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Dong Wei, Masato Aketagawa
In an interferometer, the interference fringe signal is typically linearly detected and modulated to a specific frequency region. A nonlinear detector yields the interference fringes of the fundamental and high-harmonic waves in different frequency regions. We analyze the formation of nonlinearly detected interference fringes. We demonstrate, for the first time, that the interference fringes of high-harmonic waves can also be used to determine the position of zero optical path length difference between reference and object mirrors...
July 23, 2018: Optics Express
Tingting Cui, Zhijie Zhu, Rui Cheng, Yu-Long Tong, Gang Peng, Cai-Feng Wang, Su Chen
Microfluidic spinning technology (MST) has drawn much attention owing to its ideal platform towards ordered fluorescent fibers, along with their largely-scale manipulation, high efficiency, flexibility, and environmental-friendly. Here, we employed the MST to fabricate a series of uniform fluorescent microfibers. By adjusting the microfluidic spinning parameters, the as-prepared microfibers with various diameters are successfully obtained. For more practice, these regular arranged fibers could be formed to versatile fluorescent codes by use of various microfluidic chips...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ayesha Siddiqi, Jose Jowel P Canuday
Disasters are framed as political moments when states are unable to provide security to their citizens, causing disruption and a possible 'break' in the state-citizen social contract. Evidence from the frontlines of insurgency and secessionist movements in southern Philippines suggests that social contracts do not 'break' in this manner, despite widespread suffering during a complex event. This paper presents new perspectives on social contracts after disasters, in conflict-affected regions. Using ethnographic data from two case studies in the Philippines, it argues that disasters in conflict-affected areas do not manifest a 'break' in social contracts in ways that result in 'state failure' and 'insurgent capture'...
August 16, 2018: Disasters
Camille M Webb, Miguel M Cabada
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims at describing the latest research in Fasciola epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and control in endemic countries. RECENT FINDINGS: The geographic distribution and range of reservoirs for Fasciola hepatica continues to expand. The impact of fascioliasis goes beyond human disease to affect food security and income in developed and developing countries. Promising serologic and molecular methods to diagnose fascioliasis have been described, but are not widely available...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Yisheng Gao, Can Huang, Chenglong Hao, Shang Sun, Lei Zhang, Chen Zhang, Zonghui Duan, Kaiyang Wang, Zhongwei Jin, Nan Zhang, Alexander V Kildishev, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Qinghai Song, Shumin Xiao
Nanoprint-based color display using either extrinsic structural colors or intrinsic emission colors is a rapidly emerging research field for high-density information storage. Nevertheless, advanced applications, e. g., dynamic full-color display and secure information encryption, call for demanding requirements on in situ color change, nonvacuum operation, prompt response, and favorable reusability. By transplanting the concept of electrical/chemical doping in the semiconductor industry, we demonstrate an in situ reversible color nanoprinting paradigm via photon doping, triggered by the interplay of structural colors and photon emission of lead halide perovskite gratings...
August 16, 2018: ACS Nano
Abok Elisha Onyango, Michael Wandayi Okoth, Catherine Nkirote Kunyanga, Bernard Ochieng' Aliwa
Water security and safety is of vital concern in arid and semiarid regions of Kenya. Potable water accessibility and supply is limited due to fluctuating climatic conditions and environmental pollution that lower the wholesomeness of most water sources. The aim of this study was to establish the suitability of these water sources for drinking and use in industrial food processing by the small and medium enterprises (SME's). The aim of this study was to establish suitability of these water sources for drinking and use in industrial food processing by the small and medium enterprises (SME's)...
2018: Journal of Environmental and Public Health
Mads Gustaf Jørgensen, Navid Mohammadpour Toyserkani, Nana Hyldig, Annette Hougaard Chakera, Lisbet Rosenkrantz Hölmich, Jørn Bo Thomsen, Jens Ahm Sørensen
BACKGROUND: Radical inguinal lymphadenectomy (ILND) for metastatic melanoma is associated with a high complication rate. Seroma is often the first postoperative complication, followed by prolonged wound healing sometimes requiring reoperation, infection, multiple outpatient visits and re-hospitalization. Prevention of seroma may, therefore, lead to a reduction in many of the other complications. METHODS/DESIGN: The primary aim of this randomized study is to investigate whether fewer patients require treatment for seroma by immediate prophylactic application of incisional, Negative-pressure Wound Therapy (iNPWT) following ILND, compared to standard postoperative treatment...
