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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767829/homeopathy-in-the-age-of-antimicrobial-resistance-is-it-a-viable-treatment-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections
#1
Alison Fixsen
BACKGROUND:  Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and their complications are the most frequent cause of antibiotic prescribing in primary care. With multi-resistant organisms proliferating, appropriate alternative treatments to these conditions are urgently required. Homeopathy presents one solution; however, there are many methods of homeopathic prescribing. This review of the literature considers firstly whether homeopathy offers a viable alternative therapeutic solution for acute URTIs and their complications, and secondly how such homeopathic intervention might take place...
May 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757925/a-modified-co2-o2-guedel-airway-improves-capnographic-accuracy-compared-with-a-co2-o2-nasal-cannula-an-infant-manikin-study
#2
Jens Moll, Pinelopi Anagnostopoulou, Franz J Frei, Thomas O Erb
BACKGROUND: Capnography via a CO2/O2 nasal cannula is commonly used for respiratory monitoring during sedation. However, signal disturbances are frequently encountered, especially in young children. OBJECTIVE: Sampling ports placed closer to the trachea have been shown to result in improved signal quality. In a manikin model of a 6-month-old infant we compared capnography from a modified Guedel airway with a CO2 port located at the tip with that from a CO2/O2 nasal cannula...
April 30, 2018: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755754/-chlamydia-pneumoniae-induced-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-responses-are-lower-in-children-with-asthma-compared-with-non-asthma
#3
Tamar Anne Smith-Norowitz, Kobkul Chotikanatis, Diana Weaver, Jared Ditkowsky, Yitzchok Meir Norowitz, Margaret R Hammerschlag, Rauno Joks, Stephan Kohlhoff
Introduction: Chlamydia pneumoniae respiratory tract infection has been implicated in the pathogenesis of reactive airway disease and asthma. Innate cytokine responses that are protective of infection with intracellular pathogens may be impaired in patients with asthma. Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) is a cytokine related to functions of monocytes and may inhibit C. pneumoniae infection. We investigated TNF-α responses in C. pneumoniae -infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with asthma and non-asthma, and whether ciprofloxacin, azithromycin or doxycycline affects TNF-α responses...
2018: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754411/a-case-study-of-nurse-practitioner-care-compared-to-general-practitioner-care-for-children-with-respiratory-tract-infections
#4
Saskia F van Vugt, Alma C van de Pol, Frits G W Cleveringa, Rebecca K Stellato, Marieke P Kappers, Niek J de Wit, Roger A M J Damoiseaux
AIM: To compare quality of care provided by nurse practitioners with care provided by general practitioners for children with respiratory tract infections in the Netherlands. BACKGROUND: Nurse practitioners increasingly manage acute conditions in general practice, with opportunities for more protocolled care. Studies on quality of nurse practitioners' care for children with respiratory tract infections are limited to the US health care system and do not take into account baseline differences in illness severity...
May 13, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751365/the-interplay-between-risk-and-preventive-factors-explains-why-some-children-develop-allergies-to-certain-foods-and-others-show-tolerance
#5
REVIEW
Sami Remes, Petri Kulmala
AIM: A number of studies have clarified the tolerance mechanisms and risk factors for food allergies. Our aim was to explore food allergy symptoms by target organs, together with the risk factors and how to prevent food allergies and induce tolerance. METHODS: We carried out a thorough review of studies on paediatric food allergies published in the last decade. RESULTS: Food allergy symptoms may affect the skin, nasal and oral mucosa, conjunctivae, gastrointestinal tract, or, in severe cases, the respiratory tract and cardiovascular organs...
