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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777178/proteomic-analysis-of-venom-variability-and-ontogeny-across-the-arboreal-palm-pitvipers-genus-bothriechis
#1
Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Mahmood Sasa, Manuel E Acevedo, Quetzal Dwyer, Jordi Durban, Alicia Pérez, Yania Rodriguez, Bruno Lomonte, Juan J Calvete
: Bothriechis is a genus of eleven currently recognized slender and arboreal venomous snakes, commonly called palm-pitvipers that range from southern Mexico to northern South America. Despite dietary studies suggesting that palm-pitvipers are generalists with an ontogenetic shift toward endothermic prey, venom proteomic analyses have revealed remarkable divergence between the venoms of the Costa Rican species, B. lateralis, B. schlegelii, B. supraciliaris, and B. nigroviridis. To achieve a more complete picture of the venomic landscape across Bothriechis, the venom proteomes of biodiversity of the northern Middle American highland palm-pitvipers, B...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774416/a-randomized-ethnomedicinal-survey-of-snakebite-treatment-in-southwestern-parts-of-bangladesh
#2
Md Nazmul Hasan, Nur Kabidul Azam, Md Nasir Ahmed, Akinori Hirashima
Snakebite is the single most important toxin-related injury, causing substantial mortality in many parts of the Africa, Asia and the Americas. Incidence of snakebite is usually recorded in young people engaged in active physical work in rural areas. The various plant parts used to treat snakebite included whole plant, leaves, barks, roots and seeds. Most bites in Bangladesh are recorded between May and October with highest number in June. Lower and upper limbs are most common sites of snakebite, but it may happen in other sites as well...
October 2016: Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701225/a-revision-and-key-for-the-tribe-diaphorolepidini-serpentes-dipsadidae-%C3%A2-and-checklist-for-the-genus-synophis
#3
R Alexander Pyron, Alejandro Arteaga, Lourdes Y Echevarría, Omar Torres-Carvajal
The genus Synophis contains a number of enigmatic species, distributed primarily in the Andean highlands of northern South America. Their extreme crypsis and rarity has precluded detailed study of most species. A recent flurry of collection activity resulted in the accession of many new specimens, and the description of 4 new species in 2015, doubling the number of described taxa. However, lingering questions remain regarding the assignment of many new and historical specimens, the morphological limits and geographical ranges of the species, and their phylogenetic relationships...
September 28, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27641749/venoms-of-micrurus-coral-snakes-evolutionary-trends-in-compositional-patterns-emerging-from-proteomic-analyses
#4
REVIEW
Bruno Lomonte, Paola Rey-Suárez, Julián Fernández, Mahmood Sasa, Davinia Pla, Nancy Vargas, Melisa Bénard-Valle, Libia Sanz, Carlos Corrêa-Netto, Vitelbina Núñez, Alberto Alape-Girón, Alejandro Alagón, José María Gutiérrez, Juan J Calvete
The application of proteomic tools to the study of snake venoms has led to an impressive growth in the knowledge about their composition (venomics), immunogenicity (antivenomics), and toxicity (toxicovenomics). About one-third of all venomic studies have focused on elapid species, especially those of the Old World. The New World elapids, represented by coral snakes, have been less studied. In recent years, however, a number of venomic studies on Micrurus species from North, Central, and South America have been conducted...
November 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637990/ecological-divergence-in-the-yellow-bellied-kingsnake-lampropeltis-calligaster-at-two-north-american-biodiversity-hotspots
#5
A D McKelvy, F T Burbrink
Several biogeographic barriers in the Eastern Nearctic appear to reduce gene flow among populations of many species in predictable ways, however these patterns used to infer process of divergence may be deceiving if alternative modes of diversification are not considered. By using a multilocus statistical phylogeographic approach to examine diversity within a North American snake, Lampropeltis calligaster, we find that mode and timing of speciation near the Mississippi River embayment and peninsular Florida, two main biodiversity hotspots in eastern North America, challenge previously held notions of strict vicariance as the causal factor behind patterns of divergence seen among taxa at these locations...
