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Miye Kwon, Adrian Ho, Sukhwan Yoon
The recent drop in the price of natural gas has rekindled the interests in methanotrophs, the organisms capable of utilizing methane as the sole electron donor and carbon source, as biocatalysts for various industrial applications. As heterologous expression of the methane monooxygenases in more amenable hosts has been proven to be nearly impossible, future success in methanotroph biotechnology largely depends on securing phylogenetically and phenotypically diverse methanotrophs with relatively high growth rates...
October 12, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Hao Chen, Ran Gilad-Bachrach, Kyoohyung Han, Zhicong Huang, Amir Jalali, Kim Laine, Kristin Lauter
BACKGROUND: One of the tasks in the 2017 iDASH secure genome analysis competition was to enable training of logistic regression models over encrypted genomic data. More precisely, given a list of approximately 1500 patient records, each with 18 binary features containing information on specific mutations, the idea was for the data holder to encrypt the records using homomorphic encryption, and send them to an untrusted cloud for storage. The cloud could then homomorphically apply a training algorithm on the encrypted data to obtain an encrypted logistic regression model, which can be sent to the data holder for decryption...
October 11, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
Xin Zhao, Chao Pu, Shou-Tian Ma, Sheng-Li Liu, Jian-Fu Xue, Xing Wang, Yu-Qiao Wang, Shuai-Shuai Li, Rattan Lal, Fu Chen, Hai-Lin Zhang
Mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from rice paddy (Oryza sativa L.) and balancing the trade-offs between reducing emission and sustaining food security have raised global concerns. A global meta-analysis of rice experimental data was conducted to assess changes in emissions of GHGs (CH4 and N2 O) and global warming potential (GWP) in response to improvements through 12 field management practices. The results indicated that changes in GWP were mainly attributed to CH4 emission even though N2 O emission was significantly affected by conversion of field management practices...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Lesa A Thompson, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Wageh S Darwish, Yared B Yohannes, Johan J van Vuren, Victor Wepener, Nico J Smit, Atnafu G Assefa, Ahmed Tharwat, Walaa Fathy Saad Eldin, Shouta M M Nakayama, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
The objective of this study was to identify potential mRNA expression changes in chicken livers associated with environmental exposure to dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) and its metabolites (DDTs). In particular, we focused on genes relating to the immune system and metabolism. We analyzed liver samples from free-ranging chickens in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for contamination by DDTs. This area predominantly uses DDT in its malaria control program, and homes are sprayed annually with the pesticide...
2018: PloS One
Kathrine Carstensen, Marius Brostrøm Kousgaard, Viola Burau
There is a growing body of literature on sustainability, but its definition and the factors that affect it are not well understood. This paper focuses on the sustainment of health promotion interventions in community mental health organisations, where the institutional context has been found to play an important role. Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) was used to characterise the extent of sustainment of health promotion interventions and to identify important factors that influence it. The study builds on a previously reported qualitative multiple case design focusing on four Danish community mental health organisations...
October 11, 2018: Health & Social Care in the Community
Jose E Pérez-Lu, Angela M Bayer, Ruth Iguiñiz-Romero
Background: The Peruvian health system provides care through numerous, disconnected health establishments and information systems. Our objective was to explore information use and needs of pregnant women to improve quality of care. Methods: We carried out a mixed methods study in the Lima capital metropolitan area in 15 health centers. This included four focus groups with 34 pregnant women and surveys with 403 pregnant women. Results: Pregnant women's information needs depend on their age, number of pregnancies and environment...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Lawrence Lau, Dimitrios Papanagnou, Elaine Smith, Crystal Waters, Elizabeth Teixeira, Xiao Chi Zhang
Resuscitative hysterotomy is a daunting and rarely performed procedure in the emergency department (ED). Given the paucity of clinical exposure to this intervention, resuscitative hysterotomy is an ideal opportunity for simulation-mediated deliberate practice. The authors propose a novel training program using a homegrown, realistic, simulation device as a means to practice resuscitative hysterotomy. Two high-fidelity, tissue-based task-trainer models were constructed and tested on a convenience sample of 14 emergency medicine (EM) residents...
