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Eye blocks

Selva Kumar R, S K Ashok Kumar, Kari Vijayakrishna, Akella Sivaramakrishna, C V S Brahmmananda Rao, N Sivaraman, Suban K Sahoo
In this paper, a new Th4+ ion-selective chromogenic sensor (L) was developed by reacting 1,10-phenanthroline-2,9-dicarbohydrazide with 2-hydroxy naphthaldehyde. The sensing ability of L toward Th4+ was investigated in solution and paper strips loaded with L using spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods. The selective interaction of L was examined with various f-metal ions and other selected metal ions from s-block and d-block elements. Results show that by the colorimetric method in solution-phase dimethyl sulfoxide/H2 O (7:3, v/v) and paper strip methods, the naked-eye detectable color change of L occurred from colorless solution to yellow-orange and pale yellow colour upon interacting with Th4+ and Al3+ , respectively, whereas other metal ions did not interfere...
December 5, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Andrew Melnik, Felix Schüler, Constantin A Rothkopf, Peter König
Theories of embodied cognition postulate that the world can serve as an external memory. This implies that instead of storing visual information in working memory the information may be equally retrieved by appropriate eye movements. Given this assumption, the question arises, how we balance the effort of memorization with the effort of visual sampling our environment. We analyzed eye-tracking data in a sensorimotor task where participants had to produce a copy of a LEGO® -blocks-model displayed on a computer screen...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Yael Shilo-Benjamini
OBJECTIVE: Orbital and globe surgeries are commonly performed in companion animals and are considered to cause moderate to severe pain. Regional anesthesia techniques can provide complete sensory blockade, analgesia for painful procedures and improve surgical conditions. The purpose of this review is to summarize local and regional anesthesia techniques for ophthalmic surgery in dogs and cats with emphasis on veterinary publications in the past 12 years. DATABASES USED: Review of the literature was conducted using PubMed and Google Scholar...
November 7, 2018: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
Rénuka S Birbal, C Maya Tong, Isabel Dapena, John S Parker, Jack S Parker, Silke Oellerich, Gerrit R J Melles
PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility and clinical outcomes of Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) in eyes with a glaucoma drainage device (GDD). DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Clinical outcomes of 23 DMEK procedures for bullous keratopathy (52%), failed previous transplant (39%) or Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (9%) in 20 eyes (19 patients) with a GDD were retrospectively analyzed at two tertiary referral centers...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Da-Wei Zhang, Stuart J Johnstone, Hui Li, Robert J Barry, Adam R Clarke, Qihua Zhao, Yan Song, Lu Liu, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang, Li Sun
In this study we extend on behavioural evidence to examine the effect of time on EEG measures related to arousal and emotion/motivation in children with/without AD/HD. Thirty children with AD/HD and 30 age- and sex-matched controls participated. EEG was recorded during an eyes-closed resting condition and divided into three 2.5 min blocks after pre-processing. Time effects for absolute and relative alpha activity were found in healthy controls; these effects did not interact with AD/HD status. Interactions between time and AD/HD status were found for absolute theta, relative theta, and theta/beta ratio (TBR), with these EEG indices increasing over time in children with AD/HD...
November 29, 2018: Brain Topography
Hardik Majmudar, Meng Hao, Nehru Viji Sankaranarayanan, Brian Zanotti, Michael V Volin, Umesh R Desai, Vaibhav Tiwari
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is a significant pathogen that affects vision by targeting multiple regions in the human eye including iris. Using a focused library of synthetic non-saccharide glycosaminoglycan mimetics (NSGMs), we identified sulfated pentagalloylglucoside (SPGG) as a potent inhibitor of HSV-1 entry and cell-to-cell spread in the primary cultures of human iris stromal (HIS) cells isolated from eye donors. Using in vitro β-galactosidase reporter assay and plaque reduction assay, SPGG was found to inhibit HSV-1 entry in a dosage-dependent manner (IC50 ∼6...
