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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339217/linezolid-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-in-solid-organ-transplant-recipients-infection-control-and-antimicrobial-stewardship-using-whole-genome-sequencing
#1
Lilian Abbo, Bhavarth S Shukla, Amber Giles, Laura Aragon, Adriana Jimenez, Jose F Camargo, Jacques Simkins, Kathleen Sposato, Truc T Tran, Lorena Diaz, Jinnethe Reyes, Rafael Rios, Lina P Carvajal, Javier Cardozo, Maribel Ruiz, Gemma Rosello, Armando Perez Cardona, Octavio Martinez, Giselle Guerra, Thiago Beduschi, Rodrigo Vianna, Cesar A Arias
Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococci are an important cause of healthcare-associated infections and are inherently resistant to many commonly used antibiotics. Linezolid is the only drug currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat vancomycin-resistant enterococci, however resistance to this antibiotic appears to be increasing. Although outbreaks of linezolid- and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (LR-VRE) in solid organ transplant recipients remain uncommon, they represent a major challenge for infection control and hospital epidemiology...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338174/integrative-medicine-as-a-vital-component-of-patient-care
#2
REVIEW
Richard Gannotta, Shaista Malik, Alvin Y Chan, Kamran Urgun, Frank Hsu, Sumeet Vadera
The landscape of medicine in the United States has been slowly progressing toward a more holistic and individualized approach to healing. Part of this progress has been the integration between western and alternative forms of medicine, a concept that has been described as "integrative medicine." This approach to healthcare incorporates a patient's mind, spirituality, and sense of community into the healing process. Integrative medicine has been typically well received and the demand has been steadily increasing in primary US hospitals...
August 4, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334775/a-transfer-based-additive-ls-svm-classifier-for-handling-missing-data
#3
Guanjin Wang, Jie Lu, Kup-Sze Choi, Guangquan Zhang
The performance of a classifier might greatly deteriorate due to missing data. Many different techniques to handle this problem have been developed. In this paper, we solve the problem of missing data using a novel transfer learning perspective and show that when an additive least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) is adopted, model transfer learning can be used to enhance the classification performance on incomplete training datasets. A novel transfer-based additive LS-SVM classifier is accordingly proposed...
October 15, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329075/phenotypic-switching-in-newly-emerged-multidrug-resistant-pathogen-candida-auris
#4
Meghan L Bentz, D Joseph Sexton, Rory M Welsh, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Candida auris is an emerging, multidrug-resistant yeast that can spread rapidly in healthcare settings. Phenotypic switching has been observed in other Candida species and can potentially interfere with correct identification. The aim of this study is to address misidentification of C. auris by describing alternate phenotypes after broth enrichment and subculturing on CHROMagar Candida. Each isolate displayed different frequencies of phenotypic switching, suggesting a strain to strain variability. Increased knowledge of the multiple phenotypes of C...
October 16, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328144/biofilm-inspired-encapsulation-of-probiotics-for-the-treatment-of-complex-infections
#5
Zhihao Li, Adam M Behrens, Nitzan Ginat, Stephany Y Tzeng, Xueguang Lu, Sarit Sivan, Robert Langer, Ana Jaklenec
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance poses a major challenge to healthcare. Probiotics offer a potential alternative treatment method but are often incompatible with antibiotics themselves, diminishing their overall therapeutic utility. This work uses biofilm-inspired encapsulation of probiotics to confer temporary antibiotic protection and to enable the coadministration of probiotics and antibiotics. Probiotics are encapsulated within alginate, a crucial component of pseudomonas biofilms, based on a simple two-step alginate cross-linking procedure...
October 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327454/-unknown-title
#6
REVIEW
Cristina Valcárcel Nazco, Borja García Lorenzo, Tasmania Del Pino Sedeño, Lidia García Pérez, Noé Brito García, Renata Linertová, Jorge Ferrer Rodríguez, Iñaki Imaz Iglesia, Pedro Serrano Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Given the economic burden of seasonal influenza for the healthcare system, we performed a systematic review aiming to update available evidence on the cost-effectiveness of vaccination of seasonal influenza in different age groups, including children. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature on economic evaluations of seasonal influenza vaccination programs in children and adults was carried out. The following databases were searched (January 2013 - April 2018): Medline and PREMEDLINE, EMBASE, EconLit and databases of the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination (DARE, HTA, NHS EED)...
