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Marlieke E A de Kraker, Harriet Sommer, Femke de Velde, Isaac Gravestock, Emmanuel Weiss, Alexandra McAleenan, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Ohad Amit, Teri Ashton, Jan Beyersmann, Leonhard Held, Andrew M Lovering, Alasdair P MacGowan, Johan W Mouton, Jean-François Timsit, David Wilson, Martin Wolkewitz, Esther Bettiol, Aaron Dane, Stephan Harbarth
Innovations are urgently required for clinical development of antibacterials against multidrug-resistant organisms. Therefore, a European, public-private working group (STAT-Net; part of Combatting Bacterial Resistance in Europe [COMBACTE]), has reviewed and tested several innovative trials designs and analytical methods for randomized clinical trials, which has resulted in 8 recommendations. The first 3 focus on pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling, emphasizing the pertinence of population-based pharmacokinetic models, regulatory procedures for the reassessment of old antibiotics, and rigorous quality improvement...
August 13, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
M Mardal, S S Johansen, A B Davidsen, R Telving, J R Jornil, P W Dalsgaard, J B Hasselstrøm, Å M Øiestad, K Linnet, M F Andreasen
Methoxyacetylfentanyl belongs to the group of fentanyl analogues and has been associated with several deaths in recent years. We present three case reports of deceased individuals that tested positive for methoxyacetylfentanyl consumption, as well as in vitro and in vivo metabolite profiles. Methoxyacetylfentanyl was quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) in femoral blood, as well as in urine and brain tissue when these were available. Metabolite profiling was performed by incubating methoxyacetylfentanyl with pooled human hepatocytes (pHH) in Leibovitz's L-15 medium supplemented with fetal bovine serum...
July 25, 2018: Forensic Science International
Raffaele Carli, Mariagrazia Dotoli, Roberta Pellegrino
The recent development of metropolitan cities, especially in Europe, requires an effective integrated management of city services, infrastructure, and communication networks at a metropolitan level. A preliminary step towards a proper organizational and management strategy of the metropolitan city is the analysis, benchmarking and optimization of the metropolitan areas through a set of indicators coherent with the overall sustainability objective of the metropolitan city. This paper proposes the use of the Analytic Hierarchy Process multi-criteria decision making technique for application in the smart metropolitan city context, with the aim of analysing the sustainable development of energy, water and environmental systems, through a set of objective performance indicators...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Saif Rahman, Mathew Habel, Richard J Contrada
The Poincaré plot is a visual representation of the R-R time series within a Cartesian plane constructed by plotting each R-R interval as a function of the previous one. The plot can be characterized by parameters that quantify the standard deviation (SD) of short- and long-term R-R interval variability (SD1 and SD2, respectively). Claims regarding the use of Poincaré plot analysis as an alternative to conventional time-domain and spectral analytic measures of parasympathetic contributions to heart rate variability (HRV) have been evaluated somewhat extensively...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Rusul M Al-Shammari, Mohammad Amin Baghban, Nebras Alattar, Aoife A Gowen, Katia Gallo, James H Rice, Brian J Rodriguez
Photo-induced enhanced Raman spectroscopy from a lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI)-silver nanoparticle template is demonstrated both by irradiating the sample with 254 nm UV light before adding an analyte and before placing the sample in the Raman system (substrate irradiation) and by irradiating the sample in the Raman system after adding the molecule (sample irradiation). The photo-induced enhancement enables up to a ~ 7-fold increase of the surface enhanced Raman scattering signal strength of an analyte following substrate irradiation, whereas a ~ 3-fold enhancement above the surface enhanced signal is obtained for sample irradiation...
August 14, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thitaphat Ngernsutivorakul, Daniel Steyer, Alec C Valenta, Robert T Kennedy
An essential approach for in vivo chemical monitoring is to use sampling probes coupled with analytical methods; however, this method traditionally has limited spatial and temporal resolution. To address this problem, we have developed an analytical system that combines microfabricated push-pull sampling probes with droplet-based microfluidics. The microfabricated probe provides approximately 1000-fold better spatial resolution than common microdialysis probes. Microfabrication also facilitated integration of an extra channel into the probe for microinjection...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
E Wigsten, P Jonasson, T Kvist
AIM: To study patient- and tooth-specific characteristics of teeth indicated for root canal treatment, in the public dental service of the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden. METHODOLOGY: During a designated eight-week period, general dental practitioners (GDPs) working at 20 different public dental clinics consecutively registered indications for undertaking root canal treatment. The patients' subjective level of pain was also registered (VAS) at the very first appointment...
