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Snakes and america

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462021/differential-transcript-profile-of-inhibitors-with-potential-anti-venom-role-in-the-liver-of-juvenile-and-adult-bothrops-jararaca-snake
#1
Cícera Maria Gomes, Karen de Morais-Zani, Stephen Lu, Diego de Souza Buarque, Glória Regina Cardoso Braz, Kathleen Fernandes Grego, Aparecida Sadae Tanaka, Anita Mitico Tanaka-Azevedo
BACKGROUND: Snakes belonging to the Bothrops genus are vastly distributed in Central and South America and are responsible for most cases of reported snake bites in Latin America. The clinical manifestations of the envenomation caused by this genus are due to three major activities-proteolytic, hemorrhagic and coagulant-mediated by metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, phospholipases A2 and other toxic compounds present in snake venom. Interestingly, it was observed that snakes are resistant to the toxic effects of its own and other snake's venoms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411932/arthropod-envenomation-in-north-america
#2
REVIEW
Timothy B Erickson, Navneet Cheema
Arthropods (phylum Arthopoda) account for a higher percentage of morbidity and mortality to humans than do mammalian bites, snake bites, or marine envenomation. They are ubiquitous in domestic dwellings, caves, and campsites and in wilderness settings such as deserts, forests, and lakes. Although arthropods are most intrusive during warmer months, many are active throughout the winter, particularly indoors. Arthropods are also nocturnal and often bite unsuspecting victims while they are sleeping. Encounters with humans are generally defensive, accidental, or reactive...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392273/geographical-variability-of-the-venoms-of-four-populations-of-bothrops-asper-from-panama-toxicological-analysis-and-neutralization-by-a-polyvalent-antivenom
#3
Sara María Vélez, Marcos Salazar, Hildaura Acosta de Patiño, Leandra Gómez, Abdiel Rodriguez, David Correa, Julio Saldaña, Deyvi Navarro, Bruno Lomonte, Rafael Otero-Patiño, José María Gutiérrez
Bothrops asper is the medically most important venomous snake in Central America. In Panama, the country having the highest incidence of snakebites in Latin America, B. asper is widely distributed throughout the country and is responsible for the vast majority of snakebites. This study was performed to analyze whether there are variations in the toxicological profile and in some biochemical parameters between the venoms of B. asper from four different regions in Panama. The venoms showed a similar profile of lethal, hemorrhagic, in vitro coagulant, defibrinogenating, edema-forming, myotoxic and indirect hemolytic activities, with subtle quantitative variations between samples of some regions...
June 15, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370004/convergent-adaptation-to-dangerous-prey-proceeds-through-the-same-first-step-mutation-in-the-garter-snake-thamnophis-sirtalis
#4
Michael T J Hague, Chris R Feldman, Edmund D Brodie, Edmund D Brodie
Convergent phenotypes often result from similar underlying genetics, but recent work suggests convergence may also occur in the historical order of substitutions en route to an adaptive outcome. We characterized convergence in the mutational steps to two independent outcomes of tetrodotoxin (TTX) resistance in separate geographic lineages of the common garter snake (Thamnophis sirtalis) that coevolved with toxic newts. Resistance is largely conferred by amino acid changes in the skeletal muscle sodium channel (NaV 1...
March 29, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265084/lys49-myotoxin-from-the-brazilian-lancehead-pit-viper-elicits-pain-through-regulated-atp-release
#5
Chuchu Zhang, Katalin F Medzihradszky, Elda E Sánchez, Allan I Basbaum, David Julius
Pain-producing animal venoms contain evolutionarily honed toxins that can be exploited to study and manipulate somatosensory and nociceptive signaling pathways. From a functional screen, we have identified a secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like protein, BomoTx, from the Brazilian lancehead pit viper (Bothrops moojeni). BomoTx is closely related to a group of Lys49 myotoxins that have been shown to promote ATP release from myotubes through an unknown mechanism. Here we show that BomoTx excites a cohort of sensory neurons via ATP release and consequent activation of P2X2 and/or P2X3 purinergic receptors...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145811/investigating-the-potential-role-of-north-american-animals-as-hosts-for-zika-virus
#6
Izabela K Ragan, Emily L Blizzard, Paul Gordy, Richard A Bowen
The recent emergence of the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has become a global public health concern. We describe a series of experimental infections designed to investigate whether animals within certain taxonomic groups in North America have the potential to serve as ZIKV amplifying or maintenance hosts. Species investigated included armadillos, cottontail rabbits, goats, mink, chickens, pigeons, ground hogs, deer mice, cattle, raccoons, ducks, Syrian Golden hamsters, garter snakes, leopard frogs, house sparrows, and pigs...