October 17, 2018: Revista Española de Salud Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30324047/gamification-of-hospital-utilization-incorporating-cost-consciousness-in-daily-practices
#7
Peter J Tomaselli, Dimitrios Papanagnou, Jonathan E Karademos, Elizabeth Teixeira, Xiao Chi Zhang
Healthcare costs in the United States have skyrocketed over the past decade, contributing to an estimated $750 billion in wasteful spending annually. Despite the demand to improve residency education on value-based, cost-conscious healthcare, there is no consensus on how to best teach this practice. Traditional lectures have failed to demonstrate enduring change in clinical practice patterns, provider attitudes, and reductions in hospital expenditures. We sought to evaluate whether gamification is an effective pedagogical tool to teach cost-consciousness to emergency medicine (EM) residents by creating a 60-minute interactive session based on the popular gameshow, the Price is Right...
August 3, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320933/prevalence-and-cost-analysis-of-chronic-pain-after-hernia-repair-a-potential-alternative-approach-with-neurostimulation
#8
Aladine A Elsamadicy, Bilal Ashraf, Xinru Ren, Amanda R Sergesketter, Lefko Charalambous, Hanna Kemeny, Tiffany Ejikeme, Siyun Yang, Promila Pagadala, Beth Parente, Jichun Xie, Theodore N Pappas, Shivanand P Lad
OBJECTIVES: Chronic pain (CP) affects a significant number of patients following hernia repair, ranging from 11 to 54% in the literature. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence, overall costs, and health care utilization associated with CP after hernia repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal study was performed using the Truven MarketScan® data base to identify patients who develop chronic neuropathic posthernia repair pain from 2001 to 2012...
October 15, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319158/of-shepherds-sheep-and-sheepdogs-governing-the-adherent-self-through-complementary-and-competing-pastorates
#9
Justin Waring, Asam Latif
Foucault's concept of 'pastoral power' describes an important technique for constituting obedient subjects. Derived from his analysis of the Christian pastorate, he saw pastoral power as a prelude to contemporary technologies of governing 'beyond the State', where 'experts' shepherd self-governing subjects. However, the specific practices of modern pastorate have been little developed. This article examines the relational practices of pastoral power associated with the government of medicine use within the English healthcare system...
October 2018: Sociology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318621/the-importance-of-being-pregnant-on-the-healthcare-need-for-uterus-transplantation
#10
Lars Sandman
Researchers have recently provided proof of concept for uterus transplantation, giving rise to a discussion about priority setting. This article analyses whether absolute uterine-factor infertility (AUFI), the main indication for uterus transplantation, gives rise to a healthcare need and the extent to which such a need places justified claims on public funding in a needs-based welfare system. It is argued that, regardless of the concept of health to which one subscribes, there is a healthcare need for uterus transplantation in women with AUFI...
October 2018: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315848/clinical-solutions-to-chronic-pain-and-the-opiate-epidemic
#11
REVIEW
Matthew Murray, Alexander Stone, Virginia Pearson, Glenn Treisman
The current opiate epidemic has caused tens of thousands of deaths annually and hundreds of billions in economic losses. From 1979 to 2015, accidental opiate-related deaths increased by 4250%. Despite its magnitude, the driving forces remain poorly understood. A narrow understanding by physicians, administrators, and policy makers has resulted in a clinical approach to chronic pain treatment misguided by expediency, shortsighted cost reduction, pharmaceutical profit, and patient satisfaction. Until the broken elements are well understood, effective policy solutions will remain elusive...
October 10, 2018: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315738/patients-perspective-of-the-effectiveness-and-acceptability-of-pharmacological-and-non-pharmacological-treatments-of-fibromyalgia
#12
Sophie J Taylor, Michael Steer, Simon C Ashe, Penny J Furness, Sarah Haywood-Small, Kim Lawson
Background and aims Fibromyalgia is a complex condition characterised by widespread pain, sleep disturbance, fatigue and cognitive impairment, with a global mean prevalence estimated at 2.7%. There are inconsistencies in guidelines on the treatment of fibromyalgia leading to dissatisfaction from patients and healthcare professionals. This study investigated patient-reported outcomes of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment usage and effectiveness with an assessment of acceptability. Methods Nine hundred and forty-one participants completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire giving quantitative data of demographics, treatment usage and treatment outcomes...
October 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30311864/assessment-of-functional-nanomaterials-in-medical-applications-can-time-mend-public-and-occupational-health-risks-related-to-the-products-fate
#13
Christophe Bressot, Alexandra Aubry, Cécile Pagnoux, Olivier Aguerre-Chariol, Martin Morgeneyer
Surface coatings are one promising option to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation given the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is presently considered to be the only photocatalytic material suitable for commercial use, although the toxicity risks of TiO2 , particularly in its nanoparticulate form, have not been fully addressed. The aim of this study was to determine release of nanoparticles (NPs) from functional materials for medical applications and their aerosol formation...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310550/therapeutic-alternatives-in-painful-diabetic-neuropathy-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#14
REVIEW
Samuel Vilar, Jose Manuel Castillo, Pedro V Munuera Martínez, María Reina, Manuel Pabón
Background: One of the most frequent problems caused by diabetes is the so called painful diabetic neuropathy. This condition can be treated through numerous types of therapy. The purpose of this study was to analyze, as a meta-analysis, different treatments used to alleviate painful diabetic neuropathy, with the aim of generating results that help making decisions when applying such treatments to tackle this pathology. Methods: A search was conducted in the main databases for Health Sciences, such as PUBMED, Web of Science (WOS), and IME biomedicina (Spanish Medical Reports in Biomedicine), to gather randomized controlled trials about treatments used for painful diabetic neuropathy...
