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Paediatric respiratory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806480/aerosolized-prostacyclins-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards
#1
REVIEW
Arash Afshari, Anders Bastholm Bille, Mikkel Allingstrup
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical condition that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.This review was originally published in 2010 and updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of aerosolized prostacyclin in adults and children with ARDS. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 4); MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI BIOSIS Previews, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and three trials registers...
July 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804787/burden-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-and-potential-effect-of-different-immunisation-strategies-a-modelling-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-for-england
#2
Deborah Cromer, Albert Jan van Hoek, Anthony T Newall, Andrew J Pollard, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Vaccines and prophylactic antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are in development and likely to be available in the next 5-10 years. The most efficient way to use these products when they become available is an important consideration for public health decision makers. METHODS: We performed a multivariate regression analysis to estimate the burden of RSV in children younger than 5 years in England (UK), a representative high-income temperate country, and used these results to assess the potential effect of different RSV immunisation strategies (targeting vaccination for infants, or pregnant women, or prophylactic antibodies for neonates)...
August 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803162/-impact-of-air-pollution-in-paediatric-consultations-in-primary-health-care-ecological-study
#3
Raquel Martín Martín, Marciano Sánchez Bayle
OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between the levels of environmental pollutants and the number of paediatric consultations related to respiratory disease in Primary Health Care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An ecological study is performed, in which the dependent variable analysed was the number of paediatric consultations in an urban Primary Health Care centre in Madrid over a 3 year period (2013-2015), and specifically the consultations related to bronchiolitis, recurrent bronchospasm, and upper respiratory diseases...
August 9, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803050/the-arest-cf-experience-in-biobanking-more-than-just-tissues-tubes-and-time
#4
Luke W Garratt, Anthony Kicic, Colin Robertson, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter D Sly, Stephen M Stick
Research to further improve outcomes for people with CF is dependent upon well characterised, archived and accessible clinical specimens. The recent article by Beekman et al. published in Journal of Cystic Fibrosis summarised a scientific meeting at the 13th ECFS Basic Science Conference. This meeting discussed how well-annotated, clinical biobanks for CF could be established in Europe to meet the needs of therapeutic development. The Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST CF) has conducted biobanking of CF research and clinical specimens since the late 1990s and is custodian of the most comprehensive paediatric CF biobank in the world that focuses on the first years of life...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799175/low-age-low-birth-weight-and-congenital-heart-disease-are-risk-factors-for-intensive-care-in-infants-with-bronchiolitis
#5
Minna Mecklin, Paula Heikkilä, Matti Korppi
AIM: This study evaluated the incidence and risk factors for intensive care and respiratory support in infant bronchiolitis. METHODS: This retrospective descriptive case-control study focused on 105 patients treated in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and 210 controls treated in the emergency department or on the paediatric ward in Tampere University Hospital in Finland between 2000-2015. Statistically significant risk factors in non-adjusted analyses were included in the adjusted logistic regression...
August 11, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797888/the-weighty-issue-of-obesity-in-paediatric-respiratory-medicine
#6
REVIEW
Dominic A Fitzgerald
Some have observed that developed world is fat and getting fatter. This is even extending into the developing world, and it is important to appreciate that the consequences of childhood obesity last into adulthood and are associated with premature death. From the paediatric respiratory perspective, the deposition of excess adipose tissue in the thoraco-abdominal region begins early in life and is believed to alter diaphragm mobility and chest wall expansion, reduce lung compliance, and result in a rapid shallow breathing pattern with an increased work of breathing and reduction in maximum ventilatory capacity...
