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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105016/radiation-induced-transformation-of-immunoregulatory-networks-in-the-tumor-stroma
#1
REVIEW
Inigo Martinez-Zubiaurre, Anthony J Chalmers, Turid Hellevik
The implementation of novel cancer immunotherapies in the form of immune checkpoint blockers represents a major advancement in the treatment of cancer, and has renewed enthusiasm for identifying new ways to induce antitumor immune responses in patients. Despite the proven efficacy of neutralizing antibodies that target immune checkpoints in some refractory cancers, many patients do not experience therapeutic benefit, possibly owing to a lack of antitumor immune recognition, or to the presence of dominant immunosuppressive mechanisms in the tumor microenvironment (TME)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970573/prognostic-factors-for-pancreatic-cancer-patients-treated-with-immune-cell-therapy
#2
Kaori Makita, Takashi Kamigaki, Sachiko Okada, Eriko Matsuda, Hiroshi Ibe, Eri Oguma, Keiko Naitoh, Rishu Takimoto, Shigenori Goto
BACKGROUND/AIM: The past 17 years, immune-cell therapy has been administered to 990 patients with advanced or recurrent pancreatic adenocarcinoma and 50 patients with curatively resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The correlation between overall survival (OS) and various factors including sex, age, performance status (PS), distant metastasis, chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and type of immune-cell therapy were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses...
July 2018: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958629/therapeutic-vaccines-and-immune-checkpoints-inhibition-options-for-gynecological-cancers
#3
REVIEW
Chiara Di Tucci, Michele Carlo Schiavi, Pierangelo Faiano, Ottavia D'Oria, Giovanni Prata, Valentina Sciuga, Andrea Giannini, Innocenza Palaia, Ludovico Muzii, Pierluigi Benedetti Panici
Treatments for gynecological cancer include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. However, overall survival is not improved, and novel approaches are needed. Immunotherapy has been proven efficacious in various types of cancers and multiple approaches have been recently developed. Since numerous gynecological cancers are associated to human papilloma virus (HPV) infections, therapeutic vaccines, targeting HPV epitopes, have been developed. The advancing understanding of the immune system, regulatory pathways and tumor microenvironment have produced a major interest in immune checkpoint blockade, Indeed, immune checkpoint molecules are important clinical targets in a wide variety of tumors, including gynecological...
August 2018: Critical Reviews in Oncology/hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29950117/emerging-patents-in-the-therapeutic-areas-of-glioma-and-glioblastoma
#4
REVIEW
Matthew Harris, Fredrik Svensson, Liliya Kopanitsa, Graham Ladds, David Bailey
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive malignant glioma, with patients having a median survival of just over one year. Current chemotherapies, with surgery and radiotherapy, provide only minor patient benefit. There is a great need to discover and develop novel therapies for this devastating disease. Areas covered: The patent literature reveals novel therapies, providing insights into emerging GBM therapeutics. We have used the Google and USPTO patent databases to generate a detailed landscape of patents and patent applications from companies active in the areas of glioma and/or GBM...
July 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907693/exosomes-shuttle-trex1-sensitive-ifn-stimulatory-dsdna-from-irradiated-cancer-cells-to-dcs
#5
Julie M Diamond, Claire Vanpouille-Box, Sheila Spada, Nils-Petter Rudqvist, Jessica R Chapman, Beatrix M Ueberheide, Karsten A Pilones, Yasmeen Sarfraz, Silvia C Formenti, Sandra Demaria
Radiotherapy (RT) used at immunogenic doses leads to accumulation of cytosolic double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in cancer cells, which activates type I IFN (IFN-I) via the cGAS/STING pathway. Cancer cell-derived IFN-I is required to recruit BATF3-dependent dendritic cells (DC) to poorly immunogenic tumors and trigger antitumor T-cell responses in combination with immune checkpoint blockade. We have previously demonstrated that the exonuclease TREX1 regulates radiation immunogenicity by degrading cytosolic dsDNA...
