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Radiotherapy vaccine

Ryan P Werntz, Brittany Adamic, Gary D Steinberg
PURPOSE: BCG is the gold standard in management of high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (HRNMIBC). However, in patients who fail BCG, there are few effective intrasvesical options. This review aims to explore standard and emerging therapies in HRNMIBC. METHODS: A non-systematic literature review was performed using Medline and PubMed. Literature focused on HRNMIBC and BCG failure studies, with particular attention to Phase II and III clinical trials. RESULTS: The only FDA approved therapy for BCG failure patients in Valrubicin...
December 4, 2018: World Journal of Urology
J M Mor, K R Koch, V Kakkassery, C Cursiefen, L M Heindl
BACKGROUND: Benign iridal tumors rarely necessitate a therapeutic intervention. In contrast, malignant tumors of the iris can threaten the patient's life and eyesight and require early treatment to prevent the development of metastases. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of current treatment options for iridal tumors with special emphasis on iridal melanoma. METHODS: This article gives an overview of the current literature based on a PubMed search as well as own clinical experience...
December 4, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
Anna Wrona
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite aggressive treatment based on definitive chemoradiotherapy, 5-year overall survival in unresectable stage III nonsmall cell lung cancer remains poor (15-20%). The novel immunotherapy based on immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) presents as the therapeutic 'Holly Grail' in lung cancer treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Preclinical models provide evidence of immunotherapy-radiotherapy (IM-RT) synergy. The exposure to ionizing radiation turns tumor in an in-situ vaccine, primes the innate immune system, increases immunotherapy efficacy by overcoming the immunosuppressive microenvironment of immune-resistant tumors and promotes a systemic, out-of-field antitumor T-cell-mediated response called abscopal effect...
January 2019: Current Opinion in Oncology
Ming Yi, Shuang Qin, Weiheng Zhao, Shengnan Yu, Qian Chu, Kongming Wu
Immune checkpoint inhibitor induces tumor rejection by activated host immune system. The anti-tumor immune response consists of capture, presentation, recognition of neoantigen, as well as subsequent killing of tumor cell. Due to the interdependence among this series of stepwise events, neoantigen profoundly influences the efficacy of anti-immune checkpoint therapy. Moreover, the neoantigen-specific T cell reactivity is the cornerstone of multiple immunotherapies. In fact, several strategies targeting neoantigen have been attempted for synergetic effect with immune checkpoint inhibitor...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
Ambinintsoa H Ralaidovy, Chaitra Gopalappa, André Ilbawi, Carel Pretorius, Jeremy A Lauer
Background: Following the adoption of the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of NCDs 2013-2020, an update to the Appendix 3 of the action plan was requested by Member States in 2016, endorsed by the Seventieth World Health Assembly in May 2017 and provides a list of recommended NCD interventions. The main contribution of this paper is to present results of analyses identifying how decision makers can achieve maximum health gain using the cancer interventions listed in the Appendix 3...
2018: Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation: C/E
Heide Schatten
Despite significant progress in early detection and improved treatment modalities prostate cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in American men which results in about 30,000 deaths per year in the USA. An aggressive phenotype leading to 2.58% risk of dying from prostate cancer still exists and immunotherapy has offered new possibilities to treat metastatic prostate cancer that cannot be treated by other modalities. Cancer immunotherapy is a rapidly growing field of research aimed at identifying biomarkers in immunodiagnosis and to develop new therapies by enabling the immune system to detect and destroy cancer cells...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Mengying Hong, Kejun Tang, Jing Qian, Hongyu Deng, Musheng Zeng, Shu Zheng, Kefeng Ding, Yushen Du, Ren Sun
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the most common head and neck malignancies in southern China and Southeast Asia. Unfortunately, 70% of NPC patients have locally advanced disease at the first diagnosis. Radiotherapy alone and concurrent chemoradiotherapy are important treatment approaches for NPC, but they have a limited effect on patients with locally advanced or distantly metastatic disease. 1-5 Nevertheless, the unique immune environment of the EBV-associated NPC provides rational targets for immunotherapy...