March 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119446/phylogenetics-of-kingsnakes-lampropeltis-getula-complex-serpentes-colubridae-in-eastern-north-america
#7
Kenneth L Krysko, Leroy P Nuñez, Catherine E Newman, Brian W Bowen
Kingsnakes of the Lampropeltis getula complex range throughout much of temperate and subtropical North America. Studies over the last century have used morphology and color pattern to describe numerous subspecies. More recently, DNA analyses have made invaluable contributions to our understanding of their evolution and taxonomy. We use genetic and ecological methods to test previous hypotheses of distinct evolutionary lineages by examining 66 total snakes and 1) analyzing phylogeographic structure using 2 mtDNA loci and 1 nuclear locus, 2) estimating divergence dates and historical demography among lineages in a Bayesian coalescent framework, and 3) applying ecological niche modeling (ENM)...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088326/acute-kidney-injury-due-to-tropical-infectious-diseases-and-animal-venoms-a-tale-of-2-continents
#8
REVIEW
Emmanuel A Burdmann, Vivekanand Jha
South and Southeast Asia and Latin American together comprise 46 countries and are home to approximately 40% of the world population. The sociopolitical and economic heterogeneity, tropical climate, and malady transitions characteristic of the region strongly influence disease behavior and health care delivery. Acute kidney injury epidemiology mirrors these inequalities. In addition to hospital-acquired acute kidney injury in tertiary care centers, these countries face a large preventable burden of community-acquired acute kidney injury secondary to tropical infectious diseases or animal venoms, affecting previously healthy young individuals...
January 11, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080983/snake-fungal-disease-an-emerging-threat-to-wild-snakes
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Lorch, Susan Knowles, Julia S Lankton, Kathy Michell, Jaime L Edwards, Joshua M Kapfer, Richard A Staffen, Erik R Wild, Katie Z Schmidt, Anne E Ballmann, Doug Blodgett, Terence M Farrell, Brad M Glorioso, Lisa A Last, Steven J Price, Krysten L Schuler, Christopher E Smith, James F X Wellehan, David S Blehert
Since 2006, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of severe and often fatal fungal skin infections in wild snakes in the eastern USA. The emerging condition, referred to as snake fungal disease (SFD), was initially documented in rattlesnakes, where the infections were believed to pose a risk to the viability of affected populations. The disease is caused by Ophidiomyces ophiodiicola, a fungus recently split from a complex of fungi long referred to as the Chrysosporium anamorph of Nannizziopsis vriesii (CANV)...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070289/is-xenodontine-snake-reproduction-shaped-by-ancestry-more-than-by-ecology
#10
Gisela P Bellini, Vanesa Arzamendia, Alejandro R Giraudo
One of the current challenges of evolutionary ecology is to understand the effects of phylogenetic history (PH) and/or ecological factors (EF) on the life-history traits of the species. Here, the effects of environment and phylogeny are tested for the first time on the reproductive biology of South American xenodontine snakes. We studied 60% of the tribes of this endemic and most representative clade in a temperate region of South America. A comparative method (canonical phylogenetic ordination-CPO) was used to find the relative contributions of EF and PH upon life-history aspects of snakes, comparing the reproductive mode, mean fecundity, reproductive potential, and frequency of nearly 1,000 specimens...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930893/severe-snakebite-envenoming-in-intensive-care
#11
REVIEW
Jiří Valenta, Zdeněk Stach, Pavel Michálek
Snakebites by exotic venomous snakes can cause serious or even life-threatening envenoming. In Europe and North America most victims are breeders, with a few snakebites from wild native American rattlesnakes. The envenomed victims may present in organ and/or system failure with muscle paralysis, respiratory failure, circulatory instability, acute kidney injury, severe coagulation disorder, and local disability - compartment syndrome and necrosis. Best managed by close collaboration between clinical toxicology and intensive care, most severe envenomings are managed primarily by intensive care physicians...
2016: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921037/acute-kidney-injury-in-western-countries
#12
REVIEW
Josée Bouchard, Ravindra L Mehta
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent and is associated with poor outcomes, including increased mortality, higher risk of chronic kidney disease, and prolonged hospital lengths of stay. The epidemiology of AKI mainly derives from studies performed in Western high-income countries. More limited data are available from Western low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) located in Central and South America. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the most recent data on the epidemiology of AKI in Western countries, aiming to contrast results from industrialized high-income countries with LMICs...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921036/acute-kidney-injury-in-asia
#13
REVIEW
Li Yang
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common disorder and is associated with a high morbidity and mortality worldwide. The diversity of the climate and of the socioeconomic and developmental status in Asia has a great influence on the etiology and presentation of AKI in different regions. In view of the International Society of Nephrology's 0by25 initiative, more and more attention has been paid to AKI in Asian countries. SUMMARY: In this review, we summarize the recent achievements with regard to the prevalence and clinical patterns of AKI in Asian countries...
