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Eye blocks

Min-Kyung Kang, Eun-Jung Lee, Yun-Ho Kim, Dong Yeon Kim, Hyeongjoo Oh, Soo-Il Kim, Young-Hee Kang
Diabetes-associated visual cycle impairment has been implicated in diabetic retinopathy, and chronic hyperglycemia causes detrimental effects on visual function. Chrysin, a naturally occurring flavonoid found in various herbs, has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and neuroprotective properties. The goal of the current study was to identify the retinoprotective role of chrysin in maintaining robust retinoid visual cycle-related components. The in vitro study employed human retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exposed to 33 mM of glucose or advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the presence of 1⁻20 μM chrysin for three days...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Reenu Sarah Kurien, Mousumi Goswami, Sanjay Singh
Background: Maintaining primary teeth in the oral cavity is of prime importance, and grossly carious teeth may require pulp therapy for the same. Pain on injection and incomplete anesthesia causes failure of the procedure and result in fear and anxiety. Various methods have evolved to overcome this; such as distraction, topical anesthesia, etc. A few techniques regaining popularity in dentistry in recent times is the warming or buffering of the solution prior to administration. This study thus aimed to compare and evaluate the anesthetic efficacy and the patient's pain reaction to pre-warmed, buffered and conventional 2% lignocaine for the success of Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block in mandibular primary molars undergoing pulp therapy...
2018: Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects
Takako Yasuda, Yuta Ishikawa, Noriko Shioya, Kazusa Itoh, Miyuki Kamahori, Kento Nagata, Yoshiro Takano, Hiroshi Mitani, Shoji Oda
Induction of apoptosis in response to various genotoxic stresses could block transmission of teratogenic mutations to progeny cells. The severity of biological effects following irradiation depends on the stage at which embryos are irradiated during embryogenesis. We reported previously that irradiation of medaka embryos 3 days post fertilization (dpf) with 10 Gy of gamma rays induced high incidence of apoptotic cells in the mid-brain, however, the embryos hatched normally and developed without apparent malformations...
2018: PloS One
Peter Heiduschka, Tanja Plagemann, Lu Li, Anne F Alex, Nicole Eter
BACKGROUND: Anti-VEGF drugs are an option for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Blocking of other angiogenic factors is also of interest. We therefore investigated in which effects would result blocking of placental growth factor (PlGF). METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to 75% oxygen from P7 to P12. Intravitreal injections were performed at P12. Mice of control groups remained untouched after oxygen treatment, or PBS or neutral IgG molecules were injected...
August 2, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
Hongdou Luo, Jiejie Zhuang, Piaopiao Hu, Wei Ye, Shanshan Chen, Yulian Pang, Ningfeng Li, Cong Deng, Xu Zhang
Purpose: Resveratrol has been shown to enhance the survival of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) following ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury for glaucoma. However, the precise mechanisms for resveratrol's protective effects are still unclear. The aim of this study is to determine whether resveratrol can inhibit RGC apoptosis, retinal gliosis, and inflammation, all of which are critical events in retinal degeneration following I/R injury. Methods: Right retinal ischemia was induced in adult male Sprague Dawley rats by increasing intraocular pressure to 110 mm Hg for 60 minutes, and the left eyes maintained at normal pressure serve as the control...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Nathan J Hall, Yan Yang, Stephen G Lisberger
We analyzed behavioral features of smooth pursuit eye movements to characterize the course of acquisition and expression of multiple neural components of motor learning. Monkeys tracked a target that began to move in an initial "pursuit" direction and suddenly, but predictably, changed direction after a fixed interval of 250 ms. As the trial is repeated, monkeys learn to make eye movements that predict the change in target direction. Quantitative analysis of the learned response revealed evidence for multiple, dynamic, parallel processes at work during learning...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
YanJun Zhang, ZiYang Wang, Guang Zhao, Jing-Xia Liu
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have been reported to inhibit specification and differentiation of erythroid cells, chromatophores, and myofibrils during zebrafish embryogenesis. However, the knowledge of biological effects of AgNPs on eye development, especially on lens development is scarce. In this study, embryos were exposed to or injected with 0.4 mg/L AgNPs, and the results indicate that no obvious morphological changes in eye formation were observed in the stressed embryos compared to the controls. However, clefts and vacuoles were observed in lens of embryos from AgNPs stressed group...
