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Statins and liver

Ki Hoon Han
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, i.e. statins, are effective in reducing cardiovascular disease events but also in cardiac-related and overall mortality. Statins are in general well-tolerated, but currently the concerns are raised if statins may increase the risk of new-onset diabetes mellitus (NOD). In this review, the possible effects of statins on organs/tissues being involved in glucose metabolism, i.e. liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and muscles, had been discussed. The net outcome seems to be inconsistent and often contradictory, which may be largely affected by in vitro experimental settings or/and in vivo animal conditions...
November 2018: Korean Circulation Journal
Aimei Liu, Qinghua Wu, Jingchao Guo, Irma Ares, José-Luis Rodríguez, María-Rosa Martínez-Larrañaga, Zonghui Yuan, Arturo Anadón, Xu Wang, María-Aránzazu Martínez
Statins, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, are currently the most effective lipid-lowering drugs, effectively reducing the plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, while also decreasing three triacylglycerols and increasing plasma high-density lipoprotein to a certain extent. However, the excessive or long-term use of statins can cause in vitro cytotoxicity, in vivo liver injury, liver necrosis, kidney damage, and myopathy in both human beings and animals. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress is involved in the various toxicities associated with statins, and various antioxidants have been evaluated to investigate their protective roles against statin-induced liver, kidney, and muscle toxicities...
October 12, 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Eleni Theocharidou, Marianna Papademetriou, Andromachi Reklou, Alexandros Sachinidis, Chrisoula Boutari, Olga Giouleme
BACKGROUND: Statin treatment exhibits a beneficial effect on non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and on cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with NAFLD. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to summarize the role of proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type-9(PCSK9) in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and discuss the effects of the new hypolipidaemic drugs PCSK9 inhibitors on NAFLD. RESULTS: Data indicates that high intrahepatic or circulating PCSK9 levels increase muscle and liver lipid storage, adipose energy storage and hepatic fatty acids, as well as triglycerides storage and secretion, thus contributing to the pathogenesis of NAFLD...
October 10, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Thomas Gossios, Ioanna Zografou, Veta Simoulidou, Athina Pirpassopoulou, Konstantinos Christou, Asterios Karagiannis
BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an autosomal-dominant genetic disease, associated with premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD), especially in its homozygous type (HoFH). OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review is to discuss the safety and efficacy of combination treatments (procedures and drugs) for HoFH. RESULTS: Historically, liver transplantation was used first; however, it is currently considered only as a last resort for some patients...
October 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Christian Labenz, Yvonne Huber, Eva Kalliga, Michael Nagel, Christian Ruckes, Beate K Straub, Peter R Galle, Marcus-Alexander Wörns, Quentin M Anstee, Detlef Schuppan, Jörn M Schattenberg
BACKGROUND: Advanced fibrosis has been established as the most important predictor of overall mortality in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In contrast to cirrhosis, advanced, non-cirrhotic NAFLD is difficult to identify and data from Germany are lacking. AIM: To identify clinical factors associated with advanced, non-cirrhotic fibrosis. METHODS: Patients were recruited in the prospectively enrolling European NAFLD Registry...
October 4, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Omer Shahab, Rakesh Biswas, James Paik, Haley Bush, Pegah Golabi, Zobair M Younossi
Dyslipidemia is one of the common risk factors for NAFLD and is associated with cardiovascular (CV) mortality, which is the most common cause of death in NAFLD. Lipid-lowering agents (LLAs) are used to reduce CV events in the general population. Our aim was to assess whether the use of LLAs in patients with NAFLD can reduce the risk of CV mortality. We used the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey mortality linked files. Mortality was determined from the National Death Index records through 2011...
October 2018: Hepatology Communications
Kosuke Sawami, Atsushi Tanaka, Tsukasa Nakamura, Eiichi Sato, Yoshihiko Ueda, Koichi Node
Dyslipidemia is often complicated by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Lipid-lowering medications may be effective, in part, for inhibiting development and progression of CKD. Ezetimibe, a cholesterol absorption inhibitor, has pleiotropic actions, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects, contributing to a decreased risk of cardiovascular diseases. A 40-year-old woman was admitted with dyslipidemia and macroproteinuria, whose samples of renal biopsy showed exudative lesions, but without glomerular basement membrane thickening or nodular lesions, in some glomeruli...
June 2018: Journal of Cardiology Cases
Jiayin Yang, Lai-Yung Wong, Xiao-Yu Tian, Rui Wei, Wing-Hon Lai, Ka-Wing Au, Zhiwei Luo, Carl Ward, Wai-In Ho, David P Ibañez, Hao Liu, Xichen Bao, Baoming Qin, Yu Huang, Miguel A Esteban, Hung-Fat Tse
Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is mostly caused by low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) mutations and results in an increased risk of early-onset cardiovascular disease due to marked elevation of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) in blood. Statins are the first line of lipid-lowering drugs for treating FH and other types of hypercholesterolemia, but new approaches are emerging, in particular PCSK9 antibodies, which are now being tested in clinical trials. To explore novel therapeutic approaches for FH, either new drugs or new formulations, we need appropriate in vivo models...
September 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Martina Cebova, Radoslava Rehakova, Michaela Kosutova, Olga Pechanova
Current treatments for cardiovascular and obesity-associated diseases, such as statin therapy, may be associated with several side effects. Products from food sources with polyphenolic compounds may represent promising agents in the treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases with minimal side effects. Thus, we aimed to study the effect of sesame oil and simvastatin treatment on plasma lipid profile, nitric oxide generation, and oxidative load in obese Zucker rats. 12-week-old male Zucker rats were divided into the control and sesame oil- (1...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Laurie R Braun, Meghan N Feldpausch, Natalia Czerwonka, Julian Weiss, Karen Branch, Hang Lee, Edgar L Martinez-Salazar, Martin Torriani, Craig A Sponseller, Steven K Grinspoon, Takara L Stanley
Context: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are widely prescribed. Statins may have important metabolic effects on insulin sensitivity and liver fat, but limited studies have assessed these effects using euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, stable isotopes, and 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) for liver fat quantification. Objective: To study the effects of pitavastatin on hepatic fat and insulin sensitivity. Design: Six month, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial...
