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Mohammad Uddin, Animesh Basak, Alokesh Pramanik, Sunpreet Singh, Grzegorz M Krolczyk, Chander Prakash
Hole quality in drilling is considered a precursor for reliable and secure component assembly, ensuring product integrity and functioning service life. This paper aims to evaluate the influence of the key process parameters on drilling performance. A series of drilling tests with new TiN-coated high speed steel (HSS) bits are performed, while thrust force and torque are measured with the aid of an in-house built force dynamometer. The effect of process mechanics on hole quality, e.g., dimensional accuracy, burr formation, surface finish, is evaluated in relation to drill-bit wear and chip formation mechanism...
December 2, 2018: Materials
Yajie Zhang, Yanfen Wang, Haishan Niu
Maize, rice, wheat and soybean-the major staple food crops in China-have a crucial role in national food security and economic development. Predictions of changes in the requirements for irrigation water in food crop production under climate change may provide scientific support for the optimum allocation of water resources and measures to mitigate climate change. We conducted a spatial grid-based analysis using projections of future climate generated by a bias-correction and spatial disaggregation multi-model ensemble for three representative concentration pathway scenarios (RCP2...
November 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Peter Neri
Contrast is the most fundamental property of images. Consequently, any comprehensive model of biological vision must incorporate this attribute and provide a veritable description of its impact on visual perception. Current theoretical and computational models predict that vision should modify its characteristics at low contrast: for example, it should become broader (more lowpass) to protect from noise, as often demonstrated by individual neurons. We find that the opposite is true for human discrimination of elementary image elements: vision becomes sharper, not broader, as contrast approaches threshold levels...
December 4, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Tsutomu Ohno, Ganga M Hettiarachchi
Population growth and technical and social changes have always exerted pressure on environmental quality. However, we are experiencing unprecedented change in the rate and scale of human impacts on the environment. The One Health Initiative recognizes that improving the quality of life for humans and other animal species requires a holistic and integrated framework to seek multidisciplinary solutions to global environmental quality challenges. This special section is designed to elucidate the connections among soil health, environmental quality, food safety and security, and human health...
November 2018: Journal of Environmental Quality
Mohammed ELTurk, Rosazlin Abdullah, M Z Rozainah, Nor Kartini Abu Bakar
This study was carried out to evaluate the distribution, enrichment and ecological risk of heavy metals (arsenic (As), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb)) concentration in Kuala Selangor estuary at the Kuala Selangor Nature Park. The results suggested that As and Pb in sediment were as high as the background value, suggesting the presence of anthropogenic contamination. The risk assessment of sediment Igeo , CD, and PERI, on the other hand, showed low risk of heavy metals in Kuala Selangor estuary...
November 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Akhilesh Kumar Singh, Satbir Singh, Bipin Kumar Gupta
A strategy has been demonstrated to design a biluminescent security ink using Eu(TTA)3Phen (ETP) and fluorescein for protecting the currency and other essential documents viz. passport, bank cheque, certificates against counterfeiting. Biluminescent security ink exhibits strong red and green emission under 367 and 445 nm excitations, respectively. As it is quite challenging to prepare a material that possesses two prominent (green and red) and distinguishable colors upon excitation with two separate LEDs sources, emitting at different wavelengths, the biluminescent security ink would be hard to counterfeit as compared to the existing luminescent security ink that exhibits single color under UV light exposure...
December 3, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Yeisson Gutiérrez, Tito Bacca, Lady S Zambrano, María Pineda, Raul N C Guedes
BACKGROUND: Resistance to pesticides is an evolutionary process that entails, in most cases, substantial consequences to the biology of the resistant populations. In this study we focus in life history traits of the potato tuber moth Tecia solanivora, an invasive and voracious pest for which resistance to pyrethroid insecticides was recently reported. A marginally resistant and multiple-resistant population were selected out of eight sampled localities in Colombia; the use of a fully susceptible population was not possible since none was recognized in laboratory, or field...