August 15, 2018: Trials
Tamas Panda, Dilip K Maiti, Manas K Panda
Development of a novel organic luminescent material for inkless writing, and self-erasing application is a remarkable solution to reduce paper waste, recycling cost in the printing industry. These innovative materials also offer to reduce global warming due to the lower consumption of paper made from plants. To this endeavor, herein we report the design, synthesis and simple material fabrication of a donor-acceptor type (Z)-1,2-diarylacrylonitrile (1) compound, which in solid state displayed highly contrast and reversible vapochromism under the visible light as well as UV light...
August 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Henry J Whittle, Lila A Sheira, Edward A Frongillo, Kartika Palar, Jennifer Cohen, Daniel Merenstein, Tracey E Wilson, Adebola Adedimeji, Mardge H Cohen, Adaora A Adimora, Ighovwerha Ofotokun, Lisa Metsch, Janet M Turan, Eryka L Wentz, Phyllis C Tien, Sheri D Weiser
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Few longitudinal studies have examined the relationship between food insecurity and substance use. We aimed to investigate this relationship using longitudinal data among women with or at risk for HIV in the United States. DESIGN: Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), a prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nine sites across the US. PARTICIPANTS: 2,553 women with or at risk for HIV. MEASUREMENTS: Semi-annual structured interviews were conducted during April 2013-March 2016...
August 14, 2018: Addiction
Adnane Bargaz, Karim Lyamlouli, Mohamed Chtouki, Youssef Zeroual, Driss Dhiba
Tomorrow's agriculture, challenged by increasing global demand for food, scarcity of arable lands, and resources alongside multiple environment pressures, needs to be managed smartly through sustainable and eco-efficient approaches. Modern agriculture has to be more productive, sustainable, and environmentally friendly. While macronutrients such as nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and sulfur (S) supplied by mineral fertilizers are vital to crop production, agriculturally beneficial microorganisms may also contribute directly (i...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lubna Ansari Baig, Azadar Kauser Ali, Shiraz Shaikh, Maciej Maksymilian Polkowski
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the causes, consequences and possible solutions for violence against healthcare. METHODS: The qualitative study was conducted in Karachi June 2015 to December 2015 using in-depth interviews and focus groups discussions with all stakeholders. Transcription was done verbatim using both audio and videotapes of all the sessions. First open coding was done using inductive analyses by 3 researchers. After consensus, these codes were used for thematic content analysis...
August 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Rainier Masa, Lauren Graham, Zoheb Khan, Gina Chowa, Leila Patel
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to examine whether food insecurity is associated with sexual risk taking and victimization in young people (aged 16-24); and to investigate whether the relationship of food insecurity with sexual risk taking and victimization is moderated by gender. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were obtained in 2014 from a sample of Ghanaian adolescents (n = 773) and in 2015 from young South African adults (n = 823). We used multilevel logistic regression given the study's binary outcome and clustered data...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Public Health
Yinghui Zhang, Jiangfan Zhao, Dong Zheng, Kaixin Deng, Fangyuan Ren, Xiaokun Zheng, Jiangang Shu
As an extension of cloud computing, fog computing has received more attention in recent years. It can solve problems such as high latency, lack of support for mobility and location awareness in cloud computing. In the Internet of Things (IoT), a series of IoT devices can be connected to the fog nodes that assist a cloud service center to store and process a part of data in advance. Not only can it reduce the pressure of processing data, but also improve the real-time and service quality. However, data processing at fog nodes suffers from many challenging issues, such as false data injection attacks, data modification attacks, and IoT devices' privacy violation...
