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Paediatric respiratory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915908/advances-in-paediatrics-in-2016-current-practices-and-challenges-in-allergy-autoimmune-diseases-cardiology-endocrinology-gastroenterology-infectious-diseases-neonatology-nephrology-neurology-nutrition-pulmonology
#1
REVIEW
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Silvia Montella, Sergio Bernasconi
This review reports main progresses in various pediatric issues published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2016. New insights in clinical features or complications of several disorders may be useful for our better understanding. They comprise severe asthma, changing features of lupus erythematosus from birth to adolescence, celiac disease, functional gastrointestinal disorders, Moebius syndrome, recurrent pneumonia. Risk factors for congenital heart defects, Kawasaki disease have been widely investigated...
September 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913912/streptococcus-pneumoniae-colonization-of-the-nasopharynx-is-associated-with-increased-severity-during-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-in-young-children
#2
Jaelle C Brealey, Keith J Chappell, Sally Galbraith, Emmanuelle Fantino, Jane Gaydon, Sarah Tozer, Paul R Young, Patrick G Holt, Peter D Sly
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most significant cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in early life. RSV and other respiratory viruses are known to stimulate substantial outgrowth of potentially pathogenic bacteria in the upper airways of young children. However, the clinical significance of interactions between viruses and bacteria is currently unclear. The present study aimed to clarify the effect of viral and bacterial co-detections on disease severity during paediatric ARI...
September 15, 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912165/holistic-care-of-complicated-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-settings-with-limited-resources
#3
Trevor Duke, Sharon Kasa Tom, Harry Poka, Henry Welch
In recent years, most of the focus on improving the quality of paediatric care in low-income countries has been on improving primary care using the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, and improving triage and emergency treatment in hospitals aimed at reducing deaths in the first 24 hours. There has been little attention paid to improving the quality of care for children with chronic or complex diseases. Children with complicated forms of tuberculosis (TB), including central nervous system and chronic pulmonary TB, provide examples of acute and chronic multisystem paediatric illnesses that commonly present to district-level and second-level referral hospitals in low-income countries...
September 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905374/heat-and-moisture-exchangers-versus-heated-humidifiers-for-mechanically-ventilated-adults-and-children
#4
REVIEW
Donna Gillies, David A Todd, Jann P Foster, Bisanth T Batuwitage
BACKGROUND: Invasive ventilation is used to assist or replace breathing when a person is unable to breathe adequately on their own. Because the upper airway is bypassed during mechanical ventilation, the respiratory system is no longer able to warm and moisten inhaled gases, potentially causing additional breathing problems in people who already require assisted breathing. To prevent these problems, gases are artificially warmed and humidified. There are two main forms of humidification, heat and moisture exchangers (HME) or heated humidifiers (HH)...
September 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886038/diagnoses-infections-and-injuries-in-northern-syrian-children-during-the-civil-war-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Gerlant van Berlaer, Abdallah Mohamed Elsafti, Mohammad Al Safadi, Saad Souhil Saeed, Ronald Buyl, Michel Debacker, Atef Redwan, Ives Hubloue
BACKGROUND: The civil war in Syria including the deliberate targeting of healthcare services resulted in a complex humanitarian emergency, seriously affecting children's health. The objectives of this study are to document diagnoses and disease categories in Northern Syrian children after four years of conflict, and to document infectious diseases and injuries in this vulnerable population. METHODS: In a prospective cross-sectional observational sample study conducted in May 2015, healthcare workers registered demographics, comorbidities, and diagnoses (categorised according to the International Classification of Diseases version 10) in children visited at home and in internally displaced persons camps in four Syrian governorates...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882881/respiratory-manifestations-of-gastro-oesophageal-reflux-in-children
#6
REVIEW
Fernando Maria de Benedictis, Andrew Bush
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a complex problem in children. Suspected respiratory manifestations of GORD, such as asthma, chronic cough and laryngitis, are commonly encountered in the paediatric practice, but continue to be entities with more questions than answers. The accuracy of diagnostic tests (ie, pH or pH-impedance monitoring, laryngoscopy, endoscopy) for patients with suspected extraoesophageal manifestations of GORD is suboptimal and therefore whether there is a causal relationship between these conditions remains largely undetermined...