May 11, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749357/-mycoplasma-pneumoniae-a-significant-but-underrated-pathogen-in-paediatric-community-acquired-lower-respiratory-tract-infections
#6
REVIEW
Surinder Kumar
Lower respiratory tract infections are considered a common cause responsible for morbidity and mortality among children, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae is identified to be responsible for up to 40 per cent of community-acquired pneumonia in children greater than five years of age. Extrapulmonary manifestations have been reported either due to spread of infection or autoimmune mechanisms. Infection by M. pneumoniae has high incidence and clinical importance but is still an underrated disease. Most widely used serologic methods are enzyme immunoassays for detection of immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG and IgA antibodies to M...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746600/impact-of-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-on-cerebral-hemodynamic-in-paediatric-patients-with-post-traumatic-brain-swelling-treated-by-surgical-decompression
#7
Silvia De Rosa, Gianluca Villa, Paola Franchi, Aldo Mancino, Federica Tosi, Marina Alessandra Martin, Simona Bazzano, Giorgio Conti, Silvia Maria Pulitanò
INTRODUCTION: The objective of our present study is to evaluate the impact of different PEEP levels on cerebral hemodynamic, gas exchanges and respiratory system mechanics in paediatric patients with post-traumatic brain swelling treated with decompressive craniectomy (DC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective physiologic study was carried out on 14 paediatric patients presenting with severe traumatic brain swelling treated with DC. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography was performed on the middle cerebral artery bilaterally after DC...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743330/protocol-for-a-randomised-trial-of-higher-versus-lower-intensity-patient-provider-communication-interventions-to-reduce-antibiotic-misuse-in-two-paediatric-ambulatory-clinics-in-the-usa
#8
Kathy Goggin, Andrea Bradley-Ewing, Angela L Myers, Brian R Lee, Emily A Hurley, Kirsten B Delay, Sarah Schlachter, Areli Ramphal, Kimberly Pina, David Yu, Kirsten Weltmer, Sebastian Linnemayr, Christopher C Butler, Jason G Newland
INTRODUCTION: Children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) are prescribed up to 11.4 million unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions annually. Inadequate parent-provider communication is a chief contributor, yet efforts to reduce overprescribing have only indirectly targeted communication or been impractical. This paper describes our multisite, parallel group, cluster randomised trial comparing two feasible interventions for enhancing parent-provider communication on the rate of inappropriate antibiotic prescribing (primary outcome) and revisits, adverse drug reactions and parent-rated quality of shared decision-making, parent-provider communication and visit satisfaction (secondary outcomes)...
May 9, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739719/influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-in-hospitalised-hong-kong-children-feasibility-of-estimates-from-routine-surveillance-data
#9
Karene Hoi Ting Yeung, Kate Ching Ching Chan, Paul K S Chan, David Shu Yan Lam, Philip Chak On Sham, Yat Sun Yau, Wai Hung Chan, Wa Keung Chiu, Kwok Leung Ng, Daniel Kwok Keung Ng, Iris Mei Ching Chan, E Anthony S Nelson
BACKGROUND: Hong Kong has a high burden of influenza hospitalisation. This study estimated influenza vaccine effectiveness in hospitalised Hong Kong children aged 6 months to below 6 years using data potentially obtainable from routine surveillance sources. METHODS: This 'test-negative' case-control study was conducted over two summer and one winter influenza seasons in five public Hong Kong hospitals during 2015 and 2016. Patients admitted for febrile and/or respiratory-associated illnesses who met inclusion criteria were invited to participate...