July 26, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Chulbul M Ahmed, Michael T Massengill, Emily E Brown, Cristhian J Ildefonso, Howard M Johnson, Alfred S Lewin
We describe an immunosuppressive peptide corresponding to the kinase inhibitory region (KIR) of the intracellular checkpoint protein suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS-1) that binds to the phospho-tyrosine containing regions of the tyrosine kinases JAK2 and TYK2 and the adaptor protein MAL, and thereby inhibits signaling downstream from these signaling mediators. The peptide, SOCS1-KIR, is thus capable of downregulating overactive JAK/STAT or NF-kB signaling in somatic cells, including those in many compartments of the eye...
July 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Kayoung Lee, Jaeyoon Kim, Martin Köhler, Jia Yu, Yue Shi, Shao-Nian Yang, Sung Ho Ryu, Per-Olof Berggren
Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (Cav ) are essential for pancreatic beta cell function as they mediate Ca2+ influx, which leads to insulin exocytosis. The β3 subunit of Cav (Cav β3 ) has been suggested to regulate cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+ ]i ) oscillation frequency and insulin secretion under physiological conditions, but its role in diabetes is unclear. Here, we report that islets from diabetic mice show Cav β3 overexpression, altered [Ca2+ ]i dynamics, and impaired insulin secretion upon glucose stimulation. Consequently, in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced diabetes, Cav β3 -deficient (Cav β3 -/- ) mice showed improved islet function and enhanced glucose tolerance...
July 24, 2018: Cell Reports
Yoshihiro Ueda, Naamit K Gerber, Indra J Das
OBJECTIVE: To develop a mathematical model for cardiac dose estimation for patients who have been treated for left-sided breast cancer without CT data. METHODS: After obtaining institutional review board approvals, 147 patients with left-sided breast cancer were selected that were treated supine with opposed tangents. The heart blocks from the tangential fields were removed and dose calculations were performed with 6 MV beams using an advanced algorithm. This study was performed with CT data with DRR to represent a radiographic simulator image of yesteryear treatments...
July 25, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Mateusz Rusiniak, Andrzej Wróbel, Katarzyna Cieśla, Agnieszka Pluta, Monika Lewandowska, Joanna Wójcik, Piotr Henryk Skarżyński, Tomasz Wolak
Alpha rhythm, described by Hans Berger, is mainly recorded from the occipital cortex (OCC) of relaxed subjects with their eyes closed.Early studies indicated the thalamo‑cortical circuit as the origin of alpha rhythm. Recent works suggest an additional relationship between alpha rhythm and the Default Mode Network (DMN). We simultaneously recorded electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals in 36 young males asked to alternately close and open their eyes in 30‑s blocks...
2018: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis
Senem Sezikli, Tuğba Argün Pulat, Betül Tekin, Pelin Doğan Ak, Cahit Keskinkılıç, Dilek Ataklı
PURPOSE: The study aimed to examine the relationship between frontal lobe functions and interictal electroencephalography (EEG) discharge characteristics of patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). METHOD: Thirty patients with JME who had EEG with asymmetrical generalized discharge (aEEG), 15 patients with JME who had EEG with symmetrical generalized discharge (sEEG), and 15 healthy controls were included in the study. To evaluate attention, the digit span and Corsi block tests were used; to evaluate memory, we applied verbal and visual memory tests; to evaluate frontal lobe functions, we used clock drawing, verbal fluency, the Stroop test, trail making, mental control, and antisaccadic eye movement tests as well as the continuous performance (CPT) tests...
July 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Darya Frank, Daniela Montaldi, Bianca Wittmann, Deborah Talmi
Mental schemas provide a framework into which new information can easily be integrated. In a series of experiments, we examined how incongruence that stems from a prediction error modulates memory for multicomponent events that instantiated preexisting schemas as noted in a previous study. Each event consisted of four stimulus pairs with overlapping components, presented in four blocks (A-B, B-C, C-D, D-A). A-B pairs elicited contextual expectations (A: Farm, B: Tractor) that were either met by a congruent C component (C: Farmer) or violated by an incongruent one (C: Lawyer)...
August 2018: Learning & Memory
Yangyan Xiao, Cintia S De Paiva, Zhiyuan Yu, Rodrigo Guimaraes de Souza, De-Quan Li, Stephen C Pflugfelder
Conjunctival goblet cell loss in ocular surface diseases is accompanied by increased number of IL-12 producing antigen presenting cells (APC) and increased IFN- expression. This study tested the hypothesis that mouse conjunctival goblet cells produce biologically active retinoic acid (RA) that suppresses CD86 expression and IL-12 production by myeloid cells. We found conditioned media from cultured conjunctival goblet cells (CjCM) suppressed stimulated CD86 expression, NF-κB p65 activation and IL-12 and IFN- production in unstimulated and LPS-stimulated cultured bone marrow derived cells containing a mixed population of APCs...