September 7, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881007/delayed-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-respiratory-infections
#7
REVIEW
Geoffrey Kp Spurling, Chris B Del Mar, Liz Dooley, Ruth Foxlee, Rebecca Farley
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879605/in-vitro-evaluation-of-limitations-and-possibilities-for-the-future-use-of-intracorporeal-gas-exchangers-placed-in-the-upper-lobe-position
#8
Erin Schumer, Klaus Höffler, Christian Kuehn, Mark Slaughter, Axel Haverich, Bettina Wiegmann
The lack of donor organs has led to the development of alternative "destination therapies", such as a bio-artificial lung (BA) for end-stage lung disease. Ultimately aiming at a fully implantable BA, general capabilities and limitations of different oxygenators were tested based on the model of BA positioning at the right upper lobe. Three different-sized oxygenators (neonatal, paediatric, and adult) were tested in a mock circulation loop regarding oxygenation and decarboxylation capacities for three respiratory pathologies...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871588/primary-pleuropulmonary-synovial-sarcoma-with-brain-metastases-in-a-paediatric-patient-an-unusual-presentation
#9
Pushpak Chandrakant Chirmade, Sonia Parikh, Asha Anand, Harsha Panchal, Apurva Patel, Sandip Shah
Primary lung neoplasms are rare in children. The most common primary lung malignancies in children are pleuropulmonary blastoma and carcinoid tumour. Synovial sarcoma (SS) accounts for approximately 1% of all childhood malignancies. In absolute terms, the SS of the lungs and pleura are extremely rare and pose a diagnostic difficulty. Soft tissue sarcomas usually have a high potential for metastases, however, metastasis to the brain is rare, even in widely disseminated disease, and it has been described only in 3 case reports previously...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844551/safety-and-efficacy-of-high-dose-enteral-intravenous-and-transdermal-clonidine-for-the-acute-management-of-severe-intractable-childhood-dystonia-and-status-dystonicus-an-illustrative-case-series
#10
V Nakou, K Williamson, T Arichi, D E Lumsden, Steve Tomlin, M Kaminska, J-P Lin
OBJECTIVE: Acute dystonia in children is distressing, painful and can progress to life-threatening status dystonicus. Typical management involves benzodiazepines which can result in respiratory depression requiring PICU admission. Clonidine is less respiratory-depressant, and by facilitating sleep, switches dystonia off. It can also be administered via enteral, continuous intravenous infusion, and transdermal slow release routes. We describe the dose range and safety profile of clonidine management in a case-series of children with severe acute exacerbation of dystonia in a tertiary hospital setting...
July 28, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833452/boys-have-better-short-term-and-long-term-survival-rates-after-intensive-care-admissions-than-girls
#11
E Johansson Frigyesi, P Andersson, A Frigyesi
AIM: We investigated possible gender differences in paediatric intensive-care morbidity-adjusted mortality. METHODS: In this study, data on all 21,972 paediatric intensive-care admissions in Sweden between 2008 and 2015 were analysed regarding morbidity-adjusted survival, using Cox regression, with age, gender and estimated mortality ratio as dependent variables and using the standardised mortality ratio at 90 days after admission. The data was obtained from the Swedish Intensive Care Registry...
August 22, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814419/chronic-cough-postacute-respiratory-illness-in-children-a-cohort-study
#12
Kerry-Ann F O'Grady, Benjamin J Drescher, Vikas Goyal, Natalie Phillips, Jason Acworth, Julie M Marchant, Anne B Chang
OBJECTIVE: Data on the aetiology of persistent cough at the transitional stage from subacute to chronic cough (>4 weeks duration) are scarce. We aimed to (1) identify the prevalence of chronic cough following acute respiratory illness (ARI) and (2) determine the diagnostic outcomes of children with chronic cough. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: A paediatric emergency department (ED) in Brisbane, Australia. PATIENTS: Children aged <15 years presenting with an ARI with cough...
August 16, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806480/aerosolized-prostacyclins-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-ards
#13
REVIEW
Arash Afshari, Anders Bastholm Bille, Mikkel Allingstrup
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a critical condition that is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Aerosolized prostacyclin has been used to improve oxygenation despite the limited evidence available so far.This review was originally published in 2010 and updated in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of aerosolized prostacyclin in adults and children with ARDS. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched CENTRAL (2017, Issue 4); MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), ISI BIOSIS Previews, ISI Web of Science, LILACS, CINAHL (EBSCOhost), and three trials registers...
July 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804787/burden-of-paediatric-respiratory-syncytial-virus-disease-and-potential-effect-of-different-immunisation-strategies-a-modelling-and-cost-effectiveness-analysis-for-england
#14
Deborah Cromer, Albert Jan van Hoek, Anthony T Newall, Andrew J Pollard, Mark Jit
BACKGROUND: Vaccines and prophylactic antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) are in development and likely to be available in the next 5-10 years. The most efficient way to use these products when they become available is an important consideration for public health decision makers. METHODS: We performed a multivariate regression analysis to estimate the burden of RSV in children younger than 5 years in England (UK), a representative high-income temperate country, and used these results to assess the potential effect of different RSV immunisation strategies (targeting vaccination for infants, or pregnant women, or prophylactic antibodies for neonates)...
