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intestinal homeostasis

Liqiao Liu, Mingzhu Li, Mulan Yu, Mingyue Shen, Qun Wang, Yue Yu, Jianhua Xie
Natural polysaccharides, the abundant dietary components, show potent antitumor bioactivity in treatment and chemoprevention. Compared with traditional tumor therapy, natural polysaccharides are characterized by the low toxicity and immuno-regulation function. Recent researches have indicated that the anti-tumor of polysaccharides was partly attributable to modification in the composition of gut microbiota when polysaccharides were digested. Indeed, microbial dysbiosis or alteration of certain bacterial species has been reported in tumorigenesis...
October 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Rana Yadak, Max V Boot, Niek P van Til, Dominique Cazals-Hatem, Armin Finkenstedt, Elly Bogaerts, Irenaeus F de Coo, Marianna Bugiani
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal complications are the main cause of death in patients with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE). Available treatments often restore biochemical homeostasis, but fail to cure gastrointestinal symptoms. METHODS: We evaluated the small intestine neuromuscular pathology of an untreated MNGIE patient and two recipients of hematopoietic stem cells, focusing on enteric neurons and glia. Additionally, we evaluated the intestinal neuromuscular pathology in a mouse model of MNGIE treated with hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy...
October 19, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
Y Zhang, S Shi, Q Xu, Q Zhang, R M Shanti, A D Le
Oral cancer has a high annual incidence rate all over the world, and the tongue is the most frequently affected anatomic structure. The current standard care is ablative surgery of malignant neoplasm, followed by tongue reconstruction with free flap. However, such reconstructive modalities with postsurgery radiotherapy or chemotherapy can hardly support the functional recovery of the tongue-particularly, functional taste bud regeneration-in reconstructed areas, thus seriously affecting patients' prognosis and life quality...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Dental Research
Eveline Bennek, Ana D Mandić, Julien Verdier, Silvia Roubrocks, Oliver Pabst, Niels Van Best, Inga Benz, Thomas Kufer, Christian Trautwein, Gernot Sellge
Oral tolerance to soluble antigens is critically important for the maintenance of immunological homeostasis in the gut. The mechanisms of tolerance induction to antigens of the gut microbiota are still less well understood. Here, we investigate whether the subcellular localization of antigens within non-pathogenic E. coli has a role for its ability to induce antigen-specific tolerance. E. coli that express an ovalbumin (OVA) peptide in the cytoplasm, at the outer membrane or as secreted protein were generated...
October 16, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
David Dunkin, Alina C Iuga, Sanda Mimouna, Carolyn L Harris, Jean-Vianney Haure-Mirande, Dominique Bozec, Garabet Yeretssian, Stephanie Dahan
Increasing evidence links Notch-1 signaling with the maintenance of intestinal architecture and homeostasis. Dysfunction in the common Notch-1 pathway transcription factor recombinant binding protein suppressor of hairless (RBP-J) is associated with loss of epithelial barrier integrity and aberrant conversion of proliferative crypt cells into goblet cells. Furthermore, we have recently discovered that epithelial Notch-1 is indispensable in bridging innate and adaptive immunity in the gut and is required for supporting protective epithelial pro-inflammatory responses...
September 11, 2018: Oncotarget
Chun-Chih Hu, Gong-Her Wu, Sheng-Feng Lai, Muniesh Muthaiyan Shanmugam, Y Hwu, Oliver I Wagner, Ta-Jen Yen
We utilized size-tunable gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to investigate the toxicogenomic responses of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans. We demonstrated that the nematode C. elegans can uptake Au NPs coated with or without 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA), and Au NPs are detectable in worm intestines using X-ray microscopy and confocal optical microscopy. After Au NP exposure, C. elegans neurons grew shorter axons, which may have been related to the impeded worm locomotion behavior detected. Furthermore, we determined that MUA to Au ratios of 0...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eugene Baeg, Kanidta Sooklert, Amornpun Sereemaspun
Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) have attracted considerable attention, because of their biocide potential and capability for optical imaging, however CuONPs were shown to be highly toxic in various experimental model systems. In this study, mechanism underlying CuONP-induced toxicity was investigated using Drosophila as an in vivo model. Upon oral route of administration, CuONPs accumulated in the body, and caused a dose-dependent decrease in egg-to-adult survivorship and a delay in development. In particular, transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed CuONPs were detected inside the intestinal epithelial cells and lumen...