June 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795339/impact-of-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-on-the-development-of-respiratory-tract-diseases
#7
REVIEW
S Esposito, N Principi
Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793861/viral-and-bacterial-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-hospital-health-care-workers-over-time-and-association-with-symptoms
#8
C Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Yi Zhang, Holly Seale, Peng Yang, Joshua Chen, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract is commonly described and usually thought to be of no clinical significance. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and significance of bacteria and viruses in the upper respiratory tract of healthcare workers (HCWs), and association with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in China and 223 HCWs were recruited from fever clinics and respiratory, paediatric, emergency/Intensive medication wards...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780547/paediatric-asthma-control-under-a-community-management-model-in-china-a-protocol-for-a-prospective-multicentre-cohort-study
#9
Juan Xu, Yong Yin, Hao Zhang, Wen Wei Zhong, Lei Zhang, Jing Zhang, Shu Hua Yuan, Fen Zhang, Li Xia Zhao
INTRODUCTION: Childhood asthma is globally one of the most common respiratory disorders and accounts for more school absences and more hospitalizations than any other chronic illness. The worldwide economic burden of this disease exceeds those of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Proper intervention and effective management is of paramount importance for the control and prognosis of paediatric asthma. Unfortunately, the rate of uncontrolled and partially controlled paediatric asthma in China is >90%...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780496/fifteen-minute-consultation-a-structured-approach-to-the-management-of-chronic-cough-in-a-child
#10
Cherry Alviani, Gary Ruiz, Atul Gupta
Coughing is a primary pulmonary defence mechanism that enhances clearance of secretions and particles from the airways and protects against aspiration of foreign materials. Coughing may affect 30% of children at any given time (1). Many are healthy children but some may have serious underlying disease. Childhood cough accounts for a large number of consultations and 80% of families who are referred to a paediatric respiratory clinic for chronic cough have sought medical advice five times or more (2). The majority of childhood coughs are secondary to an acute respiratory tract infection and will improve once the infection resolves, usually within 1 to 3 weeks...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761700/a-novel-treadmill-protocol-for-exercise-testing-in-children-the-british-columbia-children-s-hospital-protocol
#11
D Kathryn Duff, Astrid M De Souza, Derek G Human, James E Potts, Kevin C Harris
BACKGROUND: Exercise testing in children is widely recommended for a number of clinical and prescriptive reasons. Many institutions continue to use the Bruce protocol for treadmill testing; however, with its incremental changes in speed and grade, it has challenges for practical application in children. We have developed a novel institutional protocol (British Columbia Children's Hospital (BCCH)), which may have better utility in paediatric populations. AIM: To determine if our institutional protocol yields similar peak responses in minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), metabolic equivalents (METS) and heart rate (HR) when compared with the traditional Bruce protocol...
2017: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752472/technical-challenges-related-to-implementation-of-a-formula-one-real-time-data-acquisition-and-analysis-system-in-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#12
B Rajeswari Matam, Heather Duncan
Most existing, expert monitoring systems do not provide the real time continuous analysis of the monitored physiological data that is necessary to detect transient or combined vital sign indicators nor do they provide long term storage of the data for retrospective analyses. In this paper we examine the feasibility of implementing a long term data storage system which has the ability to incorporate real-time data analytics, the system design, report the main technical issues encountered, the solutions implemented and the statistics of the data recorded...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744815/mammalian-diaphanous-related-formin-1-restricts-early-phases-of-influenza-a-nws-33-virus-h1n1-infection-in-llc-mk2-cells-by-affecting-cytoskeleton-dynamics
#13
Flora De Conto, Alessandra Fazzi, Sergey V Razin, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Maria Cristina Medici, Silvana Belletti, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
Viruses depend on cellular machinery to efficiently replicate. The host cytoskeleton is one of the first cellular systems hijacked by viruses in order to ensure their intracellular transport and promote the development of infection. Our previous results demonstrated that stable microfilaments and microtubules interfered with human influenza A/NWS/33 virus (H1N1) infection in semi-permissive LLC-MK2 cells. Although formins play a key role in cytoskeletal remodelling, few studies addressed a possible role of these proteins in development of viral infection...
July 25, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743279/childhood-interstitial-lung-diseases-in-immunocompetent-children-in-australia-and-new-zealand-a-decade-s-experience
#14
Vishal Saddi, Sean Beggs, Bruce Bennetts, Joanne Harrison, Neil Hime, Nitin Kapur, Jill Lipsett, Lawrence M Nogee, Amy Phu, Sadasivam Suresh, André Schultz, Hiran Selvadurai, Stephanie Sherrard, Roxanne Strachan, Julian Vyas, Yvonne Zurynski, Adam Jaffé
BACKGROUND: Childhood interstitial lung disease (chILD) represents a rare heterogeneous group of respiratory disorders. In the absence of randomized controlled clinical trials, global collaborations have utilized case series with an aim to standardising approaches to diagnosis and management. Australasian data are lacking. The aim of this study was to calculate prevalence and report the experience of chILD in Australasia over a decade. METHODS: Paediatric pulmonologists in Australia and New Zealand involved in the care of patients aged 0-18 years with chILD completed a questionnaire on demographics, clinical features and outcomes, over a 10 year period...
