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Leonard J Keller, Vincent J Alentado, Joseph E Tanenbaum, Bryan S Lee, Amy S Nowacki, Edward C Benzel, Thomas E Mroz, Michael P Steinmetz
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: A spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a serious condition that may be managed with antibiotics alone or with decompressive surgery combined with antibiotics. PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to assess the clinical outcomes of SEA after surgical management and to identify the patient-level factors that are associated with outcomes following surgical decompression and removal of SEA. STUDY DESIGN/SETTING: Retrospective chart review analysis...
December 8, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Jay Fagan, Jessica Pearson
Community-based programs for low-income fathers often struggle to get fathers to attend services and activities. This paper reviews the literature examining approaches to measuring dosage in fatherhood programs, rates of dosage, influences on dosage, and the associations between dosage and fathers' outcomes. Studies were limited to programs that conducted randomized control trials, quasi-experimental studies, and one-group pretest/post-test designs. Although most programs report low or moderate dosage levels, some programs achieve high levels of fathers' participation in parenting, coparenting, and economic security classes...
December 10, 2018: Family Process
Peng Yue, Zhiyong Zhu, Yongli Wang, Yimin Xu, Jia Li, Karen V Lamb, Yahong Xu, Ying Wu
AIMS: To explore the motivation of family members of patients at high risk for sudden cardiac death for undertaking cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training. BACKGROUND: Home cardiac arrests are associated with poor outcomes because few family members learn CPR. Little is known about factors that motivate family members to participate in CPR training. DESIGN: We used grounded theory to establish a theoretical framework to explore the motivational factors for learning CPR among family members...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Reinhard Strametz, Martin N Bergold, Tobias Weberschock
BACKGROUND: Percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) is one of the most common bedside surgical procedures performed in critically ill adults, on intensive care units (ICUs), who require long-term ventilation. PDT is associated with relevant life-threatening complications: Cuff rupture or accidental extubation may lead to hypoxia, aspiration or loss of airway. Puncture of the oesophagus, or creating a false passage during dilatation or replacement of the tracheostomy tube, can lead to pneumothorax or emphysema...
November 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bing Liu, Pierre Martre, Frank Ewert, John R Porter, Andy J Challinor, Christoph Müller, Alex C Ruane, Katharina Waha, Peter J Thorburn, Pramod K Aggarwal, Mukhtar Ahmed, Juraj Balkovič, Bruno Basso, Christian Biernath, Marco Bindi, Davide Cammarano, Giacomo De Sanctis, Benjamin Dumont, Mónica Espadafor, Ehsan Eyshi Rezaei, Roberto Ferrise, Margarita Garcia-Vila, Sebastian Gayler, Yujing Gao, Heidi Horan, Gerrit Hoogenboom, Roberto C Izaurralde, Curtis D Jones, Belay T Kassie, Kurt C Kersebaum, Christian Klein, Ann-Kristin Koehler, Andrea Maiorano, Sara Minoli, Manuel Montesino San Martin, Soora Naresh Kumar, Claas Nendel, Garry J O'Leary, Taru Palosuo, Eckart Priesack, Dominique Ripoche, Reimund P Rötter, Mikhail A Semenov, Claudio Stöckle, Thilo Streck, Iwan Supit, Fulu Tao, Marjin Van der Velde, Daniel Wallach, Enli Wang, Heidi Webber, Joost Wolf, Liujun Xiao, Zhao Zhang, Zhigan Zhao, Yan Zhu, Senthold Asseng
Efforts to limit global warming to below 2°C in relation to the pre-industrial level are under way, in accordance with the 2015 Paris Agreement. However, most impact research on agriculture to date has focused on impacts of warming >2°C on mean crop yields, and many previous studies did not focus sufficiently on extreme events and yield interannual variability. Here, with the latest climate scenarios from the Half a degree Additional warming, Prognosis and Projected Impacts (HAPPI) project, we evaluated the impacts of the 2015 Paris Agreement range of global warming (1...
