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Thalamic reticular nucleus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107061/prefrontal-cortex-modulates-firing-pattern-in-the-nucleus-reuniens-of-the-midline-thalamus-via-distinct-corticothalamic-pathways
#1
Eric C Zimmerman, Anthony A Grace
The thalamus has long been recognized for its role in relaying sensory information from the periphery, a function accomplished by its "first-order" nuclei. However, a second category of thalamic nuclei, termed "higher-order" nuclei, have been shown instead to mediate communication between cortical areas. The nucleus reuniens of the midline thalamus (RE) is a higher-order nucleus known to act as a conduit of reciprocal communication between the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and hippocampus...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077619/cortical-and-subcortical-projections-from-granular-insular-cortex-receiving-orofacial-proprioception
#2
Yumi Tsutsumi, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Fumihiko Sato, Takahiro Furuta, Haruka Ohara, Akiko Tomita, Masatoshi Fujita, Masayuki Moritani, Atsushi Yoshida
We have recently revealed that the proprioceptive signal from jaw-closing muscle spindles (JCMSs) is conveyed to the dorsal part of granular insular cortex rostroventrally adjacent to the rostralmost part of secondary somatosensory cortex (dGIrvs2) via the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM) in rats. However, it remains unclear to which cortical or subcortical structures the JCMS proprioceptive information is subsequently conveyed from the dGIrvs2. To test this issue, we injected an anterograde tracer, biotinylated dextranamine, into the electophysiologically identified dGIrvs2, and analyzed the resultant distribution profiles of labeled axon terminals in rats...
August 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29949744/postnatal-changes-in-k-cl-cotransporter-2-expression-in-the-forebrain-of-mice-bearing-a-mutant-nicotinic-subunit-linked-to-sleep-related-epilepsy
#3
Alida Amadeo, Aurora Coatti, Patrizia Aracri, Miriam Ascagni, Davide Iannantuoni, Debora Modena, Laura Carraresi, Simone Brusco, Simone Meneghini, Annarosa Arcangeli, Maria Enrica Pasini, Andrea Becchetti
The Na+ /K+ /Cl- cotransporter-1 (NKCC1) and the K+ /Cl- cotransporter-2 (KCC2) set the transmembrane Cl- gradient in the brain, and are implicated in epileptogenesis. We studied the postnatal distribution of NKCC1 and KCC2 in wild-type (WT) mice, and in a mouse model of sleep-related epilepsy, carrying the mutant β2-V287L subunit of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR). In WT neocortex, immunohistochemistry showed a wide distribution of NKCC1 in neurons and astrocytes. At birth, KCC2 was localized in neuronal somata, whereas at subsequent stages it was mainly found in the somatodendritic compartment...
June 24, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29923603/neuropeptide-y-affects-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-neuronal-firing-and-network-synchronization-associated-with-suppression-of-spike-wave-discharges
#4
Idrish Ali, Arun Gandrathi, Thomas Zheng, Margaret J Morris, Terence J O'Brien, Chris French
OBJECTIVES: Neuropeptide Y (NPY) potently suppresses spike-wave discharges (SWDs) in a genetic rat model of absence epilepsy (GAERS), but the underlying neurophysiologic mechanisms are not clear. We therefore sought to determine the in vivo effects of NPY on neuronal firing in the cortico-thalamo-cortical network activity, known to play a critical role in the generation of SWDs in these rats. METHODS: NPY was administered intracerebroventricularly (ICV) or in separate experiments locally on the neurons of caudal thalamic reticular nucleus (NRT) by use of juxtacellular iontophoresis in triple-barrel electrodes in male GAERS aged 12-15 weeks, in vivo under neuroleptic anesthesia...
July 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773817/electrical-synapses-between-inhibitory-neurons-shape-the-responses-of-principal-neurons-to-transient-inputs-in-the-thalamus-a-modeling-study
#5
Tuan Pham, Julie S Haas
As multimodal sensory information proceeds to the cortex, it is intercepted and processed by the nuclei of the thalamus. The main source of inhibition within thalamus is the reticular nucleus (TRN), which collects signals both from thalamocortical relay neurons and from thalamocortical feedback. Within the reticular nucleus, neurons are densely interconnected by connexin36-based gap junctions, known as electrical synapses. Electrical synapses have been shown to coordinate neuronal rhythms, including thalamocortical spindle rhythms, but their role in shaping or modulating transient activity is less understood...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761601/postnatal-development-of-cholinergic-input-to-the-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-of-the-mouse
#6
Guela Sokhadze, Peter W Campbell, William Guido
The thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a shell-like structure comprised of GABAergic neurons, gates signal transmission between thalamus and cortex. While TRN is innervated by axon collaterals of thalamocortical and corticothalamic neurons, other ascending projections modulate activity during different behavioral states such as attention, arousal, and sleep-wake cycles. One of the largest arise from cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain and brainstem. Despite its integral role, little is known about how or when cholinergic innervation and synapse formation occurs...