May 5, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29721345/a-midgut-duplication-cyst-lined-by-respiratory-epithelium
#10
Balaji Mahendran, Tim Bracey, Rajesh T Kochupapy
Duplication cysts are an uncommon finding. Majority of these cases are found in the region of the midgut, and many have been reported in literature. However, there has been only one previous case of a midgut duplication cyst lined by respiratory epithelium. This is a rare pathology, of which very little is known about. The pathophysiology of these cases is also difficult to explain. We aim to present a case of a midgut duplication cyst in a paediatric patient, who had other abnormalities as well. We also aim to offer a hypothesis for this case...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720077/australian-paediatric-surveillance-unit-annual-report-2016
#11
Marie Deverell, Amy Phu, Yvonne Zurynski, Elizabeth Elliott
This report summarises the cases reported to the Australian Paediatric Surveillance Unit (APSU) of rare infectious diseases or rare complications of more common infectious diseases in children. During the calendar year 2016, there were approximately 1500 paediatricians reporting to the APSU and the monthly report card return rate was 90%. APSU continued to provide unique national data on the perinatal exposure to HIV, congenital rubella, congenital cytomegalovirus, neonatal and infant herpes simplex virus, and congenital and neonatal varicella...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704736/viral-bronchiolitis-management-in-hospitals-in-the-uk
#12
Elliott J Carande, Eva P Galiza, Alecia Nickless, Andrew J Pollard, Simon B Drysdale
BACKGROUND: Viral bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalisation in infants less than a year old. The United Kingdom (UK) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) published a guideline for the management of viral bronchiolitis in June 2015. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to prospectively survey the management of viral bronchiolitis in hospital Trusts in the UK to provide a baseline of practice prior to the publication of the 2015 NICE bronchiolitis guideline against which future practice can be assessed...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704733/evaluation-of-the-national-laboratory-based-surveillance-system-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus-in-sweden-2015-2016
#13
Heli Harvala, AnnaSara Carnahan, Sarah Axelsson, Maria Brytting
BACKGROUND: Most laboratories use RSV PCR but near-patient tests (NPT) performed at paediatric clinics are believed to be increasingly used. Anonymised data on RSV infections has been collected since 1990 in Sweden. No evaluation of Swedish RSV surveillance or use of laboratory testing had previously been performed. OBJECTIVES: Swedish RSV data and methods used for RSV laboratory testing and reporting were evaluated in order to improve RSV surveillance in a forthcoming vaccine era...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699897/development-of-regional-extracorporeal-life-support-system-the-importance-of-innovative-simulation-training
#14
Mateusz Puślecki, Marcin Ligowski, Marek Dąbrowski, Sebastian Stefaniak, Małgorzata Ładzińska, Aleksander Pawlak, Marcin Zieliński, Łukasz Szarpak, Bartłomiej Perek, Marek Jemielity
BACKGROUND: Despite advances in mechanical ventilation, severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates ranging from 30% to 60%. Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation (ECMO) can be used as a "bridge to recovery". ECMO is a complex network that provides oxygenation and ventilation and allows the lungs to rest and recover from respiratory failure, while minimizing iatrogenic ventilator-induced lung injury. In the critical care settings, ECMO is shown to improve survival rates and outcomes in patients with severe ARDS...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699707/anaesthetic-management-of-a-paediatric-patient-with-congenital-fibre-type-disproportion-myopathy
#15
F Buisán, O de la Varga, M Flores, J Sánchez-Ruano
Congenital fibre type disproportion (CFTD) is a rare type of myopathy that is characterised by muscle weakness and hypotonia during childhood. Clinical features include motor delay, feeding difficulties, limb weakness, joint contractures, and scoliosis. A report is presented of the anaesthetic management of a 3-year-old girl with CFTD myopathy associated with a mutation of the TPM3 gene, scheduled for adenotonsillectomy because of obstructive sleep apnoea hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS). The main concerns were the possible susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia, the risk of anaesthesia-induced rhabdomyolysis, a greater sensitivity to non-depolarising muscle relaxants, and the presence of OSAHS...
April 23, 2018: Revista Española de Anestesiología y Reanimación
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695885/post-earthquake-health-service-support-nepal
#16
Sophie Goyet, Rajan Rayamajhi, Badry Nath Gyawali, Bhola Ram Shrestha, Guna Raj Lohani, Damodar Adhikari, Edwin Salvador, Roderico Ofrin, Jos Vandelaer, Reuben Samuel
Problem: Seven months after the April 2015 Nepal earthquake, and as relief efforts were scaling down, health authorities faced ongoing challenges in health-service provision and disease surveillance reporting. Approach: In January 2016, the World Health Organization recruited and trained 12 Nepalese medical doctors to provide technical assistance to the health authorities in the most affected districts by the earthquake. These emergency support officers monitored the recovery of health services and reconstruction of health facilities, monitored stocks of essential medicines, facilitated disease surveillance reporting to the health ministry and assisted in outbreak investigations...