2018: Advances in Simulation
Gongjin Li, Enming Song, Gaoshan Huang, Ruobing Pan, Qinglei Guo, Fei Ma, Bin Zhou, Zengfeng Di, YongFeng Mei
Flexible transient photodetectors, a form of optoelectronic sensors that can be physically self-destroyed in a controllable manner, could be one of the important components for future transient electronic systems. In this work, a scalable, device-first, and bottom-up thinning process enables the fabrication of a flexible transient phototransistor on a wafer-compatible transferred silicon nanomembrane. A gate modulation significantly restrains the dark current to 10-12 A. With full exposure of the light-sensitive channel, such a device yields an ultrahigh photo-to-dark current ratio of 107 with a responsivity of 1...
October 10, 2018: Small
Kai Ou, Guanhai Li, Tianxin Li, Hui Yang, Feilong Yu, Jin Chen, Zengyue Zhao, Guangtao Cao, Xiaoshuang Chen, Wei Lu
The optical vortex beam with an orbital angular momentum, featuring a doughnut intensity distribution and a helically structured wavefront, has received extensive attention due to its applications in nanoparticle manipulation and optical communications. In this paper, we propose high-efficiency polarization-independent vortex beam generators which are capable of transforming the arbitrarily polarized plane wave into a focusing optical vortex beam and an abruptly focusing airy vortex beam. Besides, based on holographic metasurfaces, we provide a general design scheme for detecting the topological charges...
October 10, 2018: Nanoscale
John B Zamjahn, Raquel Baroni de Carvalho, Megan H Bronson, Deborah D Garbee, John T Paige
Objective: The Objective Structured Assessment of Debriefing (OSAD) is an evidence-based, 8-item tool that uses a behaviorally anchored rating scale in paper-based form to evaluate the quality of debriefing in medical education. The objective of this project was twofold: 1) to create an easy-to-use electronic format of the OSAD (eOSAD) in order to streamline data entry; and 2) to pilot its use on videoed debriefings. Materials and Methods: The eOSAD was developed in collaboration with the LSU Health New Orleans Epidemiology Data Center using SurveyGizmo (Widgix Software, LLC, Boulder, CO, USA) software...
October 1, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Ahmad Rayan, Mo'men Sisan, Omar Baker
BACKGROUND: The Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, one of the largest mass gatherings in the world, is associated with various challenges for nurses. One of these challenges is increased levels of workplace violence. Therefore, handling and mitigating workplace violence against nurses during Hajj, when nurses face a higher risk of violence and most experience stress and burnout, is of particular importance. PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to identify the types and sources of workplace violence, examine the relationship between burnout in nurses and the variables of stress and workplace violence, and identify from the perspective of nurses measures to effectively handle and mitigate these issues during Hajj season...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
Xiaofang Wang, Jinli Ma, Xin Mei, Zhaozhi Yang, Xiaoli Yu, Xiaomao Guo, Zhen Zhang, Zhimin Shao
Purpose: This study examines factors associated with outcomes following salvage radiation and systemic therapy for breast cancer patients who developed isolated locoregional recurrence (ILRR) after mastectomy alone, while focusing on the prognostic significance of constructed biologic subtype in this setting. Methods and Materials: 269 postmastectomy patients in total treated for ILRR were included. Cumulative incidence of locoregional control (LRC), distant metastasis (DM)-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) were calculated using Kaplan-Meier method...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Tobias Kretzschmar, Edwige Gaby Nkouaya Mbanjo, Grace Angelique Magalit, Maria Stefanie Dwiyanti, Muhammad Ashraful Habib, Maria Genaleen Diaz, Jose Hernandez, Zenaida Huelgas, Maria Luz Malabayabas, Subrata Kumar Das, Takashi Yamano
The development, dissemination, and adoption of improved rice varieties are imperative for global food and nutritional security. Knowledge of the crop's distribution across agro-ecologies is important for impact assessment studies, varietal replacement strategies, and the development and implementation of agricultural policies. Bangladesh is the world's 4th largest rice producer. Though traditional varieties (TVs) are abundant and valued throughout Bangladesh, population growth and vulnerability to climate change, necessitate efficient deployment of high-yielding stress-tolerant modern varieties (MVs)...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leh Shii Law, Sulaiman Norhasmah, Wan Ying Gan, Adznam Siti Nur'Asyura, Mohd Taib Mohd Nasir
Over the course of 16 years, a high percentage of Orang Asli (OA) households in Malaysia has been found to be burdened with food insecurity. Therefore, a study was conducted to improve the understanding of the challenges faced by the OA in Peninsular Malaysia to achieve food security under traditional food systems. In this study, in-depth interview sessions, which were assisted by an interview protocol, were conducted with 61 OA women from nine villages that were selected purposefully across three states (Kelantan, Pahang, and Perak) in Peninsular Malaysia...