August 14, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Huu-Trien Khieu, Dang-Khanh Le, Binh Van Nguyen
This paper considers the DCSK system under jamming environment. We consider both fast and slow switching pulse jamming (PJ). We derive approximations of the system bit error rates (BERs) in analytic expressions containing only well-known special functions, from which we show that for both jamming cases increasing the spreading factor can enhance the BER. In addition, we reveal that under the fast switching PJ, the BER does not depend on the jamming duty cycle ρ when ρ ≤ 0.5, however when ρ > 0.5, increasing its value degrades the BER...
2018: PloS One
I L Snetkov, A I Yakovlev, D A Permin, S S Balabanov, O V Palashov
The method of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis of submicron powders with subsequent vacuum sintering was used to produce a series of optical ceramics based on dysprosium oxide (Dyx Y0.95-x La0.05 )2 O3 , where x=0.7, 0.85, and 0.9. The influence of ceramics composition on optical transmission of the obtained samples was investigated. The studied materials had several transparency windows in the visible 500-730 nm, near-IR 1900-2300 nm, and mid-IR 3500-7500 nm ranges. The dependence of the Verdet constant on wavelength in the 400-1940 nm range was measured for each ceramics composition, and analytical approximations were obtained...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Bo Wang, Jun-Fang Wu, Chao Li, Zhi-Yuan Li
Photonic devices based on a high-Q cavity are commonly constrained by narrow operation bandwidth, slow charging, and releasing speed. Here, we analytically and numerically demonstrate that this limitation can be broken via dynamically tuning the Q factors of a single nanocavity and driving controllable photonic transitions between a low-Q cavity mode and an ultrahigh-Q mode by temporal refractive index modulations inside a multimode cavity. During this dynamic process, the bandwidth of signal light is also reversibly compressed...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Kun Huang, Jing Zeng, Jiwei Gan, Qiang Hao, Heping Zeng
We report on a new class of mode-locked fiber lasers that allow direct creation of ultrafast vector vortex beams at arbitrary positions on the higher-order Poincaré sphere. The on-demand generation of space-variant polarization patterns was realized by controlling geometric phases inside the laser resonator to map polarization to orbital angular momentum. Thanks to the special cavity design, the required intracavity manipulation of the geometric phase imposed no disturbance on the passively mode-locked operation, thus demonstrating robust and flexible switching of vectorial modes with an 8...
August 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Peggy A Honoré, Carlos Zometa, Craig Thomas, Ashley Edmiston
CONTEXT: Leaders of government agencies are responsible for stewardship over taxpayer investments. Stewardship strengthens agency performance that is critical to improving population health. Most industries, including health care, and public enterprises, such as education, have policies for uniform data reporting and financial systems for the application of theoretical analytical techniques to organizations and entire systems. However, this is not a mainstreamed practice in local and state government public health...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Shuang Feng, C L Philip Chen
A novel neuro-fuzzy model named fuzzy broad learning system (BLS) is proposed by merging the Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy system into BLS. The fuzzy BLS replaces the feature nodes of BLS with a group of TS fuzzy subsystems, and the input data are processed by each of them. Instead of aggregating the outputs of fuzzy rules produced by every fuzzy subsystem into one value immediately, all of them are sent to the enhancement layer for further nonlinear transformation to preserve the characteristic of inputs. The defuzzification outputs of all fuzzy subsystem and the outputs of enhancement layer are combined together to obtain the model output...
