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intestinal homeostasis

Teresa Vezza, Francesca Algieri, José Garrido-Mesa, María Pilar Utrilla, María Elena Rodríguez-Cabezas, Alberto Baños, Enrique Guillamón, Federico García, Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, Julio Gálvez
SCOPE: Propyl-propane thiosulfonate (PTSO) is a component isolated from garlic (Allium sativum) with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and antimicrobial properties. In consequence, PTSO could be a potential candidate for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. METHODS AND RESULTS: The anti-inflammatory effects of PTSO were studied in two mice models of colitis: 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) (PTSO doses: 0.01-10 mg/kg) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (PTSO doses: 0...
December 5, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
H B Jijon, L Suarez-Lopez, O E Diaz, S Das, J De Calisto, M Parada-Kusz, M B Yaffe, M J Pittet, J R Mora, Y Belkaid, R J Xavier, E J Villablanca
The original version of this Article omitted the author Margarita Parada-kusz from the Center for Computational and Integrative Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.
November 30, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Victoria Bell, Jorge Ferrão, Lígia Pimentel, Manuela Pintado, Tito Fernandes
Changes in present-day society such as diets with more sugar, salt, and saturated fat, bad habits and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to the likelihood of the involvement of the microbiota in inflammatory diseases, which contribute to global epidemics of obesity, depression, and mental health concerns. The microbiota is presently one of the hottest areas of scientific and medical research, and exerts a marked influence on the host during homeostasis and disease. Fermented foods and beverages are generally defined as products made by microbial organisms and enzymatic conversions of major and minor food components...
December 3, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Ioannis Koliarakis, Anna Psaroulaki, Taxiarchis Konstantinos Nikolouzakis, Markos N Sgantzos, George Goulielmos, Vasilis P Androutsopoulos, John Tsiaoussis
Colon holds a complex microbial community, which is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and regulating metabolic functions, supporting the intestinal barrier and controlling immune responses. Previous studies have supported a link between intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer (CRC). Based on these fndings, the present review analyzed the numerous interactions that occur between microbiota and CRC, starting from the role of intestinal microbiota in colonic homoeostasis. Intestinal microbiota is a cause of CRC and involves various mechanisms such as chronic inflammation, the production of genotoxins causing DNA impairment and/or the biosynthesis of toxic compounds...
September 2018: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Yuhui Wu, Junlin Yao, Jiansheng Xie, Zhen Liu, Yubin Zhou, Hongming Pan, Weidong Han
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that eliminates harmful components through lysosomal degradation. In addition to its role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, autophagy is critical to pathological processes, such as inflammation and cancer. Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is a specific type of colorectal cancer that develops from long-standing colitis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy of microenvironmental cells plays different but vital roles during tumorigenesis and CAC development...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Yao-Jong Yang, Yen-Hsuan Ni
Huge amount microorganisms resides in human intestine, and many contribute to the maturation and homeostasis of immune system. The diversity of gut ecology are affected by the gestational age, delivery type, feeding sources, and antibiotics use in neonates. Recent studies pointed out that disturbance of gut microbiota, so called dysbiosis, could result in several pediatric diseases including obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), metabolic syndromes, allergic diseases, and inflammatory bowel diseases...
November 30, 2018: Journal of the Formosan Medical Association, Taiwan Yi Zhi
Sayed Esmaeil Mousavi, Heresh Amini, Pouria Heydarpour, Fatemeh Amini Chermahini, Lode Godderis
Beyond vitamin D (VD) effect on bone homeostasis, numerous physiological functions in human health have been described for this versatile prohormone. In 2016, 95% of the world's population lived in areas where annual mean ambient particulate matter (<2.5 μm) levels exceeded the World Health Organization guideline value (Shaddick et al., 2018). On the other hand, industries disperse thousands of chemicals continually into the environment. Further, considerable fraction of populations are exposed to tobacco smoke...
