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integrative approach

Ruiqiao Bai, Jacqueline C K Lam, Victor O K Li
Over the last three decades, rapid industrialization in China has generated an unprecedentedly high level of air pollution and associated health problems. Given that China accounts for one-fifth of the world population and suffers from severe air pollution, a comprehensive review of the indicators accounting for the health costs in relation to air pollution will benefit evidence-based and health-related environmental policy-making. This paper reviews the conventional static and the new dynamic approach adopted for air pollution-related health cost accounting in China and analyzes the difference between the two in estimating GDP loss...
August 10, 2018: Environment International
Corinne Curt, Jean-Marc Tacnet
In crisis situations, systems, organizations, and people must react and deal with events that are inherently unpredictable before they occur: vital societal functions and thus infrastructures must be restored or adapted as quickly as possible. This capacity refers to resilience. Progress concerning its conceptualization has been made but it remains difficult to assess and apply in practice. The results of this article stem from a literature review allowing the analysis of current advances in the development of proposals to improve the management of infrastructure resilience...
August 13, 2018: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Afu Fu, Yu Ming Peh, Weida Ngan, Na Wei, Kathy Qian Luo
Treating systemic metastases at the micrometastatic stage is a potential strategy to inhibit cancer metastasis. This study aims to establish an apoptosis sensor-based platform for rapid, effective, and non-invasive identification of drugs that can inhibit the proliferation of micrometastatic cancer cells. We stably transfected the plasmid DNA encoding the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based caspase-3 sensor into highly metastatic melanoma B16F10 cells. The resulting B16F10-C3 cells were applied for screening of anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic drugs in two-dimensional (2D) monolayer, three-dimensional (3D) spheroids, and zebrafish xenotransplantation tumors...
August 13, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
Ian Kodish
Youth admitted to pediatric hospitals face a variety of emotional challenges throughout their stay. In addition to feeling compromised by their acute medical condition, managing the requirements imposed by hospital care can intensify the potential for behavioral dysregulation. Even meeting basic behavioral expectations often requires children to be highly vulnerable, uncomfortable, and in pain, having to trust a parade of people routinely delivering aversive interventions, all in the context of overwhelmed caregivers...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Douglas Russell, Mary Margaret Gleason
A child's experiences during the first 3 years of life can have a profound impact on mental health outcomes later in childhood and across the lifespan. Safe and effective therapies for mental health concerns in early childhood exist, but access to them is limited. Pediatricians have a unique opportunity to identify risk and resilience factors and support healthy emotional, behavioral, and social development during infancy and toddlerhood. This article presents a developmentally focused approach to integrating the growing science of early childhood social-emotional development into primary care practice, providing both empiric and practical rationales...
August 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Mya Sherman, Hannah Covert, Lisanne Brown, Jennifer Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Tonya Hansel, Timothy Rehner, Ayanna Buckner, Maureen Lichtveld
Standard evaluation practice in public health remains limited to evaluative measures linked to individual projects, even if multiple interrelated projects are working toward a common impact. Enterprise evaluation seeks to fill this policy gap by focusing on cross-sector coordination and ongoing reflection in evaluation. We provide an overview of the enterprise evaluation framework and its 3 stages: collective creation, individual data collection, and collective analysis. We illustrate the application of enterprise evaluation to the Gulf Region Health Outreach Program, 4 integrated projects that aimed to strengthen health care in Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and the Florida Panhandle after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Nirali M Patel, Heejoon Jo, David A Eberhard, Xiaoying Yin, Michele C Hayward, Matthew K Stein, David Neil Hayes, Juneko E Grilley-Olson
Neoplastic cellularity contributes to the analytic sensitivity of most present technologies for mutation detection, such that they underperform when stroma and inflammatory cells dilute a cancer specimen's variant fraction. Thus, tumor purity assessment by light microscopy is used to determine sample adequacy before sequencing and to interpret the significance of negative results and mutant allele fraction afterwards. However, pathologist estimates of tumor purity are imprecise and have limited reproducibility...