October 2018: Korean Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309968/enlisting-commensal-microbes-to-resist-antibiotic-resistant-pathogens
#15
REVIEW
James W Keith, Eric G Pamer
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial pathogens is an all-too-common consequence of antibiotic use. Although antibiotic resistance among virulent bacterial pathogens is a growing concern, the highest levels of antibiotic resistance occur among less pathogenic but more common bacteria that are prevalent in healthcare settings. Patient-to-patient transmission of these antibiotic-resistant bacteria is a perpetual concern in hospitals. Many of these resistant microbes, such as vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae , emerge from the intestinal lumen and invade the bloodstream of vulnerable patients, causing disseminated infection...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30306231/-learning-of-flexible-endoscopy-particularly-endoscopic-vacuum-therapy-evt
#16
REVIEW
K E Grund, U Schweizer, A Zipfel, B Mothes
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic insufficiency and perforations in the gastrointestinal tract are severe complications associated with a high complication rate and mortality. Conventional treatment options (particularly re-operations) are often unsatisfactory. Endoscopic vacuum therapy (EVT) is increasingly being used as a promising alternative. PROBLEM: The use of EVT requires a high level of competence in interventional flexible endoscopy, which is primarily not available to every surgeon...
October 10, 2018: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304457/oral-dydrogesterone-versus-intravaginal-micronized-progesterone-gel-for-luteal-phase-support-in-ivf-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#17
Georg Griesinger, Christophe Blockeel, Gennady T Sukhikh, Ameet Patki, Bharati Dhorepatil, Dong-Zi Yang, Zi-Jiang Chen, Elke Kahler, Claire Pexman-Fieth, Herman Tournaye
STUDY QUESTION: Is oral dydrogesterone 30 mg daily non-inferior to 8% micronized vaginal progesterone (MVP) gel 90 mg daily for luteal phase support in IVF? SUMMARY ANSWER: Oral dydrogesterone demonstrated non-inferiority to MVP gel for the presence of fetal heartbeats at 12 weeks of gestation (non-inferiority margin 10%). WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The standard of care for luteal phase support in IVF is the use of MVP; however, it is associated with vaginal irritation, discharge and poor patient compliance...
October 10, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30300231/measuring-the-impact-of-research-using-conventional-and-alternative-metrics
#18
Sasha E Knowlton, Sabrina Paganoni, William Niehaus, Monica Verduzco-Gutierrez, Raman Sharma, Mary A Iaccarino, Todd Hayano, Jeffrey C Schneider, Julie K Silver
Bibliometrics utilize statistical methods to measure the scholarly impact of publications. Bibliometrics are categorized as conventional metrics (CM) or alternative metrics (AM). CM have often been considered the standard to measure the impact of publication-related scholarship. With the growing popularity of social media (SoMe) and ease of instantaneous distribution of information globally, AM have become an important complementary measure of scholarly activity. Bibliometrics may provide a standard performance measurement that may be used for tenure and/or promotion among academic institutions...
October 8, 2018: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299998/comparison-of-metal-artifact-reduction-in-dual-and-single-source-ct-a-vertebral-phantom-study
#19
Philippe Jagoda, Daniel Schmitz, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Arno Bücker, Peter Minko
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the capability of two algorithms for metal artifact reduction and virtual monoenergetic imaging (VME), a metal artifact reduction application for dual-source CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A bovine vertebra phantom with 16 artificial osteolyses and two 20 × 4.5 mm stainless steel screws was scanned on two single-source CT scanner and one dual-source CT scanner at a dose identical to the single-source acquisitions...
October 9, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30299359/the-ideal-patient-profile-for-new-beta-lactam-beta-lactamase-inhibitors
#20
Philippe Montravers, Matteo Bassetti
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The worldwide spread of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing bacteria, the overuse of carbapenems, the emergence of carbapenemase-producing organisms and the growing importance of multidrug-resistant and/or extended-drug-resistant strains have totally changed prescribers' habits, leading to very few treatment options in many cases. Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combinations should be considered as an alternative to carbapenems for treating ESBL-producing bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections...
October 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
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