Muneta, Katsuaki Hoshino, Izumi Sasaki, Wataru Ise, Hiroshi Matsuno, Junichi Nishimura, Tomohiro Kurosaki, Shota Nakamura, Hisashi Arase, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Kiyoshi Takeda
The local environment is crucial for shaping the identities of tissue-resident macrophages (Mϕs). When hemorrhage occurs in damaged tissues, hemoglobin induces differentiation of anti-inflammatory Mϕs with reparative function. Mucosal bleeding is one of the pathological features of inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the heme-mediated mechanism modulating activation of intestinal innate immune cells remains poorly understood. Here, we show that heme regulates gut homeostasis through induction of Spi-C in intestinal CX3 CR1high Mϕs...
July 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kaisa Hiippala, Hanne Jouhten, Aki Ronkainen, Anna Hartikainen, Veera Kainulainen, Jonna Jalanka, Reetta Satokari
The intestinal microbiota, composed of pro- and anti-inflammatory microbes, has an essential role in maintaining gut homeostasis and functionality. An overly hygienic lifestyle, consumption of processed and fiber-poor foods, or antibiotics are major factors modulating the microbiota and possibly leading to longstanding dysbiosis. Dysbiotic microbiota is characterized to have altered composition, reduced diversity and stability, as well as increased levels of lipopolysaccharide-containing, proinflammatory bacteria...
July 29, 2018: Nutrients
Zahra Kabiri, Gediminas Greicius, Hamed Zaribafzadeh, Amanda Hemmerich, Christopher M Counter, David M Virshup
Intestinal homeostasis depends on a slowly proliferating stem cell compartment in crypt cells, followed by rapid proliferation of committed progenitor cells in the transit amplifying (TA) compartment. The balance between proliferation and differentiation in intestinal stem cells (ISCs) is regulated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling, although the mechanism remains unclear. We previously targeted PORCN, an enzyme essential for all Wnt secretion, and demonstrated that stromal production of Wnts was required for intestinal homeostasis...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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