October 8, 2018: Nutrients
Bin Yan, Yong Xiang, Guang Hua
In visual cryptography (VC) for grayscale image, size reduction leads to bad perceptual quality to the reconstructed secret image. To improve the quality, the current efforts are limited to the design of VC algorithm for binary image, and measuring the quality with metrics that are not directly related to how the human visual system (HVS) perceives halftone images. We propose an analysis-by-synthesis (AbS) framework to integrate the halftoning process and the VC encoding: the secret pixel/block is reconstructed from the shares in the encoder and the error between the reconstructed secret and the original secret images is fed back and compensated concurrently by the error diffusion process...
October 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Xucun Jia, Peng Liu, Jonathan P Lynch
The development of crops with better growth under suboptimal phosphorus availability would improve food security in developing countries while reducing environmental pollution in developed countries. We tested the hypothesis that maize (Zea mays) phenotypes with greater lateral root branching density have greater phosphorus acquisition from low phosphorus soils. Recombinant inbred lines with either 'many short' (MS) or 'few long' (FL) lateral root phenotypes were grown under high and low phosphorus conditions in greenhouse mesocosms and in the field...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
Kelly Stamper Balistreri
Food insecurity-the lack of consistent access to adequate amounts of food-remains a reality for many American families. Although children are usually protected from reductions in food intake even in households with low food security, about 8 percent of all households with children also experienced reduced food intake and disrupted eating patterns. The research on child food insecurity and family structure is limited and the findings are mixed. Given the increasing complexity of families in the U.S., combined with sustained high levels of food insecurity during the last decade, a closer examination of this relationship is warranted...
August 2018: Social Indicators Research
Jonathon Adams, Stuart Thomas, Tobias Mackinnon, Damien Eggleton
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the therapeutic security characteristics of the secure forensic mental health inpatient units in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: This study evaluated all eight secure inpatient units in New South Wales using a validated tool, the Security Needs Assessment Profile. RESULTS: A pattern of decreasing therapeutic security across the secure units was found, consistent with their intended security levels, from high security through to open security...
October 8, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Elisa Mwega, Duncan J Colquhoun, Huruma Tuntufye, Robinson Mdegela, Stephen Mutoloki, Øystein Evensen, Yngvild Wasteson
The present study was conducted to explore the occurrence of Flavobacteriaceae in wild (n = 108) and farmed (n = 187) Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) collected from Lake Victoria and twelve ponds in the Morogoro region, respectively. The size of the ponds surveyed ranged from 130 - 150 m2 . Ponds parameters and fish morphometric data were recorded during sampling. A total of 67 (farmed n = 44 and wild = 23) Flavobacterium-like isolates were identified on the basis of colony morphology and biochemical tests...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Réjean Hébert, Jean-Herman Guay, Bryn Williams-Jones, Mathieu Seppey
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this article are to describe the development of a self-administered questionnaire assessing the core values in the field of public health ( ) and to report the results of a study testing the questionnaire's test-retest reliability, internal consistency and construct validity. METHOD: A 24-item questionnaire grounded in the conceptual framework of Shalom H. Schwartz (2000) was developed by a group of international experts in public health...
October 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
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