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Thalamic reticular nucleus

Guoshi Li, Craig S Henriquez, Flavio Fröhlich
Rhythmic brain stimulation has emerged as a powerful tool to modulate cognition and to target pathological oscillations related to neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, we lack a systematic understanding of how periodic stimulation interacts with endogenous neural activity as a function of the brain state and target. To address this critical issue, we applied periodic stimulation to a unified biophysical thalamic network model that generates multiple distinct oscillations, and examined thoroughly the impact of rhythmic stimulation on different oscillatory states...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kazuo Imaizumi, Yuchio Yanagawa, Guoping Feng, Charles C Lee
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) is the main source of inhibition to the somatosensory thalamus (ventrobasal nucleus, VB) in mice. However, the functional topography and development of these projections with respect to the VB barreloids has been largely unexplored. In this respect, to assist in the study of these projections, we have utilized a vesicular gamma-aminobutryic acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT)-Venus transgenic mouse line to develop a brain slice preparation that enables the rapid identification of inhibitory neurons and projections...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
John W Crabtree
The activity of the GABAergic neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) has long been known to play important roles in modulating the flow of information through the thalamus and in generating changes in thalamic activity during transitions from wakefulness to sleep. Recently, technological advances have considerably expanded our understanding of the functional organization of TRN. These have identified an impressive array of functionally distinct subnetworks in TRN that participate in sensory, motor, and/or cognitive processes through their different functional connections with thalamic projection neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Yasunobu Murata, Matthew T Colonnese
Inhibitory circuits in thalamus and cortex shape the major activity patterns observed by electroencephalogram (EEG) in the adult brain. Their delayed maturation and circuit integration, relative to excitatory neurons, suggest inhibitory neuronal development could be responsible for the onset of mature thalamocortical activity. Indeed, the immature brain lacks many inhibition-dependent activity patterns, such as slow-waves, delta oscillations and sleep-spindles, and instead expresses other unique oscillatory activities in multiple species including humans...
October 23, 2018: Brain Research
Safiye Cavdar, Merve Özgür, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Yasemin Kuvvet, Sıla Kezban Kunt, Gökay Sağlam
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) is important for normal movement as well as in movement disorders. The STN is a target nuclei in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a standard surgical treatment for PD. Although DBS results in a significant reduction in motor disability, several negative side effects have been reported. Thus, to understand the side effects of DBS the connection of the STN should be well known. Therefore, the present study aims to re‑examine the STN with an emphasis on poorly‑ or un‑documented connections...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Tamara Heermann, Lillian Garrett, Wolfgang Wurst, Helmut Fuchs, Valerie Gailus-Durner, Martin Hrabě de Angelis, Jochen Graw, Sabine M Hölter
As part of the βγ-superfamily, βB2-crystallin (CRYBB2) is an ocular structural protein in the lens, and mutation of the corresponding gene can cause cataracts. CRYBB2 also is expressed in non-lens tissue such as the adult mouse brain and is associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Nevertheless, the robustness of this association as well as how CRYBB2 may contribute to disease-relevant phenotypes is unknown. To add further clarity to this issue, we performed a comprehensive analysis of behavioral and neurohistological alterations in mice with an allelic series of mutations in the C-terminal end of the Crybb2 gene...
October 6, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Ekaterina Dmitrievna Gribkova, Baher Alaa Eldin Ibrahim, Daniel Adolfo Llano
The impact of thalamic state on information transmission to the cortex remains poorly understood. This limitation exists due to the rich dynamics displayed by thalamocortical networks and because of inadequate tools to characterize those dynamics. Here, we introduce a novel estimator of mutual information and use it to determine the impact of a computational model of thalamic state on information transmission. Using several criteria, this novel estimator, which uses an adaptive partition, is shown to be superior to other mutual information estimators with uniform partitions when used to analyze simulated spike train data with different mean spike rates, as well as electrophysiological data from simultaneously recorded neurons...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
KuangHua Guo, Naoki Yamawaki, Karel Svoboda, Gordon M G Shepherd
The anterolateral motor cortex (ALM) and ventral medial (VM) thalamus are functionally linked to support persistent activity during motor planning. We analyzed the underlying synaptic interconnections using optogenetics and electrophysiology in mice (female/male). In cortex, thalamocortical (TC) axons from VM thalamus excited VM-projecting pyramidal tract (PT) neurons in layer 5B of ALM. These axons also strongly excited layer 2/3 neurons (which strongly excite PT neurons, as previously shown) but not VM-projecting corticothalamic (CT) neurons in layer 6...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Eric C Zimmerman, Anthony A Grace
The thalamus has long been recognized for its role in relaying sensory information from the periphery, a function accomplished by its "first-order" nuclei. However, a second category of thalamic nuclei, termed "higher-order" nuclei, have been shown instead to mediate communication between cortical areas. The nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus (RE) is a higher-order nucleus known to act as a conduit of reciprocal communication between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus...
