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Snakes and america

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#1
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803057/cross-reactivity-and-cross-immunomodulation-between-venoms-of-the-snakes-bothrops-asper-crotalus-simus-and-lachesis-stenophrys-and-its-effect-in-the-production-of-polyspecific-antivenom-for-central-america
#2
Cynthia Arroyo, Sergio Solano, Álvaro Segura, María Herrera, Ricardo Estrada, Mauren Villalta, Mariángela Vargas, José María Gutiérrez, Guillermo León
A mixture of the venoms of Bothrops asper, Crotalus simus and Lachesis stenophrys is used as immunogen to produce the polyspecific Central American antivenom (PoliVal-ICP). In this work, we studied the ability of each of these venoms to modulate the antibody response induced by the other two venoms included in the immunization mixture. For that, equine monospecific, bispecific and polyspecific antivenoms were prepared and compared regarding their ability to neutralize the phospholipase A2, coagulant and lethal activities of each venom, and their anti-venom antibodies concentration...
August 9, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802078/geographical-features-are-the-predominant-driver-of-molecular-diversification-in-widely-distributed-north-american-whipsnakes
#3
Kyle A O'Connell, Jeffrey W Streicher, Eric N Smith, Matthew K Fujita
Allopatric divergence following the formation of geographical features has been implicated as a major driver of evolutionary diversification. Widespread species complexes provide opportunities to examine allopatric divergence across varying degrees of isolation in both time and space. In North America, several geographical features may play such a role in diversification, including the Mississippi River, Pecos River, Rocky Mountains, Cochise Filter Barrier, Gulf of California, and Isthmus of Tehuantepec. We used thousands of nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and mitochondrial DNA from several species of whipsnakes (genera Masticophis and Coluber) distributed across North and Central America to investigate the role that these geographical features have played on lineage divergence...
August 12, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674788/the-bold-and-the-beautiful-a-neurotoxicity-comparison-of-new-world-coral-snakes-in-the-micruroides-and-micrurus-genera-and-relative-neutralization-by-antivenom
#4
Daryl C Yang, James Dobson, Chip Cochran, Daniel Dashevsky, Kevin Arbuckle, Melisa Benard, Leslie Boyer, Alejandro Alagón, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Bryan G Fry
Coral snake envenomations are well characterized to be lethally neurotoxic. Despite this, few multispecies, neurotoxicity and antivenom efficacy comparisons have been undertaken and only for the Micrurus genus; Micruroides has remained entirely uninvestigated. As the USA's supplier of antivenom has currently stopped production, alternative sources need to be explored. The Mexican manufacturer Bioclon uses species genetically related to USA species, thus we investigated the efficacy against Micrurus fulvius (eastern coral snake), the main species responsible for lethal envenomations in the USA as well as additional species from the Americas...
July 3, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636631/incidence-and-mortality-due-to-snakebite-in-the-americas
#5
Jean-Philippe Chippaux
BACKGROUND: Better knowledge of the epidemiological characteristics of snakebites could help to take measures to improve their management. The incidence and mortality of snakebites in the Americas are most often estimated from medical and scientific literature, which generally lack precision and representativeness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Authors used the notifications of snakebites treated in health centers collected by the Ministries of Health of the American countries to estimate their incidence and mortality...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630406/emerging-fungal-pathogen-ophidiomyces-ophiodiicola-in-wild-european-snakes
#6
Lydia H V Franklinos, Jeffrey M Lorch, Elizabeth Bohuski, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Owen N Wright, Liam Fitzpatrick, Silviu Petrovan, Chris Durrant, Chris Linton, Vojtech Baláž, Andrew A Cunningham, Becki Lawson
Snake fungal disease (SFD) is an emerging disease of conservation concern in eastern North America. Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, the causative agent of SFD, has been isolated from over 30 species of wild snakes from six families in North America. Whilst O. ophiodiicola has been isolated from captive snakes outside North America, the pathogen has not been reported from wild snakes elsewhere. We screened 33 carcasses and 303 moulted skins from wild snakes collected from 2010-2016 in Great Britain and the Czech Republic for the presence of macroscopic skin lesions and O...
June 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462021/differential-transcript-profile-of-inhibitors-with-potential-anti-venom-role-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-and-adult-bothrops-jararaca-snake
#7
Cícera Maria Gomes, Karen de Morais-Zani, Stephen Lu, Diego de Souza Buarque, Glória Regina Cardoso Braz, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities-proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant-mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake's venoms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#8
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392273/geographical-variability-of-the-venoms-of-four-populations-of-bothrops-asper-from-panama-toxicological-analysis-and-neutralization-by-a-polyvalent-antivenom
#9
Sara María Vélez, Marcos Salazar, Hildaura Acosta de Patiño, Leandra Gómez, Abdiel Rodriguez, David Correa, Julio Saldaña, Deyvi Navarro, Bruno Lomonte, Rafael Otero-Patiño, José María Gutiérrez
Bothrops asper is the medically most important venomous snake in Central America. In Panama, the country having the highest incidence of snakebites in Latin America, B. asper is widely distributed throughout the country and is responsible for the vast majority of snakebites. This study was performed to analyze whether there are variations in the toxicological profile and in some biochemical parameters between the venoms of B. asper from four different regions in Panama. The venoms showed a similar profile of lethal, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, edema-forming, myotoxic and indirect hemolytic activities, with subtle quantitative variations between samples of some regions...