October 12, 2018: Nanomaterials
Roger Bouillon, Claudio Marcocci, Geert Carmeliet, Daniel Bikle, John H White, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Paul Lips, Craig F Munns, Marise Lazaretti-Castro, Andrea Giustina, John Bilezikian
The etiology of endemic rickets was discovered a century ago. Vitamin D is the precursor of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and other metabolites, including 1,25(OH)2D, the ligand for the vitamin D receptor (VDR). The effects of the vitamin D endocrine system on bone and its growth plate is primarily indirect and mediated by its effect on intestinal calcium transport and serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by daily supplements of 400 IU of vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25OHD < 50 nmol/l) accelerates bone turnover, bone loss and osteoporotic fractures...
October 12, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Brunella Posteraro, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Valentina Petito, Stefano Rocca, Tiziana Cubeddu, Cristina Graziani, Vincenzo Arena, Gabriele A Vassallo, Carolina Mosoni, Loris Lopetuso, Irene Lorrai, Paola Maccioni, Luca Masucci, Cecilia Martini, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Giancarlo Colombo, Giovanni Addolorato
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that alcoholism leads to dysbiosis in both humans and animals. However, it is unclear how changes in the intestinal microbiota (IM) relate to ethanol (EtOH)-induced disruption of gut-liver homeostasis. We investigated this issue using selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats, a validated animal model of excessive EtOH consumption. METHODS: Independent groups of male adult sP rats were exposed to the standard, home-cage 2-bottle "EtOH (10% v/v) vs water" choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day (Group Et) for 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 12 (T3) consecutive months...
October 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Jung-In Kim, Jeong-A Yun, Yoo-Kyung Jeong, Hee-Jin Baek
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effects of samnamul were investigated. The α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of samnamul in vivo was determined in normal mice. Oral administration of samnamul extract (500 mg/kg) or acarbose (50 mg/kg) significantly reduced the postprandial glucose response. The effects of chronic consumption of samnamul on fasting hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia were determined in C57BL/6 J mice with diabetes mellitus induced by a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFHS) diet. Consumption of samnamul extract at 0...
October 2018: Food Science and Biotechnology
Holger Sieg, Caroline Braeuning, Birgitta Maria Kunz, Hannes Daher, Claudia Kästner, Benjamin-Christoph Krause, Thomas Meyer, Pégah Jalili, Kevin Hogeveen, Linda Böhmert, Dajana Lichtenstein, Agnès Burel, Soizic Chevance, Harald Jungnickel, Jutta Tentschert, Peter Laux, Albert Braeuning, Fabienne Gauffre, Valérie Fessard, Jan Meijer, Irina Estrela-Lopis, Andreas F Thünemann, Andreas Luch, Alfonso Lampen
Aluminum (Al) is one of the most common elements in the earth crust and increasingly used in food, consumer products and packaging. Its hazard potential for humans is still not completely understood. Besides the metallic form, Al also exists as mineral, including the insoluble oxide, and in soluble ionic forms. Representatives of these three species, namely a metallic and an oxidic species of Al-containing nanoparticles and soluble aluminum chloride, were applied to human intestinal cell lines as models for the intestinal barrier...