April 1, 2018: Bulletin of the World Health Organization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695022/catheter-related-arterial-thrombosis-in-neonates-and-children-a-systematic-review
#17
Mattia Rizzi, Neil Goldenberg, Mariana Bonduel, Shoshana Revel-Vilk, Ernest Amankwah, Manuela Albisetti
Catheter-related arterial thrombosis (CAT) is increasingly recognized in children. Available data are scarce and based on expert opinions. This systematic review aimed to identify knowledge on paediatric CAT. Among 3,484 publications, 22 met inclusion criteria. Fourteen reported on CAT due to umbilical arterial catheter (UAC), two to extremity indwelling catheter (EIC), one to both and five to cardiac catheter (CC). The overall cumulative incidence of CAT was 21% (95% confidence interval [CI], 13-31) with a relative incidence of 20% (95% CI, 10-33) for UAC and 11% (95% CI, 3-21) for CC-related CAT...
April 25, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690950/safety-of-tracheal-intubation-in-the-presence-of-cardiac-disease-in-paediatric-icus
#18
Eleanor A Gradidge, Adnan Bakar, David Tellez, Michael Ruppe, Sarah Tallent, Geoffrey Bird, Natasha Lavin, Anthony Lee, Vinay Nadkarni, Michelle Adu-Darko, Jesse Bain, Katherine Biagas, Aline Branca, Ryan K Breuer, Calvin Brown, Kris Bysani, Guillaume Emeriaud, Sandeep Gangadharan, John S Giuliano, Joy D Howell, Conrad Krawiec, Jan Hau Lee, Simon Li, Keith Meyer, Michael Miksa, Natalie Napolitano, Sholeen Nett, Gabrielle Nuthall, Alberto Orioles, Erin B Owen, Margaret M Parker, Simon Parsons, Lee A Polikoff, Kyle Rehder, Osamu Saito, Ron C Sanders, Asha Shenoi, Dennis W Simon, Peter W Skippen, Keiko Tarquinio, Anne Thompson, Iris Toedt-Pingel, Karen Walson, Akira Nishisaki
IntroductionChildren with CHD and acquired heart disease have unique, high-risk physiology. They may have a higher risk of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events, as compared with children with non-cardiac disease.Materials and methodsWe sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse tracheal-intubation-associated events in children with cardiac disease compared to children with non-cardiac disease. A retrospective analysis of tracheal intubations from 38 international paediatric ICUs was performed using the National Emergency Airway Registry for Children (NEAR4KIDS) quality improvement registry...
April 25, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688024/reduced-nasal-viral-load-and-ifn-responses-in-infants-with-rsv-bronchiolitis-and-respiratory-failure
#19
Ryan S Thwaites, Matthew Coates, Kazuhiro Ito, Marwa Ghazaly, Calandra Feather, Farhana Abdulla, Tanushree Tunstall, Pooja Jain, Lindsey Cass, Garth Rapeport, Trevor T Hansel, Simon Nadel, Peter J Openshaw
RATIONALE: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infancy. Severe disease is thought to result from uncontrolled viral replication, an excessive immune response, or both. OBJECTIVES: To determine RSV load and immune mediator levels in nasal mucosal lining fluid by serial sampling of nasal fluids from cases of moderate and severe bronchiolitis over the course of infection. METHODS: Infants with viral bronchiolitis necessitating admission (n=55) were recruited from a paediatric centre during 2016/17...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686492/transitioning-from-medical-school-to-residency-evaluation-of-an-innovative-immersion-rotation-for-pgy-1-paediatric-residents
#20
Stéphanie Vairy, Olivier Jamoulle, Arielle Levy, Ana Carceller
Transition from medical school to residency is stressful due to new responsibilities in patient care. Objective: To evaluate a new immersion curriculum on the transition from medical school to paediatric residency and its implications for future use in paediatric education. Methods: In July 2013, a month-rotation offering one-third of time for clinical rounds and two-thirds of time for formal courses was conducted for postgraduate year 1 residents beginning paediatric residency training...
April 2018: Paediatrics & Child Health
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