September 13, 2016: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27613585/parasitism-by-larval-tapeworms-genus-spirometra-in-south-american-amphibians-and-reptiles-new-records-from-brazil-and-uruguay-and-a-review-of-current-knowledge-in-the-region
#6
Fabrício H Oda, Claudio Borteiro, Rodrigo J da Graça, Luiz Eduardo R Tavares, Alejandro Crampet, Vinicius Guerra, Flávia S Lima, Sybelle Bellay, Letícia C Karling, Oscar Castro, Ricardo M Takemoto, Gilberto C Pavanelli
Spargana are plerocercoid larvae of cestode tapeworms of the genus Spirometra, Family Diphyllobothriidae, parasitic to frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. This parasitic disease in humans can be transmitted through the use and consumption of amphibians and reptiles. The available knowledge about Spirometra in South America is scarce, and there are only a few reports on the occurrence of sparganum in amphibians and reptiles, many of them published in old papers not easily available to researchers. In this work we present a review on this topic, provide new records in two species of amphibians and 7 species of reptiles from Brazil and Uruguay respectively...
September 6, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27595162/cross-neutralization-of-coral-snake-venoms-by-commercial-australian-snake-antivenoms
#7
Henrique Roman Ramos, Ruth Camargo Vassão, Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Ed Carlos Santos E Silva, Peter Mirtschin, Paulo Lee Ho, Patrick Jack Spencer
CONTEXT: Although rare, coral snake envenomation is a serious health threat in Brazil, because of the highly neurotoxic venom and the scarcely available antivenom. The major bottleneck for antivenom production is the low availability of venom. Furthermore, the available serum is not effective against all coral snake species found in Brazil. An alternative to circumvent the lack of venom for serum production and the restricted protection of the actually available antivenom would be of great value...
September 5, 2016: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546705/venom-yield-and-its-relationship-with-body-size-and-fang-separation-of-pit-vipers-from-argentina
#8
Adolfo Rafael de Roodt, Leslie Victoria Boyer, Laura Cecilia Lanari, Lucia Irazu, Rodrigo Daniel Laskowicz, Paula Leticia Sabattini, Carlos Fabián Damin
The amount of venom that a snake can inject is related to its body size. The body size is related to head size and to the distance between fangs. To correlate snake body size, distance between fangs and distance between puncture wounds with the venom yield (and consequently with the venom dose potentially injected in a single snakebite), we studied these variables in two species of public health importance in South America, Bothrops (Rhinocerophis) alternatus, and Crotalus durissus terrificus. In all cases a positive correlation was observed between body length, fang separation distance, distance between puncture wounds and venom yield, with a regression coefficient over 0...
October 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27437984/a-population-model-of-the-impact-of-a-rodenticide-containing-strychnine-on-great-basin-gophersnakes-pituophis-catenifer-deserticola
#9
Christine A Bishop, Kathleen E Williams, David A Kirk, Patrick Nantel, Eric Reed, John E Elliott
Strychnine is a neurotoxin and an active ingredient in some rodenticides which are placed in burrows to suppress pocket gopher (Thomomys talpoides) populations in range and crop land in western North America. The population level impact was modelled of the use of strychnine-based rodenticides on a non-target snake species, the Great Basin Gophersnake (Pituophis catenifer deserticola), which is a predator of pocket gopher and a Species at Risk in Canada. Using information on population density, demographics, and movement and habitat suitability for the Gophersnake living in an agricultural valley in BC, Canada, we estimated the impact of the poisoning of adult snakes on the long-term population size...