June 15, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893303/primary-pulmonary-synovial-sarcoma-a-reappraisal
#6
REVIEW
Manoj Kumar Panigrahi, Gourahari Pradhan, Nibedita Sahoo, Pritinanda Mishra, Susama Patra, Prasanta Raghab Mohapatra
Synovial sarcoma (SS) is a malignant mesenchymal tumor with variable epithelial differentiation that affects mostly young adults and can arise at any anatomic site. Primary intrathoracic SS is very rare accounting for <0.5% of all lung tumors. Most commonly, it arises from the lung followed by pleura and mediastinum. Primary pulmonary SS (PPSS) affects both sexes equally with no preference for any hemithorax. The morphology, immunostaining properties, cytogenetic features, and management strategy of PPSS are similar to that of soft tissue SS...
April 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862244/immune-checkpoint-inhibitors-and-radiotherapy-concept-and-review-of-current-literature
#7
REVIEW
Loka Thangamathesvaran, Roshni Shah, Rebeka Verma, Omar Mahmoud
Traditional chemotherapeutic agents non-selectively eliminate cancer cells at the expense of normal tissue; in an attempt to minimize such effects, a new class of targeted agents, immunotherapy, was introduced in the late 1950s with the discovery of interferons and the development of the first cancer vaccine. Ever since, immunotherapy evolved, exploiting different cellular mechanisms including dendritic cell therapy, monoclonal antibodies, and cytokines. Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPI) are the most recent subclass of this family and we herein review the basis of exploiting this new subclass of immunotherapy with radiotherapy in the context of studies evaluating their effects on human subjects and focusing on the synergism between the molecular pathways operating in the background...
April 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29843811/first-results-on-survival-from-a-large-phase-3-clinical-trial-of-an-autologous-dendritic-cell-vaccine-in-newly-diagnosed-glioblastoma
#8
Linda M Liau, Keyoumars Ashkan, David D Tran, Jian L Campian, John E Trusheim, Charles S Cobbs, Jason A Heth, Michael Salacz, Sarah Taylor, Stacy D D'Andre, Fabio M Iwamoto, Edward J Dropcho, Yaron A Moshel, Kevin A Walter, Clement P Pillainayagam, Robert Aiken, Rekha Chaudhary, Samuel A Goldlust, Daniela A Bota, Paul Duic, Jai Grewal, Heinrich Elinzano, Steven A Toms, Kevin O Lillehei, Tom Mikkelsen, Tobias Walbert, Steven R Abram, Andrew J Brenner, Steven Brem, Matthew G Ewend, Simon Khagi, Jana Portnow, Lyndon J Kim, William G Loudon, Reid C Thompson, David E Avigan, Karen L Fink, Francois J Geoffroy, Scott Lindhorst, Jose Lutzky, Andrew E Sloan, Gabriele Schackert, Dietmar Krex, Hans-Jorg Meisel, Julian Wu, Raphael P Davis, Christopher Duma, Arnold B Etame, David Mathieu, Santosh Kesari, David Piccioni, Manfred Westphal, David S Baskin, Pamela Z New, Michel Lacroix, Sven-Axel May, Timothy J Pluard, Victor Tse, Richard M Green, John L Villano, Michael Pearlman, Kevin Petrecca, Michael Schulder, Lynne P Taylor, Anthony E Maida, Robert M Prins, Timothy F Cloughesy, Paul Mulholland, Marnix L Bosch
BACKGROUND: Standard therapy for glioblastoma includes surgery, radiotherapy, and temozolomide. This Phase 3 trial evaluates the addition of an autologous tumor lysate-pulsed dendritic cell vaccine (DCVax® -L) to standard therapy for newly diagnosed glioblastoma. METHODS: After surgery and chemoradiotherapy, patients were randomized (2:1) to receive temozolomide plus DCVax-L (n = 232) or temozolomide and placebo (n = 99). Following recurrence, all patients were allowed to receive DCVax-L, without unblinding...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776594/gearing-up-t-cell-immunotherapy-in-cervical-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Shilpa Raghuvanshi Chauhan, Mausumi Bharadwaj
The World Health Organization estimates more than 270,000 deaths annually by cervical cancer. Present vaccines are prophylactic in nature which cannot treat huge bulk of cervical cancer patients worldwide. Available therapies like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are not effective in high-grade lesion, and hence, there is an unmet medical need for an effective form of therapy. T cells play a significant role in cervical cancer pathogenesis as human papilloma virus uses multiple mechanisms that dodge host T-cell immune-surveillance aiding in persistence of infection and establishment of cancer...