December 7, 2018: Global Change Biology
Manasi Kumar, Beatrice Madeghe, Judith Osok-Waudo, Grace Nduku Wambua, Beatrice Kagai Amugune
Approximately, 42% of the Kenyan population live below the poverty line. Rapid growth and urbanization of Kenya's population have resulted in a changing poverty and food security environment in high-density urban areas. Lack of basic food needs in Kenya affects approximately 34.8% rural population and 7.6% of its urban population. Using multi-community stakeholders such as teachers and community health workers (CHWs), this paper examined food insecurity and its consequences on caregiving practices and child development...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Won Suk Choi, Su Hyun Kim, Dae Won Park
Background: Pertussis is highly contagious respiratory disease. Healthcare workers (HCWs) can be an important mediator of the disease. A seroprevalence of pertussis was investigated in HCWs to determine the immune status against pertussis and to detect the unidentified pertussis. Methods: This study was conducted for HCWs at a hospital located in Korea in 2011. After obtaining written informed consent for HCWs voluntarily participating in the study, 10 mL of blood was collected from each subject...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Anukriti Mathur, Shouya Feng, Jenni A Hayward, Chinh Ngo, Daniel Fox, Ines I Atmosukarto, Jason D Price, Kristina Schauer, Erwin Märtlbauer, Avril A B Robertson, Gaetan Burgio, Edward M Fox, Stephen H Leppla, Nadeem O Kaakoush, Si Ming Man
Host recognition of microbial components is essential in mediating an effective immune response. Cytosolic bacteria must secure entry into the host cytoplasm to facilitate replication and, in doing so, liberate microbial ligands that activate cytosolic innate immune sensors and the inflammasome. Here, we identified a multicomponent enterotoxin, haemolysin BL (HBL), that engages activation of the inflammasome. This toxin is highly conserved among the human pathogen Bacillus cereus. The three subunits of HBL bind to the cell membrane in a linear order, forming a lytic pore and inducing activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome, secretion of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18, and pyroptosis...
December 10, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Mohammadreza Khodabakhsh, Ugur Unal
Er<sup>3+</sup> doped BST nanoparticles with Aurivillius layered structure are synthesized through common solid-state method. Photoluminescence spectroscopy has shown that these oxides are capable of emitting light under UV (366nm) and IR (980nm) source. The effect of Er<sup>3+</sup> to Yb<sup>3+</sup> concentration ratio on upconversion emission are investigated and possible upconversion and energy transfer mechanisms are suggested based on the number of photons participating in UC process...
December 10, 2018: Methods and Applications in Fluorescence
Gayatri Gopal, Clemens Suter-Crazzolara, Luca Toldo, Werner Eberhardt
Healthcare providers all over the world are faced with a single challenge: the need to improve patient outcomes while containing costs. Drivers include an increasing demand for chronic disease management for an aging population, technological advancements and empowered patients taking control of their health experience. The digital transformation in healthcare, through the creation of a rich health data foundation and integration of technologies like the Internet of Things (IoT), advanced analytics, Machine Learning (ML) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), is recognized as a key component to tackle these challenges...
December 11, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Elizabeth Rolland-Harris, Linda VanTil, Mark A Zamorski, David Boulos, Alexander Reicker, Huda Masoud, Richard Trudeau, Murray Weeks, Kristen Simkus
BACKGROUND: Military service exposes personnel to unusual situations with unclear health-related implications, and to identify both immediate and delayed risks, part of health surveillance includes examination of mortality and cancer rates that extends beyond periods of military service. The main aim of the Canadian Forces Cancer and Mortality Study II (CFCAMS II) is to describe the mortality and cancer experience of Canadian Armed Forces personnel (serving and released; about 230 000 people), with the further aim of informing health promotion and prevention programs for serving personnel and services for veterans after they leave the military...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Guruprasad Madhavan, Charles E Phelps, William B Rouse, Rino Rappuoli
Entities involved in population health often share a common mission while acting independently of one another and perhaps redundantly. Population health is in everybody's interest, but nobody is really in charge of promoting it. Across governments, corporations, and frontline operations, lack of coordination, lack of resources, and lack of reliable, current information have often impeded the development of situation-awareness models and thus a broad operational integration for population health. These deficiencies may also affect the technical, organizational, policy, and legal arrangements for information sharing, a desired practice of high potential value in population health...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bogdan Mitrica, Denis Stanca, Bogdan Cautisanu, Mihai Niculescu-Oglinzanu, Alexandru Balaceanu, Alexandru Gherghel-Lascu, Andreea Munteanu, Alexandra Saftoiu, Toma Mosu, Romul Margineanu, Bashar Alkotbe
Cosmic-ray muons have been studied at IFIN-HH for more than 20 years. Starting as fundamental physics research, the muon flux measurements bring new directions of study regarding muography. Two new directions have been recently developed: underground muon scanning of old mining sites in order to detect the possible presence of unknown cavities and underwater scanning of ships in commercial harbours in order to prevent the illegal traffic of radioactive materials. The main goal of the first direction of study is to improve the security of underground civilian and industrial infrastructures, by starting the development of a new, innovative detection system that can be used to identify potentially dangerous conditions using a non-invasive, totally safe method...