October 2016: Kidney Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777178/proteomic-analysis-of-venom-variability-and-ontogeny-across-the-arboreal-palm-pitvipers-genus-bothriechis
#14
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Mahmood Sasa, Manuel E Acevedo, Quetzal Dwyer, Jordi Durban, Alicia Pérez, Yania Rodriguez, Bruno Lomonte, Juan J Calvete
Bothriechis is a genus of eleven currently recognized slender and arboreal venomous snakes, commonly called palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite dietary studies suggesting that palm-pitvipers are generalists with an ontogenetic shift toward endothermic prey, venom proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of the Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. To achieve a more complete picture of the venomic landscape across Bothriechis, the venom proteomes of biodiversity of the northern Middle American highland palm-pitvipers, B...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774416/a-randomized-ethnomedicinal-survey-of-snakebite-treatment-in-southwestern-parts-of-bangladesh
#15
Md Nazmul Hasan, Nur Kabidul Azam, Md Nasir Ahmed, Akinori Hirashima
Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701225/a-revision-and-key-for-the-tribe-diaphorolepidini-serpentes-dipsadidae-%C3%A2-and-checklist-for-the-genus-synophis
#16
R Alexander Pyron, Alejandro Arteaga, Lourdes Y Echevarría, Omar Torres-Carvajal
The genus Synophis contains a number of enigmatic species, distributed primarily in the Andean highlands of northern South America. Their extreme crypsis and rarity has precluded detailed study of most species. A recent flurry of collection activity resulted in the accession of many new specimens, and the description of 4 new species in 2015, doubling the number of described taxa. However, lingering questions remain regarding the assignment of many new and historical specimens, the morphological limits and geographical ranges of the species, and their phylogenetic relationships...
September 28, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641749/venoms-of-micrurus-coral-snakes-evolutionary-trends-in-compositional-patterns-emerging-from-proteomic-analyses
#17
REVIEW
Bruno Lomonte, Paola Rey-Suárez, Julián Fernández, Mahmood Sasa, Davinia Pla, Nancy Vargas, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Libia Sanz, Carlos Corrêa-Netto, Vitelbina Núñez, Alberto Alape-Girón, Alejandro Alagón, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete
The application of proteomic tools to the study of snake venoms has led to an impressive growth in the knowledge about their composition (venomics), immunogenicity (antivenomics), and toxicity (toxicovenomics). About one-third of all venomic studies have focused on elapid species, especially those of the Old World. The New World elapids, represented by coral snakes, have been less studied. In recent years, however, a number of venomic studies on Micrurus species from North, Central, and South America have been conducted...
November 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637990/ecological-divergence-in-the-yellow-bellied-kingsnake-lampropeltis-calligaster-at-two-north-american-biodiversity-hotspots
#18
A D McKelvy, F T Burbrink
Several biogeographic barriers in the Eastern Nearctic appear to reduce gene flow among populations of many species in predictable ways, however these patterns used to infer process of divergence may be deceiving if alternative modes of diversification are not considered. By using a multilocus statistical phylogeographic approach to examine diversity within a North American snake, Lampropeltis calligaster, we find that mode and timing of speciation near the Mississippi River embayment and peninsular Florida, two main biodiversity hotspots in eastern North America, challenge previously held notions of strict vicariance as the causal factor behind patterns of divergence seen among taxa at these locations...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613585/parasitism-by-larval-tapeworms-genus-spirometra-in-south-american-amphibians-and-reptiles-new-records-from-brazil-and-uruguay-and-a-review-of-current-knowledge-in-the-region
#19
REVIEW
Fabrício H Oda, Claudio Borteiro, Rodrigo J da Graça, Luiz Eduardo R Tavares, Alejandro Crampet, Vinicius Guerra, Flávia S Lima, Sybelle Bellay, Letícia C Karling, Oscar Castro, Ricardo M Takemoto, Gilberto C Pavanelli
Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively...
December 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595162/cross-neutralization-of-coral-snake-venoms-by-commercial-australian-snake-antivenoms
#20
Henrique Roman Ramos, Ruth Camargo Vassão, Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Ed Carlos Santos E Silva, Peter Mirtschin, Paulo Lee Ho, Patrick Jack Spencer
CONTEXT: Although rare, coral snake envenomation is a serious health threat in Brazil, because of the highly neurotoxic venom and the scarcely available antivenom. The major bottleneck for antivenom production is the low availability of venom. Furthermore, the available serum is not effective against all coral snake species found in Brazil. An alternative to circumvent the lack of venom for serum production and the restricted protection of the actually available antivenom would be of great value...
January 2017: Clinical Toxicology
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