June 15, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370004/convergent-adaptation-to-dangerous-prey-proceeds-through-the-same-first-step-mutation-in-the-garter-snake-thamnophis-sirtalis
#10
Michael T J Hague, Chris R Feldman, Edmund D Brodie, Edmund D Brodie
Convergent phenotypes often result from similar underlying genetics, but recent work suggests convergence may also occur in the historical order of substitutions en route to an adaptive outcome. We characterized convergence in the mutational steps to two independent outcomes of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in separate geographic lineages of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that coevolved with toxic newts. Resistance is largely conferred by amino acid changes in the skeletal muscle sodium channel (NaV 1...
June 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265084/lys49-myotoxin-from-the-brazilian-lancehead-pit-viper-elicits-pain-through-regulated-atp-release
#11
Chuchu Zhang, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Elda E Sánchez, Allan I Basbaum, David Julius
Pain-producing animal venoms contain evolutionarily honed toxins that can be exploited to study and manipulate somatosensory and nociceptive signaling pathways. From a functional screen, we have identified a secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like protein, BomoTx, from the Brazilian lancehead pit viper (Bothrops moojeni). BomoTx is closely related to a group of Lys49 myotoxins that have been shown to promote ATP release from myotubes through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that BomoTx excites a cohort of sensory neurons via ATP release and consequent activation of P2X2 and/or P2X3 purinergic receptors...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145811/investigating-the-potential-role-of-north-american-animals-as-hosts-for-zika-virus
#12
Izabela K Ragan, Emily L Blizzard, Paul Gordy, Richard A Bowen
The recent emergence of the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has become a global public health concern. We describe a series of experimental infections designed to investigate whether animals within certain taxonomic groups in North America have the potential to serve as ZIKV amplifying or maintenance hosts. Species investigated included armadillos, cottontail rabbits, goats, mink, chickens, pigeons, ground hogs, deer mice, cattle, raccoons, ducks, Syrian Golden hamsters, garter snakes, leopard frogs, house sparrows, and pigs...
March 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119446/phylogenetics-of-kingsnakes-lampropeltis-getula-complex-serpentes-colubridae-in-eastern-north-america
#13
Kenneth L Krysko, Leroy P Nuñez, Catherine E Newman, Brian W Bowen
Kingsnakes of the Lampropeltis getula complex range throughout much of temperate and subtropical North America. Studies over the last century have used morphology and color pattern to describe numerous subspecies. More recently, DNA analyses have made invaluable contributions to our understanding of their evolution and taxonomy. We use genetic and ecological methods to test previous hypotheses of distinct evolutionary lineages by examining 66 total snakes and 1) analyzing phylogeographic structure using 2 mtDNA loci and 1 nuclear locus, 2) estimating divergence dates and historical demography among lineages in a Bayesian coalescent framework, and 3) applying ecological niche modeling (ENM)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#14
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
May 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080983/snake-fungal-disease-an-emerging-threat-to-wild-snakes
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Lorch, Susan Knowles, Julia S Lankton, Kathy Michell, Jaime L Edwards, Joshua M Kapfer, Richard A Staffen, Erik R Wild, Katie Z Schmidt, Anne E Ballmann, Doug Blodgett, Terence M Farrell, Brad M Glorioso, Lisa A Last, Steven J Price, Krysten L Schuler, Christopher E Smith, James F X Wellehan, David S Blehert
Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV)...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070289/is-xenodontine-snake-reproduction-shaped-by-ancestry-more-than-by-ecology
#16
Gisela P Bellini, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro R Giraudo
One of the current challenges of evolutionary ecology is to understand the effects of phylogenetic history (PH) and/or ecological factors (EF) on the life-history traits of the species. Here, the effects of environment and phylogeny are tested for the first time on the reproductive biology of South American xenodontine snakes. We studied 60% of the tribes of this endemic and most representative clade in a temperate region of South America. A comparative method (canonical phylogenetic ordination-CPO) was used to find the relative contributions of EF and PH upon life-history aspects of snakes, comparing the reproductive mode, mean fecundity, reproductive potential, and frequency of nearly 1,000 specimens...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930893/severe-snakebite-envenoming-in-intensive-care
#17
REVIEW
Jiří Valenta, Zdeněk Stach, Pavel Michálek
Snakebites by exotic venomous snakes can cause serious or even life-threatening envenoming. In Europe and North America most victims are breeders, with a few snakebites from wild native American rattlesnakes. The envenomed victims may present in organ and/or system failure with muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, circulatory instability, acute kidney injury, severe coagulation disorder, and local disability - compartment syndrome and necrosis. Best managed by close collaboration between clinical toxicology and intensive care, most severe envenomings are managed primarily by intensive care physicians...
2016: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#18
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#19
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777178/proteomic-analysis-of-venom-variability-and-ontogeny-across-the-arboreal-palm-pitvipers-genus-bothriechis
#20
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Mahmood Sasa, Manuel E Acevedo, Quetzal Dwyer, Jordi Durban, Alicia Pérez, Yania Rodriguez, Bruno Lomonte, Juan J Calvete
Bothriechis is a genus of eleven currently recognized slender and arboreal venomous snakes, commonly called palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite dietary studies suggesting that palm-pitvipers are generalists with an ontogenetic shift toward endothermic prey, venom proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of the Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. To achieve a more complete picture of the venomic landscape across Bothriechis, the venom proteomes of biodiversity of the northern Middle American highland palm-pitvipers, B...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
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