November 30, 2018: Environment International
Jason D Matthews, April R Reedy, Huixia Wu, Benjamin H Hinrichs, Trevor M Darby, Caroline Addis, Brian S Robinson, Young-Mi Go, Dean P Jones, Rheinallt M Jones, Andrew S Neish
Intestinal homeostasis is regulated in-part by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated in the colonic mucosa following contact with certain lactobacilli. Mechanistically, ROS can modulate protein function through the oxidation of cysteine residues within proteins. Recent advances in cysteine labeling by the Isotope Coded Affinity Tags (ICATs) technique has facilitated the identification of cysteine thiol modifications in response to stimuli. Here, we used ICATs to map the redox protein network oxidized upon initial contact of the colonic mucosa with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG)...
November 22, 2018: Redox Biology
Monika Proszkowiec-Weglarz, Lori L Schreier, Katarzyna B Miska, Roselina Angel, Stanislaw Kahl, Beverly Russell
Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) are essential minerals involved in many biological processes including bone development and mineralization. Plasma concentration of both minerals is tightly regulated, and Ca and P homeostasis is maintained via intestinal absorption, bone storage and exchange, and renal reabsorption. In the current broiler production systems, chicks are deprived of food and water for up to 72 h due to uneven hatching, hatchery procedures, and transportation time to farms. Post-hatch (PH) feed delay results in lower body and organ weight, higher feed conversion ratio and mortality, and delayed PH growth and GIT development...
December 3, 2018: Poultry Science
Peixiang Zhang, Lauren S Csaki, Emilio Ronquillo, Lynn J Baufeld, Jason Y Lin, Alexis Gutierrez, Jennifer R Dwyer, David N Brindley, Loren G Fong, Peter Tontonoz, Stephen G Young, Karen Reue
The lipin phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) enzymes are required for triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis from glycerol 3-phosphate in most mammalian tissues. The 3 lipin proteins (lipin 1, lipin 2, and lipin 3) each have PAP activity, but have distinct tissue distributions, with lipin 1 being the predominant PAP enzyme in many metabolic tissues. One exception is the small intestine, which is unique in expressing exclusively lipin 2 and lipin 3. TAG synthesis in small intestinal enterocytes utilizes 2-monoacylglycerol and does not require the PAP reaction, making the role of lipin proteins in enterocytes unclear...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Sara Ahmadi Badi, S Hohreh Khatami, S Hiva Irani, Seyed Davar Siadat
Objective: Gastrointestinal (GI) tract, like other mucosal surface, is colonized with a microbial population known as gut microbiota. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) which are produced by gram negative bacteria could be sensed by Toll like receptors (TLRs). The interaction between gut microbiota and TLRs affects homeostasis and immune responses. In this study, we evaluated TLR2, TLR4 genes expression and cytokines concentration in Caco-2 cell line treated with Bacteroides fragilis (B. fragilis) and its OMVs...
April 2019: Cell Journal
Sandra Bader, Stefanie Gerbig, Bernhard Spengler, Andreas Schwiertz, Gerhard Breves, Martin Diener
Acetylcholine and atypical esters of choline such as propionyl- and butyrylcholine are produced by the colonic epithelium and are released when epithelial receptors for short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) are stimulated by propionate. It is assumed that the SCFA used by the choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the central enzyme for the production of these choline esters, originate from the colonic lumen, where they are synthesized during the bacterial fermentation of carbohydrates. Therefore, it seemed to be of interest to study whether the non-neuronal cholinergic system in the colonic epithelium is affected by maneuvers intended to stimulate or to inhibit colonic fermentation by changing the intestinal microbiota...
December 1, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Ming Chang Hu, Mingjun Shi, Orson W Moe
Alpha-Klotho is a member of the Klotho family consisting of two other single-pass transmembrane proteins: βKlotho and γKlotho; αKlotho has been shown to circulate in the blood. Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)23 is a member of the FGF superfamily of 22 genes/proteins. αKlotho serves as a co-receptor with FGF receptors (FGFRs) to provide a receptacle for physiological FGF23 signaling including regulation of phosphate metabolism. The extracellular domain of transmembrane αKlotho is shed by secretases and released into blood circulation (soluble αKlotho)...