May 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714166/differential-inputs-to-striatal-cholinergic-and-parvalbumin-interneurons-imply-functional-distinctions
#7
Jason R Klug, Max D Engelhardt, Cara N Cadman, Hao Li, Jared B Smith, Sarah Ayala, Elora W Williams, Hilary Hoffman, Xin Jin
Striatal cholinergic (ChAT) and parvalbumin (PV) interneurons exert powerful influences on striatal function in health and disease, yet little is known about the organization of their inputs. Here using rabies tracing, electrophysiology and genetic tools, we compare the whole-brain inputs to these two types of striatal interneurons and dissect their functional connectivity in mice. ChAT interneurons receive a substantial cortical input from associative regions of cortex, such as the orbitofrontal cortex. Amongst subcortical inputs, a previously unknown inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus input to striatal PV interneurons is identified...
May 1, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702122/temporally-dissociable-effects-of-ketamine-on-neuronal-discharge-and-gamma-oscillations-in-rat-thalamo-cortical-networks
#8
Maria Amat-Foraster, Anders A Jensen, Niels Plath, Kjartan F Herrik, Pau Celada, Francesc Artigas
BACKGROUND: Sub-anesthetic doses of the non-competitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antagonist ketamine evoke transient psychotomimetic effects, followed by persistent antidepressant effects in treatment-resistant depressed patients and rodents through still poorly understood mechanisms. Since phencyclidine (PCP) disinhibits thalamo-cortical networks by blocking NMDA-Rs on GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RtN), we examined ketamine's actions in the same areas...
July 15, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673480/thalamic-reticular-dysfunction-as-a-circuit-endophenotype-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Alexandra Krol, Ralf D Wimmer, Michael M Halassa, Guoping Feng
Diagnoses of behavioral disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia are based on symptomatic descriptions that have been difficult to connect to mechanism. Although psychiatric genetics provide insight into the genetic underpinning of such disorders, with a majority of cases explained by polygenic factors, it remains difficult to design rational treatments. In this review, we highlight the value of understanding neural circuit function both as an intermediate level of explanatory description that links gene to behavior and as a pathway for developing rational diagnostics and therapeutics for behavioral disorders...
April 18, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520482/leptin-alters-somatosensory-thalamic-networks-by-decreasing-gaba-release-from-reticular-thalamic-nucleus-and-action-potential-frequency-at-ventrobasal-neurons
#10
Paula P Perissinotti, María Celeste Rivero-Echeto, Edgar Garcia-Rill, Verónica Bisagno, Francisco J Urbano
Leptin is an adipose-derived hormone that controls appetite and energy expenditure. Leptin receptors are expressed on extra-hypothalamic ventrobasal (VB) and reticular thalamic (RTN) nuclei from embryonic stages. Here, we studied the effects of pressure-puff, local application of leptin on both synaptic transmission and action potential properties of thalamic neurons in thalamocortical slices. We used whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of thalamocortical VB neurons from wild-type (WT) and leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice...
June 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29481606/subset-of-cortical-layer-6b-neurons-selectively-innervates-higher-order-thalamic-nuclei-in-mice
#11
Anna Hoerder-Suabedissen, Shuichi Hayashi, Louise Upton, Zachary Nolan, Diana Casas-Torremocha, Eleanor Grant, Sarada Viswanathan, Patrick O Kanold, Francisco Clasca, Yongsoo Kim, Zoltán Molnár
The thalamus receives input from 3 distinct cortical layers, but input from only 2 of these has been well characterized. We therefore investigated whether the third input, derived from layer 6b, is more similar to the projections from layer 6a or layer 5. We studied the projections of a restricted population of deep layer 6 cells ("layer 6b cells") taking advantage of the transgenic mouse Tg(Drd1a-cre)FK164Gsat/Mmucd (Drd1a-Cre), that selectively expresses Cre-recombinase in a subpopulation of layer 6b neurons across the entire cortical mantle...
May 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476336/neuroanatomical-and-neurochemical-bases-of-vigilance-states
#12
Pierre-Hervé Luppi, Patrice Fort
In the present chapter, hypotheses on the mechanisms responsible for the genesis of the three vigilance states, namely, waking, non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) also called slow-wave sleep (SWS), and REM sleep also called paradoxical sleep (PS), are presented. A huge number of studies first indicate that waking is induced by the activation of multiple waking systems, including the serotonergic, noradrenergic, cholinergic, and hypocretin systems. At the onset of sleep, the SWS-active neurons would be activated by the circadian clock localized in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and a hypnogenic factor, adenosine, which progressively accumulates in the brain during waking...
February 24, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29468672/ca-v-3-2-drives-sustained-burst-firing-which-is-critical-for-absence-seizure-propagation-in-reticular-thalamic-neurons
#13
Stuart M Cain, John R Tyson, Hyun-Beom Choi, Rebecca Ko, Paulo J C Lin, Jeffrey M LeDue, Kim L Powell, Louis-Philippe Bernier, Ravi L Rungta, Yi Yang, Pieter R Cullis, Terence J O'Brien, Brian A MacVicar, Terrance P Snutch
OBJECTIVE: Genetic alterations have been identified in the CACNA1H gene, encoding the CaV 3.2 T-type calcium channel in patients with absence epilepsy, yet the precise mechanisms relating to seizure propagation and spike-wave-discharge (SWD) pacemaking remain unknown. Neurons of the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) express high levels of CaV 3.2 calcium channels, and we investigated whether a gain-of-function mutation in the Cacna1h gene in Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS) contributes to seizure propagation and pacemaking in the TRN...