March 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732989/towards-breast-cancer-vaccines-progress-and-challenges
#10
Javad Behravan, Atefeh Razazan, Ghazal Behravan
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. National cancer institute of the US estimates that one in eight women will be diagnosed with breast cancer during their life time. Considering the devastating effects of the disease and the alarming numbers many scientists and research groups have devoted their research to fight breast cancer. Several recommendations are to be considered as preventing measures which include living a healthy life style, regular physical activity, weight control and, smoking cessation...
May 2, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696949/overview-on-current-treatment-standards-in-high-grade-gliomas
#11
Alessia Pellerino, Federica Franchino, Riccardo Soffietti, Roberta Rudà
High-grade gliomas (HGGs) are the most common primary tumors of the Central Nervous System, which include anaplastic gliomas (grade III) and glioblastomas (GBM, grade IV). Surgery is the mainstay of treatment in HGGs in order to achieve a histological and molecular characterization, as well as relieve neurological symptoms and improve seizure control. Combinations of some molecular factors, such as IDH 1-2 mutations, 1p/19q codeletion and MGMT methylation status, allow to classify different subtypes of gliomas and identify patients with different outcome...
April 26, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673749/-k%C3%A3-bner-renb%C3%A3-k-wolf-phenomena-and-so-on%C3%A2-has-the-time-come-for-simplification
#12
N Kluger
Since the end of the 19th century, dermatologists have observed that skin conditions may respond (or not) to a wide variety of skin injuries or even to other existing skin conditions. Attempts were made to name and classify such phenomena: Köbner phenomenon, Wolf's isotopic response, Renbök phenomenon, etc. However, over time, further subtleties and nuances came to be grafted onto the initial descriptions, while comparable phenomena were described using different terms, all of which resulted in considerable confusion in the literature...
May 2018: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605057/first-nations-people-s-perspectives-on-barriers-and-supports-for-enhancing-hpv-vaccination-foundations-for-sustainable-community-driven-strategies
#13
R I Henderson, M Shea-Budgell, C Healy, A Letendre, L Bill, B Healy, R A Bednarczyk, K Mrklas, C Barnabe, J Guichon, N Bedingfield, S MacDonald, A Colquhoun, S Glaze, T Nash, C Bell, J Kellner, R Richardson, T Dixon, J Starlight, G Runner, G Nelson
OBJECTIVE: In Canada, Indigenous people have higher human papillomavirus (HPV) infection rates, lower screening rates for cervical cancer, and higher rates of invasive cancer, leading to worse cervical cancer-related outcomes than observed in non-Indigenous Canadian women. Lingering harms from European colonization drive these health inequities and create public health challenges. Policy guidance is needed to optimize HPV vaccination rates and, thereby, decrease the burden of HPV-related illness, including high-morbidity surgical procedures and chemo-radiotherapy...
April 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554212/combined-immunotherapy-encompassing-intratumoral-poly-iclc-dendritic-cell-vaccination-and-radiotherapy-in-advanced-cancer-patients
#14
M E Rodríguez-Ruiz, J L Perez-Gracia, I Rodríguez, C Alfaro, C Oñate, G Pérez, I Gil-Bazo, A Benito, S Inogés, A López-Diaz de Cerio, M Ponz-Sarvise, L Resano, P Berraondo, B Barbés, S Martin-Algarra, A Gúrpide, M F Sanmamed, C de Andrea, A M Salazar, I Melero
Background: Combination immunotherapy has the potential to achieve additive or synergistic effects. Combined local injections of dsRNA analogues (mimicking viral RNA) and repeated vaccinations with tumor-lysate loaded dendritic cells shows efficacy against colon cancer mouse models. In the context of immunotherapy, radiotherapy can exert beneficial abscopal effects. Patients and methods: In this two-cohort pilot phase I study, 15 advanced cancer patients received two 4-week cycles of four intradermal daily doses of monocyte-derived dendritic cells preloaded with autologous tumor lysate and matured for 24 h with poly-ICLC (Hiltonol), TNF-α and IFN-α...
May 1, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535070/hdac-inhibitors-as-epigenetic-regulators-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#15
REVIEW
Mariarosaria Conte, Raffaele De Palma, Lucia Altucci
In recent years, anti-tumor immunotherapy has shown promising results, and immune-oncology is now emerging as the fourth major wave in the treatment of tumors after radiotherapy, chemotherapy and molecular targeted therapy. Understanding the impact of the immune system on neoplastic cells is crucial to improve its effectiveness against cancer. The stratification of patients who might benefit from immunotherapy as well as the personalization of medicine have contributed to the discovery of new immunotherapeutic targets and molecules...