December 2, 2018: Pest Management Science
Arezou Ostad-Sharif, Dariush Abbasinezhad-Mood, Morteza Nikooghadam
Telecare medicine information system (TMIS) has provided an efficient and convenient way for communications of patients at home and medical staffs at clinical centers. To make these communications secure, user authentication by medical servers is considered as a crucial requirement. For this purpose, many user authentication and key agreement protocols have been put forwrad in order to fulfil this vital necessity. Recently, Arshad and Rasoolzadegan have revealed that not only the authentication and key agreement protocols suggested by Amin and Biswas and Giri et al...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy, Carolina Sanhueza, Katherine Pinto, Leonardo Cifuentes, María Reguera, Vilbett Briones, Andrés Zurita-Silva, Rodrigo Álvarez, Andrea Morales, Herman Silva
Quinoa has been highlighted as a promising crop to sustain food security. The selection of physiological traits that allow identification genotypes with high Nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is a key factor to increase Quinoa cultivation. In order to unveil the underpinning mechanisms for N-stress tolerance in Quinoa, three genotypes with similar phenology, but different NUE were developed under high (HN) or low (LN) nitrogen conditions. N metabolism processes and photosynthetic performance were studied after anthesis and in correlation with productivity to identify principal traits related to NUE...
November 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mark Scarbecz, Edward J DeSchepper
Dental students must be skilled in the use and application of information technology (IT), but there are few studies of IT use and knowledge among U.S. dental students. The aim of this study was to retrospectively analyze survey data regarding IT use and knowledge collected from first-year dental students at one U.S. dental school in 2009, 2012, and 2017. Data were collected from an anonymous survey of these students as part of a D1 course called Informatics and Evaluation of Dental Literature. All students participated in the survey each year, for a response rate of 100%...
December 2018: Journal of Dental Education
Maria G Grammatikopoulou, Konstantinos Gkiouras, Xenophon Theodoridis, Maria Tsisimiri, Anastasia G Markaki, Michael Chourdakis, Dimitrios G Goulis
OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of malnutrition and food insecurity (uncertainty, or limited ability to acquire acceptable foods through socially acceptable ways), among non-hospitalised, non-institutionalised, community-dwelling older adults, and to identify possible dietary, socioeconomic and health factors associated with them. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional, with 207 older adult participants inhabitants of Thessaloniki and Kavala, Greece. A medical diagnosis was not a criterion for exclusion from participation...
January 2019: Maturitas
Lauri Wright, Sericea Stallings-Smith, Andrea Y Arikawa
AIMS: The primary aim of this research was to investigate the association between food insecurity and prediabetes and to identify specific subgroups for early clinical intervention. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 25,814 participants were analyzed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for years 2005-2014. Multivariable logistic regression was used to explore the association between food security status and laboratory-confirmed prediabetes...
November 27, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Jiaqi Xu, Xiaoning Zhao, Zhongqiang Wang, Haiyang Xu, Junli Hu, Jiangang Ma, Yichun Liu
Transient electronics that can physically vanish in solution can offer opportunities to address the ecological challenges for dealing with the rapidly growing electronic waste. As one important component, it is desirable that memory devices combined with the transient feature can also be developed as secrecy information storage systems besides the above advantage. Resistive switching (RS) memory is one of the most promising technologies for next-generation memory. Herein, the biocompatible pectin extracted from natural orange peel is introduced to fabricate RS memory devices (Ag/pectin/indium tin oxides (ITO)), which exhibit excellent RS characteristics, such as forming free characteristic, low operating voltages (≈1...