July 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734691/cerebellar-fits-in-the-2000s
#15
Domenico Serino, Davide Caputo, Lucia Fusco
Acute compression on the brainstem or acute increase in intracranial pressure may induce non-epileptic events varying from tonic seizures to axial rigidity with motor automatism, sometimes clearly characterized by decerebrate or decorticate paroxysmal posturing. The EEG correlate is characterized by diffuse asynchronous slow waves of variable amplitude. The mechanism behind such events, known as "cerebellar seizures or fits", is linked to cerebellar herniation and brainstem compression and is not of cortical origin...
July 19, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727606/the-clinical-utility-of-respiratory-variation-in-inferior-vena-cava-diameter-for-predicting-fluid-responsiveness-in-spontaneously-ventilating-patients
#16
Elliot Long, Ed Oakley, Trevor Duke, Franz E Babl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720723/profile-and-outcomes-of-critically-ill-children-in-a-lower-middle-income-country
#17
Muhammad Irfan Habib, Khalid Mehmood A Khan
OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical profile and outcome of critically ill children presenting to a paediatric ED in a lower middle-income country. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of children (<14 years) presenting to the ED of the National Institute of Child Health, Karachi, between January and December 2014 who were assigned to acuity 1 (requiring immediate life-saving interventions) according to the Emergency Severity Index. Data included demographic variables, presenting complaints, interventions and outcomes in the ED...
July 18, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720214/-hypophosphatasia-clinical-manifestations-diagnostic-recommendations-and-therapeutic-options
#18
Gabriel A Martos-Moreno, Joan Calzada, María L Couce, Jesús Argente
Hypophosphatasia is a very rare bone metabolism disorder caused by a deficiency in alkaline phosphatase activity, due to mutations in the ALPL gene. Its clinical hallmark is the impairment of skeletal and teeth mineralisation, although extra-skeletal manifestations are frequent. Its phenotypic spectrum is widely variable from a subtype with exclusive odontological impairment (odontohypophosphatasia) to five subtypes with systemic involvement, classified according to the age at the onset of the first symptoms (four of them in the paediatric age range: perinatal lethal, perinatal benign, infant and childhood hypophosphatasia)...
July 15, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708268/screening-protocols-to-monitor-respiratory-status-in-primary-immunodeficiency-disease-findings-from-a-european-survey-and-subclinical-infection-working-group
#19
Stephen Jolles, Silvia Sánchez-Ramón, Isabella Quinti, Pere Soler-Palacín, Carlo Agostini, Benoit Florkin, Louis-Jean Couderc, Nicholas Brodszki, Alison Jones, Hilary Longhurst, Klaus Warnatz, Filomeen Haerynck, Andrea Matucci, Esther de Vries
Many patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) who have antibody deficiency develop progressive lung disease due to underlying subclinical infection and inflammation. To understand how these patients are monitored we conducted a retrospective survey based on patient records of 13 PID centres across Europe, regarding the care of 1,061 adult and 178 paediatric patients with PID on IgG replacement. The most common diagnosis was common variable immunodeficiency in adults (75%), and hypogammaglobulinaemia in children (39%)...
July 14, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702339/structured-light-plethysmography-slp-management-and-follow-up-of-a-paediatric-patient-with-pneumonia
#20
Michele Ghezzi, Laura Tenero, Michele Piazza, Alessandro Bodini, Giorgio Piacentini
Structured Light Plethysmography (SLP) is a non-invasive method to study chest and abdominal movement during breathing and can identify abnormal contributions of the different regions of the chest. M.D hospitalized for pneumonia, underwent SLP and spirometry at admission (T0), after 48 hours (T1), and after one month (T2). SLP parameters showed expiratory flow limitation, information consistent with the spirometric parameters collected, and reduced motion in the area effected by pneumonia, with improvement and normalization at T1 and T2...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
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