November 24, 2018: Antiviral Research
Zhanhong Zhou, Xiaolong Zhai, Chung Tin
Cerebellum possesses very rich motor control and learning capability which is critical for animals. In this study, we proposed a spiking neural network model of cerebellum for gain and phase adaptation in vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). VOR is a critical adaptive reflexive eye movement for maintaining a stable visual field. In this model (with neuron number at the order of 104), synaptic plasticity at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses was considered. In particular, we have shown that the inhibitory inputs from molecular layer interneurons on Purkinje cells play a critical role in phase adaptation of VOR...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Sen Tian, Yijun Wang, Guoya Dong, Weihua Pei, Hongda Chen
Mental fatigue induced by long time mental work can cause deterioration in task performance and increase the risk of accidents. Recently, electroencephalogram (EEG)-based monitoring of mental fatigue has received increasing attention in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCI). This study aims to employ EEG signals to measure the mental fatigue level by estimating reaction time (RT) in a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). In a 36-hour sleep deprivation experiment, EEG data from 18 subjects were recorded every four hours in nine blocks, each consisting of three tasks: a 6-minute PVT task and two 3-minute resting states (eyes closed and eyes open)...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Nimal J Kumar, Boby George, Mohanasankar Sivaprakasam
Palpation is the process of using one's hand to perform a physical examination. Ophthalmic anaesthetists palpate the orbital bone around the eye, to locate anatomical markers to help them guide the needle safely for regional needle block into the orbital cavity. The anaesthetists are provided very little training on palpation procedure due to the lack of a suitable training system. Inadvisable palpation can cause damage to the soft tissue if the applied force is more than required. There is a necessity to provide ophthalmic anaesthetists with the relevant knowledge about palpation and the force exerted during this procedure...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Ilse Mol, Dion Paridaens
PURPOSE: To report on the outcomes of our preferred surgical technique for the correction of lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, nonrandomized, interventional analysis of a consecutive case series of patients with cicatricial lower lid ectropion treated with adhesiolysis, lateral eyelid-block excision with canthoplasty and full-thickness skin grafting. Donor sites included the ipsi- or contralateral upper eyelid and pre- or retroauricular skin. All patients were treated by one of our oculoplastic surgeons in the period from January 2005 to January 2017 in the Rotterdam Eye Hospital/Focus Clinic Rotterdam...
November 2, 2018: Acta Ophthalmologica
C Backes, A Religi, L Moccozet, F Behar-Cohen, L Vuilleumier, J L Bulliard, D Vernez
The aim of this study was to assess solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses received by the eyes in different exposure situations, and to predict the sun protection effectiveness provided by various styles of sunglasses at facial, periorbital, and ocular skin zones including the cornea and accounting for different head positions. A 3D numeric model was optimized to predict direct, diffuse and reflected erythemally weighted UVR doses received at various skin zones. Precisely defined facial, periorbital, and ocular skin zones, sunglasses (goggles, medium-, and large-sized sunglasses) and three head positions were modeled to simulate daily (08:00-17:00) and midday (12:00-14:00) UVR doses...
October 31, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Pan Zhang, Fang Hou, Fang-Fang Yan, Jie Xi, Bo-Rong Lin, Jin Zhao, Jia Yang, Ge Chen, Meng-Yuan Zhang, Qing He, Barbara Anne Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu, Chang-Bing Huang
Studies of perceptual learning have revealed a great deal of plasticity in adult humans. In this study, we systematically investigated the effects and mechanisms of several forms (trial-by-trial, block, and session rewards) and levels (no, low, high, subliminal) of monetary reward on the rate, magnitude, and generalizability of perceptual learning. We found that high monetary reward can greatly promote the rate and boost the magnitude of learning and enhance performance in untrained spatial frequencies and eye without changing interocular, interlocation, and interdirection transfer indices...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Alexandra Bernardo-Colon, Victoria Vest, Adrienne Clark, Melissa L Cooper, David J Calkins, Fiona E Harrison, Tonia S Rex
We investigated the role of oxidative stress and the inflammasome in trauma-induced axon degeneration and vision loss using a mouse model. The left eyes of male mice were exposed to over-pressure air waves. Wild-type C57Bl/6 mice were fed normal, high-vitamin-E (VitE), ketogenic or ketogenic-control diets. Mice lacking the ability to produce vitamin C (VitC) were maintained on a low-VitC diet. Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) and retinal superoxide levels were measured in vivo. Tissue was collected for biochemical and histological analysis...
