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Eye blocks

Alicia Pérez Saturnino, Katharina Lust, Joachim Wittbrodt
Patterning of a continuously growing naive field in the context of a life-long growing organ such as the teleost eye is of highest functional relevance. Intrinsic and extrinsic signals were proposed to regulate lineage specification in progenitors that exit the stem cell niche in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). The proper cell type composition arising from those progenitors is prerequisite for retinal function. Our findings in the teleost medaka ( Oryzias latipes ) uncover that the Notch-Atoh7 axis continuously patterns the CMZ...
October 18, 2018: Development
Takeshi Kondo, Yo Niida, Masashi Mizuguchi, Yasushi Nagasaki, Yasuhiro Ueno, Akiyoshi Nishimura
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a genetic multisystem disorder characterized by widespread hamartomas in several organs, including the brain, heart, skin, eyes, kidney, lung, and liver. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumor diagnosed in fetuses, neonates and infants, and is closely linked to TSC. Here we describe an autopsy case of right ventricular rhabdomyoma in TSC. The deceased was a 3-month-old male infant, and TSC with a cardiac tumor had been diagnosed before his death. Since the cardiac tumor had not been physically blocking the blood flow, he had not undergone surgical intervention...
October 9, 2018: Legal Medicine
Satoru Kase, Kenichi Namba, Hiromi Kanno-Okada, Masahiro Onozawa, Daisuke Hidaka, Daiju Iwata, Kazuomi Mizuuchi, Takako Fukuhara, Junichi Fukuhara, Nobuyoshi Kitaichi, Yoshihiro Matsuno, Susumu Ishida
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyze immunohistochemical and immunocytological findings by examining enucleated eyes and vitreous cell block (CB) in patients with vitreoretinal lymphoma (VRL). METHODS: Histological specimens were obtained from two enucleated eyes with VRL associated with neovascular glaucoma. CB specimens were prepared in 18 patients from diluted waste fluids containing shredded vitreous. Histological and cytological specimens were submitted for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunopathological analyses...
October 18, 2018: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
Hisanori Imai, Keiko Otsuka, Akira Tetsumoto, Akiko Miki, Makoto Nakamura
PURPOSE: To introduce the methodology and outcomes of en bloc removal of the component of cystoid lesion during pars plana vitrectomy as a novel approach for the treatment of cystoid macular edema and show evidence that the component is an aggregation of fibrinogen by mass spectrometry analysis. METHODS: The surgical en bloc extraction of the component of cystoid lesion was performed for cystoid macular edemas secondary to diabetic retinopathy and retinal vein occlusion...
October 16, 2018: Retina
Jacob G Martin, Charles E Davis, Maximilian Riesenhuber, Simon J Thorpe
While several studies have shown human subjects' impressive ability to detect faces in individual images in paced settings (Crouzet et al., 2010), we here report the details of an eye movement dataset in which subjects rapidly and continuously targeted single faces embedded in different scenes at rates approaching six face targets each second (including blinks and eye movement times). In this paper, we describe details of a large publicly available eye movement dataset of this new psychophysical paradigm (Martin et al...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jianbin Su, Meixue Huang
Glaucoma is a common heterogeneous eye disorder that may lead to irreversible blindness. In the present study, we examined whether etidronate, a member of bisphosphonates, may have neuroprotective effects in in vivo and in vitro rat model of glaucoma. In an in vivo setting, chronic ocular hypertension (COH) was induced in adult rat retina. We discovered that systemic injection of etidronate reduced COH-induced retinal oxidative stress, including caspase-3 activity and MDA level, as well as promoted retinal ganglion cell survival...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Laura Mikula, Marilyn Jacob, Trang Tran, Laure Pisella, Aarlenne Z Khan
The premotor theory of attention and the visual attention model make different predictions about the temporal and spatial allocation of presaccadic attentional facilitation. The current experiment investigated the spatial and temporal dynamics of presaccadic attentional facilitation during pro- and antisaccade planning; we investigated whether attention shifts only to the saccade goal location or to the target location or elsewhere, and when. Participants performed a dual-task paradigm with blocks of either anti- or prosaccades and also discriminated symbols appearing at different locations before saccade onset (measure of attentional allocation)...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Juan Yang, Jung Woo Park, Dejin Zheng, Ren-He Xu