December 1, 2018: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
Florian Lang, Christina Leibrock, Aleksandra A Pandyra, Christos Stournaras, Carsten A Wagner, Michael Föller
Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is released primarily from osteoblasts/osteocytes in bone. In cooperation with the transmembrane protein Klotho, FGF23 is a powerful inhibitor of 1α 25OH Vitamin D Hydroxylase (Cyp27b1) and thus of the formation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3). As 1,25(OH)2D3 up-regulates intestinal calcium and phosphate absorption, the downregulation of 1,25(OH)2D3 synthesis counteracts phosphate excess and tissue calcification. FGF23 also directly inhibits renal phosphate reabsorption...
November 30, 2018: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
Cuiping Liu, Guoli Shao, Yirong Lu, Minmin Xue, Fenfen Liang, Zhenshu Zhang, Lan Bai
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is implicated in regulating calcium homeostasis in vertebrates, including sea bream, chick, and mammals. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the function of PTHrP in regulating calcium transport is still not fully investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PTHrP on the calcium uptake and its underlying molecular mechanism in rat enterocytes. METHODS: The rat intestinal epithelial cell line (IEC-6) was used...
November 30, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Ning-Ning Guo, Xue-Jun Sun, Ya-Kai Xie, Gui-Wen Yang, Cui-Jie Kang
As an important disulfide reductase of the intracellular antioxidant system, Thioredoxin (Trx)plays an important role in maintaining oxidative stress balance and protecting cells from oxidative damage. In recent years, there is increasing evidence that Trx is a key molecule in the pathogenesis of various diseases and a potential therapeutic target for major diseases including lung, colon, cervical, gastric and pancreatic cancer. However, few knowledge is known about the function of Trx in virus infection. In this study, we reported the cloning and functional investigation of a Trx homologue gene, named MjTrx, in shrimp Marsupenaeus japonicus suffered white spot syndrome virus(WSSV) infection...
November 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Ting Lian, Qi Wu, Brian A Hodge, Kenneth A Wilson, Guixiang Yu, Mingyao Yang
Aging is often defined as the accumulation of damage at the molecular and cellular levels which, over time, results in marked physiological impairments throughout the organism. Dietary restriction (DR) has been recognized as one of the strongest lifespan extending therapies observed in a wide array of organisms. Recent studies aimed at elucidating how DR promotes healthy aging have demonstrated a vital role of the digestive tract in mediating the beneficial effects of DR. Here, we review how dietary restriction influences gut metabolic homeostasis and immune function...
November 29, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maria E Joosse, Iris Nederlof, Lucy S K Walker, Janneke N Samsom
The small intestinal and colonic lamina propria are populated with forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) and interleukin-10-producing T cells that orchestrate intestinal tolerance to harmless microbial and food antigens. Expression of co-inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 serve as checkpoints to these cells controlling their T-cell receptor (TCR)-mediated and CD28-mediated activation and modulating the phenotype of neighboring antigen presenting cells. Recent discoveries on the diversity of co-inhibitory receptors and their selective cellular expression has shed new light on their tissue-dependent function...
November 29, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Stefanie Staats, Anika E Wagner, Kai Lüersen, Axel Künstner, Timo Meyer, Anna K Kahns, Stefanie Derer, Simon Graspeuntner, Jan Rupp, Hauke Busch, Christian Sina, Ignacio R Ipharraguerre, Gerald Rimbach
The health and life span of Drosophila melanogaster are partly determined by intestinal barrier integrity, metabolic rate as well as stress response and the expression of longevity-associated genes, depending on genetic and dietary factors. Ursolic acid (UA) is a naturally occurring triterpenoid exhibiting potential antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antiobesity activity and counteracting age-related deficits in muscle strength. In this study, UA was dietarily administered to w1118 D. melanogaster which significantly elongated the health and life span of males...
November 29, 2018: BioFactors
Sunny Lihua Cheng, Xueshu Li, Hans-Joachim Lehmler, Brian Phillips, Danny Shen, Julia Yue Cui
The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a second genome that contributes to the health and diseases of the host. A major function of the gut microbiota is to convert primary bile acids (BAs) produced from cholesterol in the liver into secondary BAs that activate distinct host receptors to modulate xenobiotic metabolism and energy homeostasis. The goal of this study was to investigate to what extent oral exposure to an environmentally relevant polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs mixture), namely the Fox River mixture, impacts gut microbiome and BA homeostasis...
December 1, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
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