December 10, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
J A Backer, M van Boven, W van der Hoek, J Wallinga
Seasonal influenza causes a high disease burden. Many influenza vaccination programmes target the elderly and persons at high risk of complications. Some countries have recommended or even implemented a paediatric vaccination programme. Such a programme is expected to reduce influenza transmission in the population, offering direct protection to the vaccinated children and indirect protection to the elderly. We study the impact of a child vaccination programme with an age- and risk-structured transmission model, calibrated to data of 11 influenza seasons in the Netherlands...
October 10, 2018: Epidemics
Alex G Waterson, Sarah A Scott, Nathan R Kett, Anna L Blobaum, H Alex Brown, Craig W Lindsley
This letter describes the on-going SAR efforts to develop PLD1, PLD2 and dual PLD1/2 inhibitors with improved physiochemical and disposition properties as well as securing intellectual property position. Previous PLD inhibitors, based on a triazaspiro[4.5]decanone core proved to be highly selective PLD2 inhibitors, but with low plasma free fraction (rat, human fu  < 0.03), high predicted hepatic clearance (rat CLhep  > 65 mL/min/kg) and very short half-lives in vivo (t1/2  < 0.15 h)...
October 22, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
M ª Carmen Mias Carballal, Rafael Villalobos Mori, Alfredo Escartin Arias, Ramon Ribalta Reñé, Jorge Juan Olsina Kissler, Anna Torres Corts, Angel Llàcer Furió, M ª José Fernández Cotarelo, Araceli Ramos Carrasco
INTRODUCTION: the prevalence of hospital malnutrition is high and involves an increase in health care costs. Home hospitalization (HH) allows better clinically stable patient control after an acute illness by a highly specialized health care team. OBJECTIVE: to know the nutritional condition of home hospitalization patients using a computer application that allows the implementation of early nutritional measures at home and improves post-hospital control of these patients...
December 3, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Mohan Natesan, Sz-Wei Wu, Chieh-I Chen, Stig Mr Jensen, Neven Karlovac, Beverly K Dyas, Onur Mudanyali, Robert G Ulrich
We have developed a digital and multiplexed platform for the rapid detection and telemonitoring of infections caused by Ebola and Marburg filoviruses. The system includes a flow cell assay cartridge that captures specific antibodies with microarrayed recombinant antigens from all six species of filovirus, and a smartphone fluorescent reader for high-performance interpretation of test results. Multiplexed viral proteins, which are expandable to include greater numbers of probes, were incorporated to obtain highest confidence results by cross-correlation, and custom smartphone application was developed for data analysis, interpretation and communication...
December 7, 2018: ACS Sensors
Dejian Chen, Caiyan Cui, Na Tong, Haifeng Zhou, Xinchen Wang, Ruihu Wang
Nanodots are attractive stimuli-responsive luminescence materials for anti-counterfeiting and information encryption. However, their applications are limited by low water solubility and single-mode information identification by naked eyes under UV light illumination. Herein, we report one type of new nanodots, main-chain imidazolium-based ionic polymer dots (IPDs). There is no edge effect in IPDs, the ionic groups are homogenously distributed in the entire dot. IPDs exhibit high water solubility, good stability, narrow size distribution, low toxicity and exceptional optical performance without the additional modification...
December 10, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tom Murphy, Kongkea Phan, Emmanuel Yumvihoze, Kim Irvine, Ken Wilson, David Lean, Borey Ty, Alexander Poulain, Brian Laird, Laurie Hing Man Chan
Background: Arsenic bioaccumulation in rice is a global concern affecting food security and public health. Objective: The present study examined arsenic species in rice in Cambodia to characterize health risks with rice consumption and to clarify uncertainties with Codex guidelines. Methods: The present study collected 61 well water samples, 105 rice samples, 70 soil samples, and conducted interviews with 44 families in Preak Russey near the Bassac River and Kandal Province along the Mekong River in Cambodia...
September 2018: Journal of health & pollution
M Bretier, A Dabrin, F Bessueille-Barbier, M Coquery
Sediments accumulation in reservoirs induces water storage capacities reduction and flood risks increases rendering dam flushing or dredging events compulsory for security reasons. Short transient events like dam flushing monitoring is still a great challenge because the suspended sediments and contaminants concentrations increases could occur over only few hours/days and cover tens of kilometres. Since 1942, 21 dam flushing events have been performed on the Upper Rhône River (from Lake Geneva in Switzerland to Lyon in France) in order to evacuate accumulated sediments behind the Verbois dam (Switzerland)...
November 22, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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