September 2016: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27394464/the-taxonomic-status-of-tantilla-marcovani-lema-2004-squamata-colubridae
#10
Vicente Mata-Silva, Larry David Wilson
The colubrid snake genus Tantilla currently comprises 62 valid species distributed from the southern United States of America to southern Bolivia in the west, and Uruguay and northern Argentina in the east (Wilson & Mata-Silva 2014, 2015). Of these 62 species, 13 are found in South America (Wilson & Mata-Silva 2014, 2015). The most recently described of these Southamerican species is Tantilla marcovani Lema, 2004. While we were working on a checklist and key to the members of the Tantilla clade (sensu Holm 2008, including the genera Geagras Cope 1876, Scolecophis Fitzinger 1843, Tantilla Baird & Girard 1853, and Tantillita Smith 1941; Wilson & Mata-Silva 2015), it became apparent that the diagnosis of T...
2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27366346/an-in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-native-american-ethnomedicinal-plant-eryngium-yuccifolium-as-a-treatment-for-snakebite-envenomation
#11
Joseph A Price
AIM: At least seven North American tribes specifically mention the use of Eryngium (typically roots) as an anti-snake venom therapy. As snake envenomation is an endemic, life-threatening medical risk, is there a scientific basis for the Native American ethnomedicine? Could this be demonstrated in an assay amenable to mechanistic evaluation and high throughput screening for later isolation and possible evaluation as a source for a lead drug? MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proteases, mainly metalloproteases, are thought to be the main pathological agents in most American snake venoms...
June 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27339430/from-fangs-to-pharmacology-the-future-of-snakebite-envenoming-therapy
#12
Andreas H Laustsen, Mikael Engmark, Christina Milbo, Jónas Johannesen, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Brian Lohse
The snake is the symbol of medicine due to its association with Asclepius, the Greek God of medicine, and so with good reasons. More than 725 species of venomous snakes have toxins specifically evolved to exert potent bioactivity in prey or victims, and snakebites constitute a public health hazard of high impact in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and parts of Oceania. Parenteral administration of antivenoms is the mainstay in snakebite envenoming therapy. However, despite well-demonstrated efficacy and safety of many antivenoms worldwide, they are still being produced by traditional animal immunization procedures, and therefore present a number of drawbacks...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27314863/thrombelastographic-characterization-of-the-thrombin-like-activity-of-crotalus-simus-and-bothrops-asper-venoms
#13
Vance G Nielsen, Leslie V Boyer, Daniel T Redford, Paul Ford
Annually, thousands suffer venomous snake-bite from Crotalus simus and Bothrops asper vipers in central and South America. The goals of the present study were to generally characterize the thrombin-like effects of venom from these snakes in human plasma with viscoelastic methods. Human plasma was exposed to the venom of three different C. simus subspecies and venoms obtained from B. asper vipers located in three different locations in Mexico. To characterize the factor X-activating and thrombin-like activity of these venoms, plasma (normal or factor XIII deficient) was pretreated with a variety of additives (e...
June 16, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27282409/lemnitoxin-the-major-component-of-micrurus-lemniscatus-coral-snake-venom-is-a-myotoxic-and-pro-inflammatory-phospholipase-a2
#14
Luciana L Casais-E-Silva, Catarina F P Teixeira, Ivo Lebrun, Bruno Lomonte, Alberto Alape-Girón, José María Gutiérrez
The venom of Micrurus lemniscatus, a coral snake of wide geographical distribution in South America, was fractionated by reverse-phase HPLC and the fractions screened for phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity. The major component of the venom, a PLA2, here referred to as 'Lemnitoxin', was isolated and characterized biochemically and toxicologically. It induces myotoxicity upon intramuscular or intravenous injection into mice. The amino acid residues Arg15, Ala100, Asn108, and a hydrophobic residue at position 109, which are characteristic of myotoxic class I phospholipases A2, are present in Lemnitoxin...