August 10, 2018: Applied Immunohistochemistry & Molecular Morphology: AIMM
Md Abdul Alim, Ahmet Ay, Md Mahmudul Hasan, My T Thai, Tamer Kahveci
Signaling networks are involved in almost all major diseases such as cancer. As a result of this, understanding how signaling networks function is vital for finding new treatments for many diseases. Using gene knockdown assays such as RNA interference (RNAi) technology, many genes involved in these networks can be identified. However, determining the interactions between these genes in the signaling networks using only experimental techniques is very challenging, as performing extensive experiments is very expensive and sometimes, even impractical...
July 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Reid S Brennan, Timothy M Healy, Heather J Bryant, Man Van La, Patricia M Schulte, Andrew Whitehead
Adaptive divergence between marine and freshwater environments is important in generating phyletic diversity within fishes, but the genetic basis of this process remains poorly understood. Genome selection scans can identify adaptive loci, but incomplete knowledge of genotype-phenotype connections makes interpreting their significance difficult. In contrast, association mapping (genome-wide association mapping (GWAS), random forest analyses) links genotype to phenotype, but offer limited insight into the evolutionary forces shaping variation...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Kaat De Pourcq, Paul Gemmel, Ben Devis, Jan Van Ooteghem, Tom De Caluwé, Jeroen Trybou
BACKGROUND: Healthcare managers often attempt to enhance process-oriented performance. However, this remains a challenge. New approaches aimed at increasing the implementation success of process-oriented performance measurement should be investigated. METHODS: This study investigates and discusses a step-by-step methodology to implement an automated and effective process-oriented performance measurement system in a hospital. The methodology is based on a framework for developing dashboards based on three steps: the demand side, supply side, and the fit between the two...
August 13, 2018: Informatics for Health & Social Care
Manuel Algora, Gloria Grabski, Anna Liza Batac-Castro, James Gibbs, Nyaradzo Chada, Sharhabil Humieda, Shafeeq Ahmad, Peter Anderson, Priscila I Figueroa, Imran Mirza, Laila AbdelWareth
CONTEXT: - Opening a new hospital is a once in a lifetime experience and can be very inspiring for those involved in its activation. However, establishing a safe transfusion practice in a greenfield environment comes with unique challenges and opportunities. OBJECTIVE: - To highlight critical activation components such as on-boarding of new personnel, establishing clinical practices, and integrating critical laboratory software. DESIGN: - Our staff initially faced challenges in standardizing transfusion medicine clinical practice inside the laboratory...
August 13, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
J F Felix, C A M Cecil
Epigenetic changes represent a potential mechanism underlying associations of early-life exposures and later life health outcomes. Population-based cohort studies starting in early life are an attractive framework to study the role of such changes. DNA methylation is the most studied epigenetic mechanism in population research. We discuss the application of DNA methylation in early-life population studies, some recent findings, key challenges and recommendations for future research. Studies into DNA methylation within the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease framework generally either explore associations between prenatal exposures and offspring DNA methylation or associations between offspring DNA methylation in early life and later health outcomes...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Amanda Hamilton, Paula J Foster, John A Ronald
Reporter gene-based molecular imaging can provide invaluable information on the fate of cellular therapies post-implantation. Integrating lentiviral vectors (ILVs) are commonly used for stably engineering cells, however, their potential for insertional mutagenesis poses a significant safety concern and barrier to widespread clinical adoption. In cells that slowly divide or are post-mitotic in vivo, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), non-integrating lentiviral vectors (NILVs) may be a safer alternative option since NILVs remain episomal and can provide prolonged expression profiles...