August 10, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
Alireza Ghods, Kathleen Caffrey, Beiyu Lin, Kylie Fraga, Roschelle Fritz, Maureen Schmitter-Edgecombe, Christopher Hundhausen, Diane J Cook
In order to meet the health needs of the coming "age wave", technology needs to be designed that supports remote health monitoring and assessment. In this study we design CIL, a clinician-in-the-loop visual interface, that provides clinicians with patient behavior patterns, derived from smart home data. A total of 60 experienced nurses participated in an iterative design of an interactive graphical interface for remote behavior monitoring. Results of the study indicate that usability of the system improves over multiple iterations of participatory design...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
R Ray, J Basu, W A Gazi, N Samanta, K Bhattacharyya, C Roy Chaudhuri
Recently, graphene nanogrid sensor has been reported to be capable of sub-femtomolar sensing of Hepatitis B (Hep-B) surface antigen in buffer. However, for such low concentration of Hep-B in serum, it has been observed during real time operation, that there is an overlap of around 50% in the drain-source current sensitivity values between different concentrations of the target biomolecule, in the range of 0.1 fM to 100 fM. This has been attributed to the fact that the concentration of non-specific antigen in serum being significantly higher than that of the target antigen, there is a considerable deviation in the number of captured target antigen for the same concentration...
August 6, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Sebastian Schneeweiss, Robert J Glynn
Healthcare database analyses (claims, electronic health records) have been identified by various regulatory initiatives, including the 21st Century Cures Act and Prescription Drug User Fee Act ("PDUFA"), as useful supplements to randomized clinical trials to generate evidence on the effectiveness, harm, and value of medical products in routine care. Specific applications include accelerated drug approval pathways and secondary indications for approved medical products. Such real-world data ("RWD") analyses reflect how medical products impact health outside a highly controlled research environment...
May 2018: American Journal of Law & Medicine
Andrea Romano, Sophie Doran, Ilaria Belluomo, George Bushra Hanna
Breath analysis is highly acceptable to patients and health care professionals, but its implementation in clinical practice remains challenging. Clinical trials and routine practice require a robust system for collection, storage, and processing of large numbers of samples. This work describes a platform based upon the hyphenation of thermal desorption (TD) with proton transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PTR-ToF-MS), coupled by means of an original modification of the TD interface. The performance of TD-PTR-ToF-MS was tested against seven oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs), belonging to three chemical classes (i...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yongjing Chen, Victor Barreto, Andy Woodruff, Zhongqing Lu, Yan Liu, Christopher A Pohl
The research on oligosaccharides is growing and gaining in importance at a rapid pace. The efforts to understand their bioactivity and to develop new products based on oligosaccharides in biotherapeutics and food industry require effective and reliable tools for analysis of oligosaccharides. Here we present a dual electrolytic eluent generation platform for the analysis of oligosaccharides by high performance anion-exchange liquid chromatography (HPAE) in both analytical and capillary column formats. The system consists of one eluent generator producing methanesulfonic acid (MSA) connected in series with a second eluent generator producing potassium hydroxide (KOH)...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Glenn I Roisman, Marinus H van IJzendoorn
This paper serves as an Introduction by the co-editors to a Special Section of Child Development entitled "Meta-analysis and Individual Participant Data Synthesis in Child Development." First, the co-editors emphasize that the work contained in the Special Section was selected to highlight the value of meta-analysis not only for synthesizing study-level published and unpublished data but also as regards its ability to support programmatic, replicable, and cumulative developmental science. Second, the co-editors identify some of the cross-cutting themes of the papers featured in the Special Section, including the value of meta-analysis for summarizing and interrogating the full range of developmental science and in potentially transforming conventional wisdom in given domains along with the importance of recent innovations for improving standard meta-analytic practice-particularly in the context of developmental questions...
August 14, 2018: Child Development
Fei Liu, Ya-Nan Wang, Yong Li, Shuang-Gang Ma, Jing Qu, Yun-Bao Liu, Chang-Shan Niu, Zhong-Hai Tang, Yu-Huan Li, Li Li, Shi-Shan Yu
A hyphenated NMR technique (analytical HPLC with a DAD connected to MS, SPE, and NMR) has proven effective for the full structural analysis and identification of minor natural products in complex mixtures. Application of this hyphenated technique to the CH2 Cl2 -soluble fraction of Rhododendron latoucheae led to the identification of 15 new minor ursane-type 28-nortriterpenoids (1-15). Compounds 1 and 12 inhibited HSV-1 with IC50 values of 6.4 and 0.4 μM, respectively.
August 14, 2018: Journal of Natural Products
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