Purpose: We generated universal corneal epithelial cells (CEC) from human embryonic stem cells (hESC) by genetically removing human leukocyte antigens (HLA) class I from the cell surface. Methods: The serum-free, growth factor-free, and defined medium E6 was used to differentiate hESC to CEC. Decellularized murine corneas were recellularized with hESC-derived CEC. Using CRISPR/Cas9, β-2-microglobulin ( B2M ) was deleted in hESC to block the assembly of HLA class-I antigens on the cell surface to generate B2M -/- CEC...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Boban Simonovic, Edward J N Stupple, Maggie Gale, David Sheffield
Stress pervades everyday life and impedes risky decision making. The following experiment is the first to examine effects of stress on risky decision making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), while measuring inspection time and conscious awareness of deck contingencies. This was original as it allowed a fine grained rigorous analysis of the way that stress impedes awareness of, and attention to maladaptive financial choices. The extended Cognitive Reflection Task (CRT) further afforded examination of the impact of impaired reflective thinking on risky decision making...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Luana da Silva Chagas, Pablo Trindade, Ana Lúcia Tavares Gomes, Henrique Rocha Mendonça, Paula Campello-Costa, Adriana da Cunha Faria Melibeu, Rafael Linden, Claudio Alberto Serfaty
Lesions in the central nervous system (CNS) can often induce structural reorganization within intact circuits of the brain. Several studies show advances in the understanding of mechanisms of brain plasticity and the role of the immune system activation. Microglia, a myeloid derived cell population colonizes the CNS during early phases of embryonic development. In the present study, we evaluated the role of microglial activation in the sprouting of intact axons following lesions of the visual pathways. We evaluated the temporal course of microglial activation in the superior colliculus following a contralateral monocular enucleation (ME) and the possible involvement of microglial cells in the plastic reorganization of the intact, uncrossed, retinotectal pathway from the remaining eye...
October 9, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Alexandros Rouvas, Nikolaos S Gouliopoulos, Marilita M Moschos, Panagiotis Theodossiadis
BACKGROUND: We report a rare case of a woman with optic disk melanocytoma (ODMC) in conjunction with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). We also present, for the first time in literature, the clinical and morphological outcomes of the applied treatment, consisting of a session of photodynamic therapy (PDT) and three monthly intravitreal aflibercept injections. CASE PRESENTATION: An 83-year-old Greek woman, complaining for visual decline at her left eye, referred to our department and was diagnosed with ODMC associated with PCV...
October 12, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Anahita Nosrati, Ahmad Monabati, Alireza Sadeghipour, Fatemeh Radmanesh, Akbar Safaei, Sajjadeh Movahedinia
Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare specific subtype of non-Hodgkin lymphoma limited to the brain, leptomeninges, spinal cord, or eyes without any systemic presentation and relapse which mostly takes place in CNS. In more than 95% of patients, it is of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) type. Categorizing PCNSL to germinal center cell like or activated B cell like, as we usually do for DLBCL NOS, may not be applicable for predicting outcome. Possible prognostic significance of MYC, BCL2, and/or BCL6 rearrangements may be important given what we know about their impact in systemic DLBCL, but we have limited knowledge about the status of double or triple hit molecular changes in PCNSL...
October 11, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Jonathan N Smith, Heather M Walker, Hannah Thompson, J Martin Collinson, Neil Vargesson, Lynda Erskine
Absence of the developing lens results in severe eye defects, including substantial reductions in eye size. How the lens controls eye expansion and the underlying signalling pathways are very poorly defined. We identified RDH10 , a gene crucial for retinoic acid synthesis during embryogenesis, as a key factor downregulated in the peripheral retina (presumptive ciliary body region) of lens-removed embryonic chicken eyes prior to overt reductions in eye size. This is associated with a significant decrease in retinoic acid synthesis by lens-removed eyes...