2018: Critical Reviews in Oncogenesis
Ilgin Kimiz-Gebologlu, Sultan Gulce-Iz, Cigir Biray-Avci
Nowadays, in cancer treatments, immunotherapy which can be classified as a cancer type specific therapy is more popular than non-specific therapy methods such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The main aim of immunotherapy is to enable patients' immune system to target cancer cells and destroy them. The mainly used treatment methods in cancer immunotherapy are cancer vaccines, adoptive cell therapy, cytokines and monoclonal antibodies. In this review, we discuss the immunotherapy approaches, especially monoclonal antibodies which are mostly used in cancer immunotherapy in clinical applications...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Hiroto Matsui, Shoichi Hazama, Yoshitaro Shindo, Hiroaki Nagano
Pancreatic cancer is a highly malignant disease with high treatment resistance. Many patients are diagnosed in a very advanced state, and few patients can be curatively resected. With FOLFIRINOX and nab-paclitaxel plus gemcitabine, the prognosis of advanced pancreatic cancer has improved, yet many patients cannot survive longer than a year. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are needed. Cancer vaccine therapy is characterized by controlling cancer by a cancer-specific immune reaction with few adverse events...
October 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
Eric Fox, Thomas Oliver, Melissa Rowe, Sunil Thomas, Yousef Zakharia, Paul B Gilman, Alexander J Muller, George C Prendergast
Exploding interest in immunometabolism as a source of new cancer therapeutics has been driven in large part by studies of tryptophan catabolism mediated by IDO/TDO enzymes. A chief focus in the field is IDO1, a pro-inflammatory modifier that is widely overexpressed in cancers where it blunts immunosurveillance and enables neovascularization and metastasis. The simple racemic compound 1-methyl-D,L-tryptophan (1MT) is an extensively used probe of IDO/TDO pathways that exerts a variety of complex inhibitory effects...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Yasuyuki Sugiyama
Since 1970s immunotherapy had been thought to be one of feasible strategies against malignancy. During that time nonspecific immunotherapy by biological response modifiers(BRMs), peptide vaccine therapy, dendritic cell-based vaccine therapy, adoptive cell therapy, targeting therapy by use of monoclonal antibody, and so on, had been investigated but finally they resulted in disappointment because of inappropriate clinical trials followed by limited efficacy. Therefore the understanding of clinical oncologists in regard to immunotherapy had been considerably poor until 2010...
September 2018: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Izabela Lasinska, Tomasz Kolenda, Anna Teresiak, Katarzyna M Lamperska, Lukasz Galus, Jacek Mackiewicz
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the most common malignant cancer occurring in the head and neck area, approximately 90% of the cases. Even in the cases of primary radical treatment (surgical, concomitant chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy alone), local recurrence or distal metastases are often observed. In patients with recurrent disease who are unable to receive radical treatment, the results of palliative chemotherapy are not satisfactory. The breakthrough in the therapy of advanced HNSCC was the approval of cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy in 2008...
September 9, 2018: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Henry T Marshall, Mustafa B A Djamgoz
Host immunity recognizes and eliminates most early tumor cells, yet immunological checkpoints, exemplified by CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1, pose a significant obstacle to effective antitumor immune responses. T-lymphocyte co-inhibitory pathways influence intensity, inflammation and duration of antitumor immunity. However, tumors and their immunosuppressive microenvironments exploit them to evade immune destruction. Recent PD-1 checkpoint inhibitors yielded unprecedented efficacies and durable responses across advanced-stage melanoma, showcasing potential to replace conventional radiotherapy regimens...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Marco C Merlano, Anna M Merlotti, Lisa Licitra, Nerina Denaro, Elena Fea, Danilo Galizia, Massimo Di Maio, Claudia Fruttero, Paola Curcio, Stefania Vecchio, Elvio G Russi, Renzo Corvò
Introduction and background: Second-line treatment of platinum-resistant relapsed/metastatic (R/M) head and neck cancer (HNC) is a currently unmet clinical need. Clinical trials showed improvement in overall survival and quality of life of R/M-HNC patients treated with anti-PD-1 regardless of the number of prior chemotherapy lines; however, the percentage of long-term survivors remains limited.This study aims to test the hypothesis that attacking the tumor microenvironment at multiple levels can increase immunogenicity of R/M-HNC without worsening the safety profile of immune checkpoint inhibitors...