November 30, 2018: Small
Johannes F Plate, Sean P Ryan, Michael A Bergen, Cierra S Hong, David E Attarian, Thorsten M Seyler
BACKGROUND: At the investigating institution, an electronic messaging portal (MyChart) allows patients to directly communicate with their healthcare provider. As reimbursement models evolve, there is an increasing effort to decrease 90-day hospital resource utilization and patient returns, and secure messaging portals have been proposed as one way to achieve this goal. We sought to determine which patients utilize this portal, and to determine the impact of secure messaging on emergency department (ED) visits and readmissions within 90 days postoperatively...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Neal Nettesheim, Doug Powell, William Vasios, Jennifer Mbuthia, Konrad Davis, Dan Yourk, Kirk Waibel, Daniel Kral, Francis McVeigh, Jeremy C Pamplin
Introduction: U.S. military forces have engaged in combat in mature areas of operations (AOs) in Iraq and Afghanistan that allow for casualty evacuation to definitive surgical care within "The Golden Hour." Future combat casualty care will be complex and challenging. Facing the medical demand of the Multi-Domain Battlefield remains an uncertain problem set. What can be anticipated is that a near peer adversary will not allow freedom of movement, air superiority, or uninterrupted communications...
November 1, 2018: Military Medicine
Jason Davis, Shaheen Azim Dewji, Eric Abelquist, Nolan Hertel
Radiation protection is foundational to harnessing the societal benefits of radiation in nuclear energy, security, and medicine applications. Significant challenges in radiation protection remain unaddressed for the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear medicine, emergency response, national defense, and space exploration, as the United States is lacking a coherent research strategy prioritizing radiation protection mission needs and gaps in scientific knowledge to meet these needs. Research and development in the field of radiation protection calls for cooperation among governmental agencies, emergency responders, research organizations, and the academic community...
January 2019: Health Physics
Courtney Benjamin Wolk, Rebecca E Stewart, Ricardo Eiraldi, Peter Cronholm, Eduardo Salas, David S Mandell
Children obtain more mental health services through schools than through any other system. In urban, low-resource schools, mental health care often is provided by teams of contracted community mental health workers. Implementation of intended services may struggle in the context of challenges related to team functioning. Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) is an efficacious approach for improving team functioning in health care. In collaboration with stakeholders, we adapted TeamSTEPPS for school mental health teams and pilot-tested it in 3 schools participating in an ongoing implementation of cognitive-behavioral therapy...
November 29, 2018: Psychotherapy
Matina V Angelopoulou, S D Shanti, Cesar D Gonzalez, Ashley Love, Jeffrey Chaffin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the association of food insecurity on the prevalence of dental caries in preschool children. METHODS: Eighty-two children, aged 12-71 months old, from the Marquette University School of Dentistry Community South Clinic and their caregivers participated in this cross-sectional study. Following informed consent, parents completed the validated six-item US Department of Agriculture food insecurity questionnaire and questions regarding demographic information and family structure...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Public Health Dentistry
Kristen B Stolka, Bonaventure Fuamba Ngoyi, Kathyrn E L Grimes, Jennifer J Hemingway-Foday, Leopold Lubula, Alain Nzanzu Magazani, Joseph Bikuku, Mathias Mossoko, Leonie Manya Kitoto, Sylvie Mpangi Bashilebo, Dieudonné Lufwa Maya, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Sarah Rhea, Pia D M MacDonald
High-functioning communicable disease surveillance systems are critical for public health preparedness. Countries that cannot quickly detect and contain diseases are a risk to the global community. The ability of all countries to comply with the International Health Regulations is paramount for global health security. Zoonotic diseases can be particularly dangerous for humans. We conducted a surveillance system assessment of institutional and individual capacity in Kinshasa and Haut Katanga provinces in the Democratic Republic of the Congo for nationally identified priority zoonotic diseases (eg, viral hemorrhagic fever [VHF], yellow fever, rabies, monkeypox, and influenza monitored through acute respiratory infections)...
2018: Health Security
Nicole Weber, Andrea L Martinsen, Amidou Sani, Elom Kokou Eric Assigbley, Chedly Azzouz, Arabella Hayter, Komlan Ayite, Amivi Afefa Bibiane Baba, Kokou Mawulé Davi, Rick Gelting
Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) services in healthcare facilities are essential to ensure quality health care and to facilitate infection, prevention, and control practices. They are critical to responding to outbreaks and preventing healthcare-associated infections and, therefore, critical to global health security. Many healthcare facilities in low- and middle-income settings have limited WASH services. One tool to address this issue is the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Water and Sanitation for Health Facility Improvement Tool, or "WASH FIT...
2018: Health Security
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