August 22, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257536/an-enigmatic-aquatic-snake-from-the-cenomanian-of-northern-south-america
#15
Adriana Albino, Jorge D Carrillo-Briceño, James M Neenan
We report the first record of a snake from the Cretaceous of northern South America. The remains come from the La Luna Formation (La Aguada Member, Cenomanian of Venezuela) and consist of several vertebrae, which belong to the precloacal region of the vertebral column. Comparisons to extant and extinct snakes show that the remains represent a new taxon, Lunaophis aquaticus gen. et sp nov. An aquatic mode of life is supported by the ventral position of the ribs, indicating a laterally compressed body. The systematic relationships of this new taxon are difficult to determine due to the scarcity of fossil material; it is, however, a representative of an early lineage of snakes that exploited tropical marine pelagic environments, as reflected by the depositional conditions of the La Aguada Member...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27242040/nomenclatural-instability-in-the-venomous-snakes-of-the-bothrops-complex-implications-in-toxinology-and-public-health
#16
Paola Andrea Carrasco, Pablo Javier Venegas, Juan Carlos Chaparro, Gustavo José Scrocchi
Since nomenclature is intended to reflect the evolutionary history of organisms, advances in our understanding of historical relationships may lead to changes in classification, and thus potentially in taxonomic instability. An unstable nomenclature for medically important animals like venomous snakes is of concern, and its implications in venom/antivenom research and snakebite treatment have been extensively discussed since the 90´s. The taxonomy of the pitvipers of the Bothrops complex has been historically problematic and different genus-level rearrangements were proposed to rectify the long-standing paraphyly of the group...
September 1, 2016: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27159596/increasing-risk-factors-for-imported-and-domestic-gnathostomiasis-in-the-united-states
#17
James H Diaz
Gnathostomiasis is a foodborne zoonotic helminthic infection, commonly described in Asia and Latin America, which may follow the consumption of raw fish, eels, amphibians, and reptiles infected with muscle-encysted larvae of Gnathostoma species nematodes. After an inoculum of as little as one infective larva and an incubation period of months to years, most infections are characterized by intermittent migratory swellings due to subdermal larval migration. Less commonly, larval migration to the central nervous system may result in radiculomyelopathy or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with high fatality rates; or larval migration to the eye with resulting blindness in untreated cases...
September 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27139938/solo-surgeon-retroauricular-approach-endoscopic-thyroidectomy
#18
Doh Young Lee, Seung-Kuk Baek, Kwang-Yoon Jung
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of solo-surgeon retroauricular thyroidectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For solo-surgery, we used an Endoeye Flex Laparo-Thoraco Videoscope (Olympus America, Inc.). A Vitom Karl Storz holding system (Karl Storz GmbH & Co.) composed of several bars connected by a ball-joint system was used for fixation of endoscope. A snake retractor and a brain-spoon retractor were used on the sternocleidomastoid...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27138613/increasing-risk-factors-for-imported-and-domestic-gnathostomiasis-in-the-united-states
#19
James H Diaz
Gnathostomiasis is a foodborne zoonotic helminthic infection, commonly described in Asia and Latin America, which may follow the consumption of raw fish, eels, amphibians, and reptiles infected with muscle-encysted larvae of Gnathostoma species nematodes. After an inoculum of as little as one infective larva and an incubation period of months to years, most infections are characterized by intermittent migratory swellings due to subdermal larval migration. Less commonly, larval migration to the central nervous system may result in radiculomyelopathy or eosinophilic meningoencephalitis with high fatality rates; or larval migration to the eye with resulting blindness in untreated cases...
September 2015: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27071447/reacquisition-of-the-lower-temporal-bar-in-sexually-dimorphic-fossil-lizards-provides-a-rare-case-of-convergent-evolution
#20
Tiago R Simões, Gregory F Funston, Behzad Vafaeian, Randall L Nydam, Michael R Doschak, Michael W Caldwell
Temporal fenestration has long been considered a key character to understand relationships amongst reptiles. In particular, the absence of the lower temporal bar (LTB) is considered one of the defining features of squamates (lizards and snakes). In a re-assessment of the borioteiioid lizard Polyglyphanodon sternbergi (Cretaceous, North America), we detected a heretofore unrecognized ontogenetic series, sexual dimorphism (a rare instance for Mesozoic reptiles), and a complete LTB, a feature only recently recognized for another borioteiioid, Tianyusaurus zhengi (Cretaceous, China)...
2016: Scientific Reports
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