October 10, 2018: Development
Andrew Webster, Shravan K Chintala, Jasmine Kim, Michelle Ngan, Tatsuo Itakura, Noorjahan Panjwani, Pablo Argüeso, Joseph T Barr, Shinwu Jeong, M Elizabeth Fini
Water soluble "vital" dyes are commonly used clinically to evaluate health of the ocular surface; however, staining mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent evidence suggests that sublethal damage stimulates vital dye uptake by individual living cells. Since cell damage can also stimulate reparative plasma membrane remodeling, we hypothesized that dye uptake occurs via endocytic vesicles. In support of this idea, we show here that application of oxidative stress to relatively undifferentiated monolayer cultures of human corneal epithelial cells stimulates both dye uptake and endocytosis, and that dye uptake is blocked by co-treatment with three different endocytosis inhibitors...
2018: PloS One
Omneya Abdalrahman, Alejandra E Rodriguez, Jorge L Alio Del Barrio, Jorge L Alio
PURPOSE: To report a new approach for the treatment of severe ocular hypotony secondary to glaucoma filtering surgery with mitomycin C by injecting autologous eye platelet-rich plasma (E-PRP) in the anterior chamber to block excessive diffuse filtration through an abnormally thinned sclera. METHODS: A 49-year-old patient with the Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome and severe chronic hypotony and corneal edema following filtering glaucoma surgery with mitomycin C received an isolated injection of 0...
October 7, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Cynthia K McClard, Lance J Lyons, Sushma Yalamanchili
Purpose: To report a case of myasthenia gravis presenting with a false localizing sign, a bilateral pseudo internuclear ophthalmoplegia. Observations: A 61 year-old male presented with a five-week history of painless binocular oblique diplopia that was associated with fatigue, vocal hoarseness and bilateral ptosis, the latter two of which worsened through the course of the day. Exam was remarkable for an apparent bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO). MRI of the brain with and without contrast and MRA of the head and neck were within normal limits...
December 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
Wei-Ning Ku, Chun-Ju Lin, Yi-Yu Tsai
We report the rescue effects of adalimumab (HUMIRA® ) therapy in a case of refractory pediatric panuveitis complicated with steroid-induced glaucoma. A 13-year-old girl had suffered from blurred vision since January 2013. Bilateral idiopathic panuveitis with macular edema (ME) was diagnosed. She had previously been treated with systemic steroids, methotrexate, cyclosporine, and mycophenolate. All treatments had failed to suppress the ocular inflammation and ME persisted. Intravitreal dexamethasone implant injections were given to both eyes and ME subsided; however, complications with steroid-induced glaucoma and cataract occurred...
July 2018: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
Krista R Kelly, Brenda L Gallie, Jennifer K E Steeves
Retinoblastoma generally occurs before 5 years of age and often requires enucleation (surgical removal of one eye) of the cancerous eye. We have previously shown using behavioural methods that this disruption in binocular vision during the critical period of visual development results in impaired face perception. In this case series study, we sought to determine the underlying neural correlates of this face perception deficit by examining brain activity in regions of cortex that preferentially respond to visual images of faces and places in 6 adults who had one eye enucleated early in life due to retinoblastoma...
October 3, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
Xiaofan Chen, Rongdi Yuan, Xiao Chen, Min Sun, Sen Lin, Jian Ye, Chunlin Chen
Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of hypnosis in pain management during cataract surgery. Methods: Male or female patients with bilateral age-related cataract who wished to have both eyes subjected to phacoemulsification surgery were preliminarily admitted. Immediately after the first-eye surgery, each patient was evaluated for pain using the visual analog scale (VAS), and patients with a VAS score >1 were enrolled. By using block randomization, the enrolled patients were allocated to either the treatment group, which received a hypnosis intervention before the scheduled second-eye surgery, or the control group, which did not undergo hypnosis...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Jakub Tomek, Markéta Tomková, Xin Zhou, Gil Bub, Blanca Rodriguez
Background: Cardiac alternans is an important precursor to arrhythmia, facilitating formation of conduction block, and re-entry. Diseased hearts were observed to be particularly vulnerable to alternans, mainly in heart failure or after myocardial infarction. Alternans is typically linked to oscillation of calcium cycling, particularly in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). While the role of SR calcium reuptake in alternans is well established, the role of altered calcium release by ryanodine receptors has not yet been studied extensively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
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