November 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Yumi Tsutsumi, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Fumihiko Sato, Takahiro Furuta, Haruka Ohara, Akiko Tomita, Masatoshi Fujita, Masayuki Moritani, Atsushi Yoshida
We have recently revealed that the proprioceptive signal from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) is conveyed to the dorsal part of granular insular cortex rostroventrally adjacent to the rostralmost part of secondary somatosensory cortex (dGIrvs2) via the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) in rats. However, it remains unclear to which cortical or subcortical structures the JCMS proprioceptive information is subsequently conveyed from the dGIrvs2. To test this issue, we injected an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine, into the electophysiologically identified dGIrvs2, and analyzed the resultant distribution profiles of labeled axon terminals in rats...
September 15, 2018: Neuroscience
Alida Amadeo, Aurora Coatti, Patrizia Aracri, Miriam Ascagni, Davide Iannantuoni, Debora Modena, Laura Carraresi, Simone Brusco, Simone Meneghini, Annarosa Arcangeli, Maria Enrica Pasini, Andrea Becchetti
The Na+ /K+ /Cl- cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) and the K+ /Cl- cotransporter-2 (KCC2) set the transmembrane Cl- gradient in the brain, and are implicated in epileptogenesis. We studied the postnatal distribution of NKCC1 and KCC2 in wild-type (WT) mice, and in a mouse model of sleep-related epilepsy, carrying the mutant β2-V287L subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In WT neocortex, immunohistochemistry showed a wide distribution of NKCC1 in neurons and astrocytes. At birth, KCC2 was localized in neuronal somata, whereas at subsequent stages it was mainly found in the somatodendritic compartment...
August 21, 2018: Neuroscience
Idrish Ali, Arun Gandrathi, Thomas Zheng, Margaret J Morris, Terence J O'Brien, Chris French
OBJECTIVES: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) potently suppresses spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy (GAERS), but the underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms are not clear. We therefore sought to determine the in vivo effects of NPY on neuronal firing in the cortico-thalamo-cortical network activity, known to play a critical role in the generation of SWDs in these rats. METHODS: NPY was administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or in separate experiments locally on the neurons of caudal thalamic reticular nucleus (NRT) by use of juxtacellular iontophoresis in triple-barrel electrodes in male GAERS aged 12-15 weeks, in vivo under neuroleptic anesthesia...
July 2018: Epilepsia
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Guela Sokhadze, Peter W Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Jason R Klug, Max D Engelhardt, Cara N Cadman, Hao Li, Jared B Smith, Sarah Ayala, Elora W Williams, Hilary Hoffman, Xin Jin
Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified...
May 1, 2018: ELife
Maria Amat-Foraster, Anders A Jensen, Niels Plath, Kjartan F Herrik, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
BACKGROUND: Sub-anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ketamine evoke transient psychotomimetic effects, followed by persistent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients and rodents through still poorly understood mechanisms. Since phencyclidine (PCP) disinhibits thalamo-cortical networks by blocking NMDA-Rs on GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RtN), we examined ketamine's actions in the same areas...
July 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Alexandra Krol, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa, Guoping Feng
Diagnoses of behavioral disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are based on symptomatic descriptions that have been difficult to connect to mechanism. Although psychiatric genetics provide insight into the genetic underpinning of such disorders, with a majority of cases explained by polygenic factors, it remains difficult to design rational treatments. In this review, we highlight the value of understanding neural circuit function both as an intermediate level of explanatory description that links gene to behavior and as a pathway for developing rational diagnostics and therapeutics for behavioral disorders...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
Paula P Perissinotti, María Celeste Rivero-Echeto, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that controls appetite and energy expenditure. Leptin receptors are expressed on extra-hypothalamic ventrobasal (VB) and reticular thalamic (RTN) nuclei from embryonic stages. Here, we studied the effects of pressure-puff, local application of leptin on both synaptic transmission and action potential properties of thalamic neurons in thalamocortical slices. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of thalamocortical VB neurons from wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice...
June 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Shuichi Hayashi, Louise Upton, Zachary Nolan, Diana Casas-Torremocha, Eleanor Grant, Sarada Viswanathan, Patrick O Kanold, Francisco Clasca, Yongsoo Kim, Zoltán Molnár
The thalamus receives input from 3 distinct cortical layers, but input from only 2 of these has been well characterized. We therefore investigated whether the third input, derived from layer 6b, is more similar to the projections from layer 6a or layer 5. We studied the projections of a restricted population of deep layer 6 cells ("layer 6b cells") taking advantage of the transgenic mouse Tg(Drd1a-cre)FK164Gsat/Mmucd (Drd1a-Cre), that selectively expresses Cre-recombinase in a subpopulation of layer 6b neurons across the entire cortical mantle...
May 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Patrice Fort
In the present chapter, hypotheses on the mechanisms responsible for the genesis of the three vigilance states, namely, waking, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) also called slow-wave sleep (SWS), and REM sleep also called paradoxical sleep (PS), are presented. A huge number of studies first indicate that waking is induced by the activation of multiple waking systems, including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, and hypocretin systems. At the onset of sleep, the SWS-active neurons would be activated by the circadian clock localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and a hypnogenic factor, adenosine, which progressively accumulates in the brain during waking...
February 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
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