August 2017: Lancet. Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803162/-impact-of-air-pollution-in-paediatric-consultations-in-primary-health-care-ecological-study
#15
Raquel Martín Martín, Marciano Sánchez Bayle
OBJECTIVE: To study the correlation between the levels of environmental pollutants and the number of paediatric consultations related to respiratory disease in Primary Health Care. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An ecological study is performed, in which the dependent variable analysed was the number of paediatric consultations in an urban Primary Health Care centre in Madrid over a 3 year period (2013-2015), and specifically the consultations related to bronchiolitis, recurrent bronchospasm, and upper respiratory diseases...
August 9, 2017: Anales de Pediatría: Publicación Oficial de la Asociación Española de Pediatría (A.E.P.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803050/the-arest-cf-experience-in-biobanking-more-than-just-tissues-tubes-and-time
#16
Luke W Garratt, Anthony Kicic, Colin Robertson, Sarath Ranganathan, Peter D Sly, Stephen M Stick
Research to further improve outcomes for people with CF is dependent upon well characterised, archived and accessible clinical specimens. The recent article by Beekman et al. published in Journal of Cystic Fibrosis summarised a scientific meeting at the 13th ECFS Basic Science Conference. This meeting discussed how well-annotated, clinical biobanks for CF could be established in Europe to meet the needs of therapeutic development. The Australian Respiratory Early Surveillance Team for Cystic Fibrosis (AREST CF) has conducted biobanking of CF research and clinical specimens since the late 1990s and is custodian of the most comprehensive paediatric CF biobank in the world that focuses on the first years of life...
September 2017: Journal of Cystic Fibrosis: Official Journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799175/low-age-low-birth-weight-and-congenital-heart-disease-are-risk-factors-for-intensive-care-in-infants-with-bronchiolitis
#17
Minna Mecklin, Paula Heikkilä, Matti Korppi
AIM: This study evaluated the incidence and risk factors for intensive care and respiratory support in infant bronchiolitis. METHODS: This retrospective descriptive case-control study focused on 105 patients treated in the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and 210 controls treated in the emergency department or on the paediatric ward in Tampere University Hospital in Finland between 2000-2015. Statistically significant risk factors in non-adjusted analyses were included in the adjusted logistic regression...
August 11, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797888/the-weighty-issue-of-obesity-in-paediatric-respiratory-medicine
#18
REVIEW
Dominic A Fitzgerald
Some have observed that developed world is fat and getting fatter. This is even extending into the developing world, and it is important to appreciate that the consequences of childhood obesity last into adulthood and are associated with premature death. From the paediatric respiratory perspective, the deposition of excess adipose tissue in the thoraco-abdominal region begins early in life and is believed to alter diaphragm mobility and chest wall expansion, reduce lung compliance, and result in a rapid shallow breathing pattern with an increased work of breathing and reduction in maximum ventilatory capacity...
June 11, 2017: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795339/impact-of-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-on-the-development-of-respiratory-tract-diseases
#19
REVIEW
S Esposito, N Principi
Knowledge of whether and how respiratory microbiota composition can prime the immune system and provide colonisation resistance, limiting consecutive pathobiont overgrowth and infections, is essential to improving the prevention and therapy of respiratory disorders. Modulation of dysbiotic ecosystems or reconstitution of missing microbes might be a possible measure to reduce respiratory diseases. The aim of this review is to analyse the role of nasopharyngeal microbiota in the development of respiratory tract disease in paediatric-age subjects...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793861/viral-and-bacterial-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-in-hospital-health-care-workers-over-time-and-association-with-symptoms
#20
C Raina MacIntyre, Abrar Ahmad Chughtai, Yi Zhang, Holly Seale, Peng Yang, Joshua Chen, Yang Pan, Daitao Zhang, Quanyi Wang
BACKGROUND: Bacterial colonisation of the respiratory tract is commonly described and usually thought to be of no clinical significance. The aim of this study was to examine the presence and significance of bacteria and viruses in the upper respiratory tract of healthcare workers (HCWs), and association with respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in China and 223 HCWs were recruited from fever clinics and respiratory, paediatric, emergency/Intensive medication wards...
August 9, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
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