August 2018: Clinical and Translational Radiation Oncology
Lucia Festino, Vito Vanella, Claudia Trojaniello, Paolo A Ascierto
Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy has revolutionized the treatment of many advanced stage cancers. Preexisting immunity is necessary for a response to these agents, which are most effective in inflamed tumors since they principally act by reinforcing preexisting antitumor T-cell responses. An important goal of therapy is to convert the tumor environment from non-inflamed to inflamed in order to facilitate subsequent response to checkpoint inhibitors. Clinical trials are underway to identify checkpoint inhibitor-based combination approaches, which may help to achieve this goal...
October 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Virgil E J C Schijns, Chrystel Pretto, Anna M Strik, Rianne Gloudemans-Rijkers, Laurent Deviller, Denis Pierre, Jinah Chung, Manisha Dandekar, Jose A Carrillo, Xiao-Tang Kong, Beverly D Fu, Frank P K Hsu, Florence M Hofman, Thomas C Chen, Raphael Zidovetzki, Daniela A Bota, Apostolos Stathopoulos
Glioblastoma is the most common form of brain cancer in adults that produces severe damage to the brain leading to a very poor survival prognosis. The standard of care for glioblastoma is usually surgery, as well as radiotherapy followed by systemic temozolomide chemotherapy, resulting in a median survival time of about 12 to 15 months. Despite these therapeutic efforts, the tumor returns in the vast majority of patients. When relapsing, statistics suggest an imminent death dependent on the size of the tumor, the Karnofsky Performance Status, and the tumor localization...
August 27, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Grazia Lazzari, Angela Terlizzi, Giovanna Porrazzo, Salvatore Devicienti, Francesco Perri, Giuseppina Della Vittoria Scarpati, Giovanni Silvano
Advanced squamous cell lung carcinoma in elderly patients has a limited chance of cure with first, second line chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer can be used with curative intent for localized or oligometastatic disease using standard or altered fractionations. Current evidence indicates that radiotherapy via diverse cascade mechanisms is able to invoke both local and systemic immunoresponses promoting tumor cell death through an in situ vaccination effect. Moreover, the advancement in immunotherapies is changing the scenario...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Inigo Martinez-Zubiaurre, Anthony J Chalmers, Turid Hellevik
The implementation of novel cancer immunotherapies in the form of immune checkpoint blockers represents a major advancement in the treatment of cancer, and has renewed enthusiasm for identifying new ways to induce antitumor immune responses in patients. Despite the proven efficacy of neutralizing antibodies that target immune checkpoints in some refractory cancers, many patients do not experience therapeutic benefit, possibly owing to a lack of antitumor immune recognition, or to the presence of dominant immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Kaori Makita, Takashi Kamigaki, Sachiko Okada, Eriko Matsuda, Hiroshi Ibe, Eri Oguma, Keiko Naitoh, Rishu Takimoto, Shigenori Goto
BACKGROUND/AIM: The past 17 years, immune-cell therapy has been administered to 990 patients with advanced or recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 50 patients with curatively resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The correlation between overall survival (OS) and various factors including sex, age, performance status (PS), distant metastasis, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and type of immune-cell therapy were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses...
July 2018: Anticancer Research
Chiara Di Tucci, Michele Carlo Schiavi, Pierangelo Faiano, Ottavia D'Oria, Giovanni Prata, Valentina Sciuga, Andrea Giannini, Innocenza Palaia, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Treatments for gynecological cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. However, overall survival is not improved, and novel approaches are needed. Immunotherapy has been proven efficacious in various types of cancers and multiple approaches have been recently developed. Since numerous gynecological cancers are associated to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, therapeutic vaccines, targeting HPV epitopes, have been developed. The advancing understanding of the immune system, regulatory pathways and tumor microenvironment have produced a major interest in immune checkpoint blockade, Indeed, immune checkpoint molecules are important clinical targets in a wide variety of tumors, including gynecological...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
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