August 13, 2018: Sensors
Chen Wang, Lukasz Kurgan
Drug-protein interactions (DPIs) underlie the desired therapeutic actions and the adverse side effects of a significant majority of drugs. Computational prediction of DPIs facilitates research in drug discovery, characterization and repurposing. Similarity-based methods that do not require knowledge of protein structures are particularly suitable for druggable genome-wide predictions of DPIs. We review 35 high-impact similarity-based predictors that were published in the past decade. We group them based on three types of similarities and their combinations that they use...
August 8, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
B B Bruijns, R M Tiggelaar, J G E Gardeniers
DNA sequencing, starting with Sanger chain termination in 1977 and evolving into the next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques of today that employ massively parallel sequencing (MPS), has become essential in application areas such as biotechnology, virology and medical diagnostics. Also in the forensic field these techniques have gained attention, reflected by the growing number of articles published over the last 2-3 years. This review contains a brief description of first, second and third generation sequencing techniques, and focuses on the recent developments in human DNA analysis applicable in the forensic field...
August 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
Fan Zhang, Lei Zhou, Yong Fan, Rui Wang, Xiaomin Li, Lingling Fan
Optical multiplexing benefits on-site detection, and plays an important role in fields ranging from advanced biological assays to security. However, conventional codes based on fluorescent color and intensity are limited to spectral overlap and background interference, thus restricting the number of distinguishable identities. Herein, we present a new multiplexing concept by manipulating the luminescence emission color and decay lifetimes of upconversion nanoparticles (τλ-UCNPs) separately for the first time through decently designing of the core/multi-layered structure and controlled energy relay method...
August 12, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Ryan R Guinness, Jonathan E Volk, Leo B Hurley, Tadd T Tobias, Julia L Marcus
We piloted a low-intensity outreach intervention to increase linkage to PrEP care among HIV-uninfected individuals with rectal sexually transmitted infections or syphilis. We sent a secure email message or letter with information about accessing PrEP. Of those sent an email, 12.4% were linked to PrEP care; linkage differed by race/ethnicity, ranging from 0% of Black individuals to 32% of Hispanic individuals (P = 0.019). No individuals sent letters were linked to PrEP care. A one-time secure email to high-risk patients is feasible to increase linkage to PrEP care...
August 12, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Laurenne Schiller, Megan Bailey, Jennifer Jacquet, Enric Sala
Recent international negotiations have highlighted the need to protect marine diversity on the high seas-the ocean area beyond national jurisdiction. However, restricting fishing access on the high seas raises many concerns, including how such restrictions would affect food security. We analyze high seas catches and trade data to determine the contribution of the high seas catch to global seafood production, the main species caught on the high seas, and the primary markets where these species are sold. By volume, the total catch from the high seas accounts for 4...
August 2018: Science Advances
Ben A Potter, James F Baichtal, Alwynne B Beaudoin, Lars Fehren-Schmitz, C Vance Haynes, Vance T Holliday, Charles E Holmes, John W Ives, Robert L Kelly, Bastien Llamas, Ripan S Malhi, D Shane Miller, David Reich, Joshua D Reuther, Stephan Schiffels, Todd A Surovell
Some recent academic and popular literature implies that the problem of the colonization of the Americas has been largely resolved in favor of one specific model: a Pacific coastal migration, dependent on high marine productivity, from the Bering Strait to South America, thousands of years before Clovis, the earliest widespread cultural manifestation south of the glacial ice. Speculations on maritime adaptations and typological links (stemmed points) across thousands of kilometers have also been advanced. A review of the current genetic, archeological, and paleoecological evidence indicates that ancestral Native American population expansion occurred after 16,000 years ago, consistent with the archeological record, particularly with the earliest securely dated sites after ~15,000 years ago...
August 2018: Science Advances
Adele Krusche, Maret Dymond, Susannah E Murphy, Catherine Crane
OBJECTIVE: Prenatal depression, stress and anxiety are significant predictors of postnatal depression and also have a direct negative impact on the family. Helpful psychological interventions during pregnancy are scarce and expensive, and usually only available for a small percentage of those suffering or deemed to be at risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of an online mindfulness course for expectant mothers. DESIGN: A randomised study was conducted to explore differences between control and active participants allocated to take an online mindfulness course, offered free to research participants, or wait...
July 29, 2018: Midwifery
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