August 13, 2018: Human Gene Therapy
Yiye Zhang, Richard Trepp, Weiguang Wang, Jorge Luna, David K Vawdrey, Victoria Tiase
Development and maintenance of order sets is a knowledge-intensive task for off-the-shelf machine-learning algorithms alone. We hypothesize that integrating clinical knowledge with machine learning can facilitate effective development and maintenance of order sets while promoting best practices in ordering. To this end, we simulated the revision of an "AM Lab Order Set" under 6 revision approaches. Revisions included changes in the order set content or default settings through 1) population statistics, 2) individualized prediction using machine learning, and 3) clinical knowledge...
August 7, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Marzieh Salehi, Adrian Vella, Tracey McLaughlin, Mary-Elizabeth Patti
Context: Hypoglycemia, occurring after bariatric and other forms of upper gastrointestinal surgery, is increasingly encountered by clinical endocrinologists. The true frequency of this condition remains uncertain, due, in part, to differences in the diagnostic criteria and in the affected populations, as well as relative lack of patient and physician awareness and understanding of this condition. Postbariatric hypoglycemia can be severe and disabling for some patients, with neuroglycopenia (altered cognition, seizures, and loss of consciousness) leading to falls, motor vehicle accidents, and job and income loss...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Louis Bherer, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Susan Muir-Hunter, Karen Z H Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, William McIlroy, Laura Middleton, José A Morais, Ryota Sakurai, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, Olivier Beauchet, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Caterina Rosano, Stephanie Studenski, Joe Verghese
Background: A new paradigm is emerging in which mobility and cognitive impairments, previously studied, diagnosed, and managed separately in older adults, are in fact regulated by shared brain resources. Deterioration in these shared brain mechanisms by normal aging and neurodegeneration increases the risk of developing dementia, falls, and fractures. This new paradigm requires an integrated approach to measuring both domains. We aim to identify a complementary battery of existing tests of mobility and cognition in community-dwelling older adults that enable assessment of motor-cognitive interactions...
June 21, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jorge Parraga-Alava, Marcio Dorn, Mario Inostroza-Ponta
Background: Biologists aim to understand the genetic background of diseases, metabolic disorders or any other genetic condition. Microarrays are one of the main high-throughput technologies for collecting information about the behaviour of genetic information on different conditions. In order to analyse this data, clustering arises as one of the main techniques used, and it aims at finding groups of genes that have some criterion in common, like similar expression profile. However, the problem of finding groups is normally multi dimensional, making necessary to approach the clustering as a multi-objective problem where various cluster validity indexes are simultaneously optimised...
2018: BioData Mining
Victoria Ruiz-Hernández, María José Roca, Marcos Egea-Cortines, Julia Weiss
Background: Full scent profiles emitted by living tissues can be screened by using total ion chromatograms generated in full scan mode and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique using Headspace Sorptive Extraction. This allows the identification of specific compounds and their absolute quantification or relative abundance. Quantifications ideally should be based on calibration curves using standards for each compound. However, the unpredictable composition of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and lack of standards make this approach difficult...
2018: Plant Methods
Thekla Morgenroth, Michelle K Ryan
A quarter of a century ago, philosopher Judith Butler (1990) called upon society to create "gender trouble" by disrupting the binary view of sex, gender, and sexuality. She argued that gender, rather than being an essential quality following from biological sex, or an inherent identity, is an act which grows out of, reinforces, and is reinforced by, societal norms and creates the illusion of binary sex. Despite the fact that Butler's philosophical approach to understanding gender has many resonances with a large body of gender research being conducted by social psychologists, little theorizing and research within experimental social psychology has drawn directly on Butler's ideas...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Wenting Yang, Jianhong Ma, Hezhi Chen, Anton G Maglione, Enrica Modica, Dario Rossi, Giulia Cartocci, Marino Bonaiuto, Fabio Babiloni
Investment decisions are largely based on the information investors received from the target firm. Thaler introduced the hedonic editing framework, in which suggests that integration/segregation of information influence individual's perceived value. Meanwhile, when evaluating the evidence and information in a sequence, order effect and biases have been found to have an impact in various areas. In this research, the influence of the Organization of Information (Integration vs. Segregation) and the Sequence of Information (Negative-Positive order vs...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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