July 12, 2018: International Immunology
Stefan Duschek, Alexandra Hoffmann, Casandra I Montoro, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Daniel Schuepbach, Ulrich Ettinger
This study investigated cerebral blood flow modulations during task preparation in a precued saccade paradigm. Bilateral blood flow velocities in the middle cerebral arteries were recorded in 48 subjects using functional transcranial Doppler sonography. Video-based eye-tracking was applied for ocular recording. Antisaccade and prosaccade trials were presented in both block-wise and interleaved order. A right dominant flow response arose during task preparation. While the response was stronger during antisaccade than prosaccade trials, the degree of lateralisation did not differ between the two trial types...
July 11, 2018: Biological Psychology
Davorka Sutlović, Ingrid Prkačin, Fabio Vaiano, Elisabetta Bertol, Maja Veršić Bratinčević, Marija Definis-Gojanović
The number of new psychoactive substances (NPS), synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) in particular, is growing constantly. Because of the insufficiently explored effects on consumer health, they have become a major problem in the emergency departments. They are difficult to identify, and there are no antidotes that could reverse their detrimental effects. We report a case of poisoning of a young man who used SCs. The patient was admitted to the emergency department of the Clinical Hospital Merkur, Zagreb (Croatia) after sniffing and smoking a herbal product bought on the street...
June 1, 2018: Arhiv za Higijenu Rada i Toksikologiju
Christoph Bührer, Ömer Erdeve, Dirk Bassler, Benjamin Bar-Oz
INTRODUCTION: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a disease observed in extremely premature infants characterised by visioning-threatening retinal vessel proliferation. Propranolol, a drug used for decades in newborn infants with heart diseases, hypertension and thyrotoxicosis and licenced for infantile haemangiomas, may be effective in halting progression of ROP to severe stages, as suggested by preliminary data from small studies. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: ROPROP is an investigator-initiated, multicentre, placebo-controlled double-blind, randomised controlled trial aiming to assess the safety and efficacy of orally administered propranolol to reduce the risk of threshold ROP (stage 3) in extremely preterm infants at 48 weeks postmenstrual age (primary objective) and the rate of infants requiring local interventions for severe ROP (secondary objective)...
July 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Lisa M Soederberg Miller, Carolyn Sutter, Machelle D Wilson, Jacqueline J Bergman, Laurel A Beckett, Tanja N Gibson
OBJECTIVE: Nutrition labels are often under-utilized due to the time and effort required to read them. We investigated the impact of label-reading training on effort, as well as accuracy and motivation. PARTICIPANTS: 80 college students (21 males and 59 females). METHODS: The training consisted of a background tutorial on nutrition followed by three blocks of practice reading labels to decide which of two foods was the relatively better choice...
July 6, 2018: Journal of American College Health: J of ACH
Qian-Hui Yang, Yan Zhang, Jing Jiang, Mian-Mian Wu, Qian Han, Qi-Yu Bo, Guang-Wei Yu, Yu-Sha Ru, Xun Liu, Min Huang, Ling Wang, Xiao-Min Zhang, Jian-Min Fang, Xiao-Rong Li
AIM: To investigate protective effects of a novel recombinant decoy receptor drug RC28-E on retinal damage in early diabetic rats. METHODS: The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: diabetes mellitus (DM) group (saline, 3 µL/eye); RC28-E at low (0.33 µg/µL, 3 µL), medium (1 µg/µL, 3 µL), and high (3 µg/µL, 3 µL) dose groups; vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) Trap group (1 µg/µL, 3 µL); fibroblast growth factor (FGF) Trap group (1 µg/µL, 3 µL)...
2018: International Journal of Ophthalmology
Yuka Nidegawa-Saitoh, Takayoshi Sumioka, Yuka Okada, Peter S Reinach, Kathleen C Flanders, Chia-Yang Liu, Osamu Yamanaka, Winston Whei-Yang Kao, Shizuya Saika
The present study attempts to elucidate the role of TRPV1 cation channel receptor on primary repair in an incision-wounded mouse cornea in vivo. Previous study revealed that blocking TRPV1 suppressed myofibroblast formation and expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1) in cultured keratocytes or ocular fibroblasts. Male C57BL/6 (wild-type; WT) mice and male C57BL/6 Trpv1-null (KO) mice incurred a full-thickness incision injury (1.8 mm in length, limbus to limbus) in the central cornea of one eye with a surgical blade under general and topical anesthesia...
July 4, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
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