May 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500551/immune-modulatory-effects-of-radiotherapy-as-basis-for-well-reasoned-radioimmunotherapies
#16
REVIEW
Michael Rückert, Lisa Deloch, Rainer Fietkau, Benjamin Frey, Markus Hecht, Udo S Gaipl
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) has been known for decades as a local treatment modality for malign and benign disease. In order to efficiently exploit the therapeutic potential of RT, an understanding of the immune modulatory properties of ionizing radiation is mandatory. These should be used for improvement of radioimmunotherapies for cancer in particular. METHODS: We here summarize the latest research and review articles about immune modulatory properties of RT, with focus on radiation dose and on combination of RT with selected immunotherapies...
June 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475377/current-research-into-novel-therapeutic-vaccines-against-cervical-cancer
#17
Marcelo Nazário Cordeiro, Rita de Cássia Pereira De Lima, Francesca Paolini, Alanne Rayssa da Silva Melo, Ana Paula Ferreira Campos, Aldo Venuti, Antonio Carlos De Freitas
Cervical cancer and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) are well-known outcomes of a human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Viral oncogenes expressions like E6, E7, and, recently recognized E5, lead to HPV-related malignant progression. Although HPV prevention by powerful vaccines against most frequent and oncogenic genotypes is feasible, current treatment against cervical neoplasia is distant from an ideal one. In addition, late diagnosis is commonly associated with a poor prognosis. On top of that, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, or surgery are less effective in high-grade lesions...
April 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444918/immunotherapy-a-new-standard-of-care-in-thoracic-malignancies-a-summary-of-the-european-respiratory-society-research-seminar-of-the-thoracic-oncology-assembly
#18
Adrien Costantini, Marta Grynovska, Francesca Lucibello, Jorge Moisés, Franck Pagès, Ming S Tsao, Frances A Shepherd, Hasna Bouchaab, Marina Garassino, Joachim G J V Aerts, Julien Mazières, Michele Mondini, Thierry Berghmans, Anne-Pascale Meert, Jacques Cadranel
In May 2017, the second European Respiratory Society research seminar of the Thoracic Oncology Assembly entitled "Immunotherapy, a new standard of care in thoracic malignancies?" was held in Paris, France. This seminar provided an opportunity to review the basis of antitumour immunity and to explain how immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) work. The main therapeutic trials that have resulted in marketing authorisations for use of ICIs in lung cancer were reported. A particular focus was on the toxicity of these new molecules in relation to their immune-related adverse events...
February 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399179/antitumor-and-immunostimulatory-activities-of-a-genotype-v-recombinant-attenuated-veterinary-newcastle-disease-virus-vaccine
#19
Oscar Antonio Ortega-Rivera, J Luis Quintanar, Susana Del Toro-Arreola, Ángel G Alpuche-Solis, Mayra J Esparza-Araiza, Eva Salinas
Antitumor conventional treatments including chemo/radiotherapy result in several side effects and non-specificity. Therapies including the use of oncolytic viruses, particularly the Newcastle disease virus (NDV), have emerged as an attractive alternative due to their capacity to kill cancer cells directly or through stimulation of the immune system. In the present study, a commercial vaccine composed of a recombinant attenuated NDV strain P05 (rNDV-P05) was assessed for antitumor and immunostimulatory activity...
January 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338741/knowledge-and-practices-of-general-practitioners-at-district-hospitals-towards-cervical-cancer-prevention-in-burundi-2015-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Zacharie Ndizeye, Davy Vanden Broeck, Heleen Vermandere, John Paul Bogers, Jean-Pierre Van Geertruyden
BACKGROUND: Well-organized screening and treatment programmes are effective to prevent Invasive Cervical Cancer (ICC) in LMICs. To achieve this, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the involvement of existing health personnel in casu doctors, nurses, midwives in ICC prevention. A necessary precondition is that health personnel have appropriate knowledge about ICC. Therefore, to inform policy makers and training institutions in Burundi, we documented the knowledge and practices of general practitioners (GPs) at district hospital level towards ICC control...
January 16, 2018: Globalization and Health
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