October 26, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Meredith Gregory-Ksander, Victor L Perez, Ann Marshak-Rothstein, Bruce R Ksander
Neutrophil-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in corneal damage following injury or infection. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound FasL (mFasL) induces neutrophil chemokine production. However, the extracellular domain of mFasL is normally cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases to release a soluble form of FasL (sFasL) and sFasL antagonizes mFasL-mediated chemokine production. Therefore, we hypothesized that sFasL could be used to prevent neutrophil-mediated corneal inflammation associated with injury and bacterial keratitis...
October 23, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Adam Ciezarek, Owen Osborne, Oliver N Shipley, Edward J Brooks, Sean Tracey, Jaime McAllister, Luke Gardner, Michael J E Sternberg, Barbara Block, Vincent Savolainen
Birds, mammals, and certain fishes, including tunas, opahs and lamnid sharks, are endothermic, conserving internally generated, metabolic heat to maintain body or tissue temperatures above that of the environment. Bluefin tunas are commercially important fishes worldwide and some populations are threatened. They are renowned for their endothermy, maintaining elevated temperatures of the oxidative locomotor muscle, viscera, brain and eyes, and occupying cold, productive high-latitude waters. Less cold-tolerant tunas, such as yellowfin tuna, by contrast, remain in warm-temperate to tropical waters year-round, reproducing more rapidly than most temperate bluefin tuna populations, providing resiliency in the face of large scale industrial fisheries...
October 26, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Shreesha Kumar Kodavoor, Bijita Deb, Dandapani Ramamurthy
Purpose: To evaluate functional and anatomical outcome in patients undergoing deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) with intraoperative Descemet's membrane (DM) perforation (macro and micro). Methods: A retrospective cross sectional study (January 2009 to December 2015) of sixteen eyes of sixteen patients which included nine patients of advanced keratoconus (KC), two patients with paracentral DM scarring post hydrops, KC with Bowman's membrane scarring, macular corneal dystrophy and one patient of advanced Pellucid Marginal Degeneration (PMD)...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
Alicia Pérez Saturnino, Katharina Lust, Joachim Wittbrodt
Patterning of a continuously growing naive field in the context of a life-long growing organ such as the teleost eye is of high functional relevance. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals have been proposed to regulate lineage specification in progenitors that exit the stem cell niche in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). The proper cell-type composition arising from those progenitors is a prerequisite for retinal function. Our findings in the teleost medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) uncover that the Notch-Atoh7 axis continuously patterns the CMZ...
November 9, 2018: Development
Takeshi Kondo, Yo Niida, Masashi Mizuguchi, Yasushi Nagasaki, Yasuhiro Ueno, Akiyoshi Nishimura
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by widespread hamartomas in several organs, including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, lung, and liver. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumor diagnosed in fetuses, neonates and infants, and is closely linked to TSC. Here we describe an autopsy case of right ventricular rhabdomyoma in TSC. The deceased was a 3-month-old male infant, and TSC with a cardiac tumor had been diagnosed before his death. Since the cardiac tumor had not been physically blocking the blood flow, he had not undergone surgical intervention...
October 9, 2018: Legal Medicine
Satoru Kase, Kenichi Namba, Hiromi Kanno-Okada, Masahiro Onozawa, Daisuke Hidaka, Daiju Iwata, Kazuomi Mizuuchi, Takako Fukuhara, Junichi Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze immunohistochemical and immunocytological findings by examining enucleated eyes and vitreous cell block (CB) in patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL). METHODS: Histological specimens were obtained from two enucleated eyes with VRL associated with neovascular glaucoma. CB specimens were prepared in 18 patients from diluted waste fluids containing shredded vitreous. Histological and cytological specimens were submitted for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunopathological analyses...
October 18, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Hisanori Imai, Keiko Otsuka, Akira Tetsumoto, Akiko Miki, Makoto Nakamura
PURPOSE: To introduce the methodology and outcomes of en bloc removal of the component of cystoid lesion during pars plana vitrectomy as a novel approach for the treatment of cystoid macular edema and show evidence that the component is an aggregation of fibrinogen by mass spectrometry analysis. METHODS: The surgical en bloc extraction of the component of cystoid lesion was performed for cystoid macular edemas secondary to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion...
October 16, 2018: Retina
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