September 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
The past decade has witnessed considerable progress in the field of lipids. New drugs have been "rapidly" developed and some of these drugs have already been evaluated in event-based large trials. This evidence has led to the guidelines recommending new, more aggressive treatment goals for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Although LDL-C remains the principal goal for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk reduction, there has also been considerable interest in other lipid variables, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoprotein(a)...
September 18, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Pavan Malur, Arthur Menezes, James J DiNicolantonio, James H O'Keefe, Carl J Lavie
Background: The purpose of this article is to discuss the evidence regarding potential macrovascular and microvascular benefits of fibrate therapy in general and fenofibrate specifically. Methods: We performed a literature review summarizing the results of studies testing fibrates on relevant. Results: Although statins are the first line therapy with an unparalleled amount of evidence for reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), there are several landmark studies that have focused on the potential benefits of fibrate therapy for reducing CVD risk...
November 2017: Missouri Medicine
Sai Krishna Athuluri-Divakar, Yujin Hoshida
Chronic fibrotic liver disease caused by viral or metabolic etiologies is a high-risk condition for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even after curative treatment of early-stage HCC tumor, the carcinogenic microenvironment persists in the remnant diseased liver and supports the development of de novo HCC tumors (de novo HCC recurrence). Therefore, prevention of HCC development in patients at risk of not only first-primary but also second-primary HCC tumors is theoretically the most impactful strategy to improve patient prognosis...
September 17, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Tilman Sauerbruch, Florence Wong
BACKGROUND: The development of cirrhosis with resultant portal hypertension can lead to oesophageal varices at a rate of 7% per annum. Bleeding from varices happens when the portal pressure is ≥12 mm Hg and can threaten life. SUMMARY: Eliminating the aetiology of cirrhosis is a pivotal step to prevent the formation of varices. In patients with established varices, primary prophylaxis with non-selective beta blockers (NSBB) may slow down the progression of varices and prevent the first variceal bleed...
September 13, 2018: Digestion
Gloria Pelizzo, Rossana Bussani, Emanuela Mazzon, Carmelo Anfuso, Claudio Lombardi, Vanessa Zambelli, Lorenzo Zandonà, Annalisa De Silvestri, Floriana Zennaro, Valeria Calcaterra
BACKGROUND: Statins and sildenafil have been shown to exert beneficial effects in cardiac injury. We hypothesized that antenatal maternal administration of simvastatin and/or sildenafil might also promote benefits in cardiac remodeling of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Therefore, we performed micro-CT image analysis and histology of the heart after antennal treatment in experimental nitrofen-induced CDH. METHODS: At 9.5 days post conception (dpc), pregnant rats were exposed to nitrofen...
September 10, 2018: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Soyoung Park, Jihee Kang, Sanghaeng Choi, Haryung Park, Eunchong Hwang, Yoongu Kang, Aram Kim, Wilhelm Holzapfel, Yosep Ji
Thanks to recent scientific progress a relationship between the intestinal microbiota and metabolic diseases could be established. A deeper understanding of underlying mechanisms has opened ways towards new approaches for alleviating conditions associated with metabolic diseases. Dysbiosis appears to be a major underlying factor associated with metabolic syndrome and related adverse health conditions. A major focus has therefore shifted to controlling of the gut microbiota through administration of functional lactic acid bacteria (LAB)...
2018: PloS One
Jin-Zhi Wang, Hai-Xia Cao, Jian-Neng Chen, Qin Pan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has now become the leading cause of chronic liver disease with its growing incidence worldwide. Patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) rs738409 C > G reflects one of the critical genetic factors that confers high-risk to NAFLD. However, the role of PNPLA3 polymorphism in NAFLD treatment remains uncertain. Here, the present review reveals that NAFLD patients with G-allele at PNPLA3 rs738409 (PNPLA3 148M variant) are sensitive to therapies of lifestyle modification, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors, and bariatric surgery...
August 16, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Haopeng Xiao, Ju Eun Hwang, Ronghu Wu
Protein N-glycosylation is essential for mammalian cell survival and is well-known to be involved in many biological processes. Aberrant glycosylation is directly related to human disease including cancer and infectious diseases. Global analysis of protein N-glycosylation will allow a better understanding of protein functions and cellular activities. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics provides a unique opportunity to site-specifically characterize protein glycosylation on a large scale. Due to the complexity of biological samples, effective enrichment methods are critical prior to MS analysis...
June 2018: International Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Zhiguo Li, Ying Li, Xiaoke Li, Ludan Zhang, Nanqi Zhao, Hongbo Du, Bo Zhou, Yong'an Ye
BACKGROUND: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) infection causes liver cancer. This protocol is to provide the methods used to assess the relationship between statins and HCC risk in hepatitis B or C patients. METHODS: We will search comprehensively the PubMed (medline), Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Database from their inception to November 2017...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
James K Liao, Adam Oesterle
Statins, 3-hydroxy-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, have been used for decades for the prevention of coronary artery disease and stroke. They act primarily by lowering serum cholesterol through the inhibition of cholesterol synthesis in the liver, which results in the upregulation of low-density lipoprotein receptors in the liver. This results in the removal of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Studies have suggested that statins may demonstrate additional effects that are independent of their effects on low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol...
August 17, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
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