April 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450697/endogenous-sex-steroids-dampen-neuroinflammation-and-improve-outcome-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#14
Amy C Clevenger, Hoon Kim, Ernesto Salcedo, Joan C Yonchek, Krista M Rodgers, James E Orfila, Robert M Dietz, Nidia Quillinan, Richard J Traystman, Paco S Herson
The role of biological sex in short-term and long-term outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains controversial. The observation that exogenous female sex steroids (progesterone and estrogen) reduce brain injury coupled with a small number of clinical studies showing smaller injury in women suggest that sex steroids may play a role in outcome from TBI. We used the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in mice to test the hypothesis that after CCI, female mice would demonstrate less injury than male mice, related to the protective role of endogenous steroids...
March 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390491/absent-mindedness-and-injury-of-the-ascending-reticular-activating-system-in-a-patient-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-case-report
#15
Sung Ho Jang, Jeong Pyo Seo
RATIONALE: No study on the association of absent-mindedness and injury of the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS) has been reported. We report on a patient who showed absent-mindedness and injury of the ARAS following mild traumatic brain injury. PATIENT CONCERNS: The patient complained of absent-mindedness since the head trauma, which was mainly observed while dining for several (5-10) minutes approximately 3 to 4 times a day: according to the patient's family, he usually stopped eating while holding the spoon in the air for approximately 5∼10 minutes...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341331/the-relationship-between-thalamic-gaba-content-and-resting-cortical-rhythm-in-neuropathic-pain
#16
Flavia Di Pietro, Paul M Macey, Caroline D Rae, Zeynab Alshelh, Vaughan G Macefield, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Recurrent thalamocortical connections are integral to the generation of brain rhythms and it is thought that the inhibitory action of the thalamic reticular nucleus is critical in setting these rhythms. Our work and others' has suggested that chronic pain that develops following nerve injury, that is, neuropathic pain, results from altered thalamocortical rhythm, although whether this dysrhythmia is associated with thalamic inhibitory function remains unknown. In this investigation, we used electroencephalography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate cortical power and thalamic GABAergic concentration in 20 patients with neuropathic pain and 20 pain-free controls...
January 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315552/projections-of-three-subcortical-visual-centers-to-marmoset-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#17
Natalie Zeater, Péter Buzás, Bogdan Dreher, Ulrike Grünert, Paul R Martin
The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus receives projections from visuotopically organized subcortical nuclei, in addition to inputs from the retina, visual cortices, and the thalamic reticular nucleus. Here, we study subcortical projections to the geniculate from the superior colliculus (SC) and parabigeminal nucleus (PBG) in the midbrain, and the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) in the pretectum of marmosets. Marmosets are New World diurnal foveate monkeys, and are an increasingly popular model for studying the primate visual system...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273603/tenuous-inhibitory-gabaergic-signaling-in-the-reticular-thalamus
#18
Peter M Klein, Adam C Lu, Megan E Harper, Hannah M McKown, Jessica D Morgan, Mark P Beenhakker
Maintenance of a low intracellular Cl- concentration ([Cl- ]i ) is critical for enabling inhibitory neuronal responses to GABAA receptor-mediated signaling. Cl- transporters, including KCC2, and extracellular impermeant anions ([A]o ) of the extracellular matrix are both proposed to be important regulators of [Cl- ]i Neurons of the reticular thalamic (RT) nucleus express reduced levels of KCC2, indicating that GABAergic signaling may produce excitation in RT neurons. However, by performing perforated patch recordings and calcium imaging experiments in rats (male and female), we find that [Cl- ]i remains relatively low in RT neurons...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224175/thalamic-interactions-of-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#19
REVIEW
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
March 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220192/fluidic-microactuation-of-flexible-electrodes-for-neural-recording
#20
Flavia Vitale, Daniel G Vercosa, Alexander V Rodriguez, Sushma Sri Pamulapati, Frederik Seibt, Eric Lewis, J Stephen Yan, Krishna Badhiwala, Mohammed Adnan, Gianni Royer-Carfagni, Michael Beierlein, Caleb Kemere, Matteo Pasquali, Jacob T Robinson
Soft and conductive nanomaterials like carbon nanotubes, graphene, and nanowire scaffolds have expanded the family of ultraflexible microelectrodes that can bend and flex with the natural movement of the brain, reduce the inflammatory response, and improve the stability of long-term neural recordings. However, current methods to implant these highly flexible electrodes rely on temporary stiffening agents that temporarily increase the electrode size and stiffness thus aggravating neural damage during implantation, which can lead to cell loss and glial activation that persists even after the stiffening agents are removed or dissolve...
January 10, 2018: Nano Letters
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