October 14, 2018: Nanotoxicology
Bahman Yousefi, Majid Eslami, Abdolmajid Ghasemian, Parviz Kokhaei, Amir Salek Farrokhi, Narges Darabi
Mammalian intestine contains a large diversity of commensal microbiota, which is far more than the number of host cells. Probiotics play an insecure and protective role against the colonization of intestinal pathogenic microbes and increase mucosal integrity by stimulating epithelial cells. Probiotics have innate capabilities in many ways, including receptor antagonism, receptor expression, binding and expression of adapter proteins, expression of negative regulatory signal molecules, induction of microRNAs, endotoxin tolerance, and ultimately secretion of immunomodulatory proteins, lipids, and metabolites to modulate the immune system...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Kazuhiro Nishiyama, Kimiya Aono, Yasuyuki Fujimoto, Mitsuru Kuwamura, Toshiya Okada, Hayato Tokumoto, Takeshi Izawa, Ryoichi Okano, Hidemitsu Nakajima, Tadayoshi Takeuchi, Yasu-Taka Azuma
Organ-organ crosstalk is involved in homeostasis. Gastrointestinal symptoms are common in patients with renal failure. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between gastrointestinal motility and gastrointestinal symptoms in chronic kidney disease. We performed studies in C57BL/6 mice with chronic kidney disease after 5/6 nephrectomy. Gastrointestinal motility was evaluated by assessing the ex vivo responses of ileum and distal colon strips to electrical field stimulation. Feces were collected from mice, and the composition of the gut microbiota was analyzed using 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Laura Lema-Perez, Jose Garcia-Tirado, Carlos Builes-Montaño, Hernan Alvarez
The stomach is a segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract which receives food from the esophagus, mixes it, breaks it down, and then passes it on to the small intestine in smaller portions. In the stomach, the main secretory functions and digestion process begin. However, the most critical and important function of the stomach in digestive physiology is perhaps gastric motility. In this way, the functions of the stomach are mainly three: (i) the storage of large quantities of food to be further processed in the duodenum, and lower intestinal tract, (ii) the mixing of this food with gastric secretions to form a semi-fluid mixture, and (iii) to slow down the emptying of that semi-fluid mixture into the small intestine at a rate suitable for proper digestion and absorption...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Hugh Thomas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Chenhe Wang, Yanfeng Zhou, Dawei Lv, You Ge, Huan Li, Yang You
As an important organ to maintain the host's homeostasis, intestinal microbes play an important role in development of the organism. In contrast to those of terrestrial animals, the intestinal microbes of aquatic organisms are affected by environmental microorganisms (including water microorganisms and sediment microorganisms). In the present study, the compositional differences of intestinal microbes in three representative developmental stages of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) were studied. Meanwhile, network association analysis, and visualization of the water microorganisms of the crabs' habitat, the environment microorganisms in the pond, and the intestinal microbes, was carried out...
October 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Yana Shaulov, Chikako Shimokawa, Meirav Trebicz-Geffen, Shruti Nagaraja, Karen Methling, Michael Lalk, Lea Weiss-Cerem, Ayelet T Lamm, Hajime Hisaeda, Serge Ankri
Amebiasis, a global intestinal parasitic disease, is due to Entamoeba histolytica. This parasite, which feeds on bacteria in the large intestine of its human host, can trigger a strong inflammatory response upon invasion of the colonic mucosa. Whereas information about the mechanisms which are used by the parasite to cope with oxidative and nitrosative stresses during infection is available, knowledge about the contribution of bacteria to these mechanisms is lacking. In a recent study, we demonstrated that enteropathogenic Escherichia coli O55 protects E...
October 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Paishiun N Hsieh, Liyan Fan, David R Sweet, Mukesh K Jain
Nutrient handling by higher organisms is a complex process that is regulated in a significant manner at the transcriptional level. Studies over the past 15 years highlight the critical importance of a family of transcriptional regulators termed the Krüppel-like factors (KLFs) in metabolism. Within an organ, distinct KLFs direct networks of metabolic gene targets to achieve specialized functions. This regulation is often orchestrated in concert with recruitment of tissue-specific transcriptional regulators, particularly members of the nuclear receptor family...
October 10, 2018: Endocrine Reviews
Cynthia Rajani, Wei Jia
Diabetes is a widespread, rapidly increasing metabolic disease that is driven by hyperglycemia. Early glycemic control is of primary importance to avoid vascular complications including development of retinal disorders leading to blindness, end-stage renal disease, and accelerated atherosclerosis with a higher risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and limb amputations. Even after hyperglycemia has been brought under control, "metabolic memory," a cluster of irreversible metabolic changes that allow diabetes to progress, may persist depending on the duration of hyperglycemia...
October 10, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Giuliana Di Rocco, Silvia Baldari, Giovambattista Pani, Gabriele Toietta
Stem cells drive embryonic and fetal development. In several adult tissues, they retain the ability to self-renew and differentiate into a variety of specialized cells, thus contributing to tissue homeostasis and repair throughout life span. Alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk for several diseases and conditions. Growing and developing tissues are particularly vulnerable to alcohol's influence, suggesting that stem- and progenitor-cell function could be affected. Accordingly, recent studies have revealed the possible relevance of alcohol exposure in impairing stem-cell properties, consequently affecting organ development and injury response in different tissues...
October 10, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
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