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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934736/reduced-drinking-in-alcohol-dependence-treatment-what-is-the-evidence
#1
Karl Mann, Henri-Jean Aubin, Katie Witkiewitz
Abstinence from alcohol has been the prevailing treatment goal for individuals with alcohol dependence (AD) within the context of specialty alcohol treatment. Yet, alcohol use has been conceptualized as existing on a continuum. Importantly, most people who meet criteria for AD and could benefit from treatment never receive treatment. About half of these individuals do not seek treatment because they report a desire to continue drinking. To increase acceptability of treatment, reductions in alcohol consumption have been examined as alternative outcomes in treatment trials for AD...
September 22, 2017: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934076/delayed-urinary-symptoms-induced-by-ketamine
#2
María Robles-Martínez, Alfonso C Abad, Violeta Pérez-Rodríguez, Elena Ros-Cucurull, Abderraman Esojo, Carlos Roncero
One of the side-effects of ketamine abuse is genito-urinary damage. This report describes a case of a former ketamine user who presented with urinary symptoms associated with ketamine years after stopping consumption. This was a 26-year-old male with a history of ketamine abuse. He started treatment for alcohol dependence at age 19. He smoked marijuana daily and denied any other drug use. During the follow-up, urinary symptoms were evidenced (dysuria, frequency, urgency, incontinence, nocturia, hematuria, and suprapubic pain)...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933869/do-alcohol-use-reasons-and-contexts-differentiate-adolescent-high-intensity-drinking-data-from-u-s-high-school-seniors-2005-2016
#3
Yvonne M Terry-McElrath, Stephanie A Stern, Megan E Patrick
The purpose of this study was to examine associations between (a) self-reported reasons for and contexts of alcohol use and (b) high-intensity drinking (i.e., having 10+ drinks in a row in the past 2 weeks) among national samples of U.S. 12th grade students. Data were obtained from 16,902 students who reported any past 12-month alcohol use from nationally representative annual 12th grade student samples from 2005-2016. When asked about drinking behavior during the past 2 weeks, 72% reported consuming less than 5 drinks at most during 1 drinking occasion; 14% reported 5-9 drinks, 7% reported 10-14 drinks, and 7% reported 15+ drinks...
September 21, 2017: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors: Journal of the Society of Psychologists in Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933709/evidence-for-misspecification-of-a-nationally-used-quality-measure-for-substance-use-treatment
#4
Soeren Mattke, Zachary Predmore, Elizabeth Sloss, Asa Wilks, Katherine E Watkins
OBJECTIVES: The National Committee for Quality Assurance's (NCQA) measure "Initiation and Engagement of Alcohol and Other Drug Dependence Treatment" captures the proportion of substance use patients with (1) treatment initiation within 14 days and (2) treatment engagement within 30 days thereafter. The definition of treatment considers only counseling but not medication-assisted treatment (MAT), although MAT is supported by current guidelines. Our research question is whether this omission results in meaningful measurement error...
September 4, 2017: Journal for Healthcare Quality: Official Publication of the National Association for Healthcare Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933119/-research-on-rat-models-of-acute-liver-injury-with-syndrome-of-liver-depression-and-spleen-deficiency
#5
Na-Na Huang, Xiao-Qian Sun, Qian Yang, Xiao-Yu Li, Rong Sun
This paper aimed to establish animal models which are suitable for the activity found, efficacy evaluation of herbs resistant to acute liver injury with syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency and new drug research and development based on corresponding of formula and syndrome. The symptoms that are suitable for evaluating the rat models of acute liver injury with syndrome of liver depression and spleen deficiency were extracted according to the evolution rule of the etiology and pathogenesis in traditional Chinese medicine and the modern pathological mechanism...
December 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933096/-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-recoveries-of-cutaneous-micro-dialysis-probe-of-paeonol-eugenol-and-piperine
#6
Chang Yang, Jie Bai, Shou-Ying Du, Ya-Hua Cui, Qin-Shuai Zhang, Jun-Ming Ma
To establish a method for detecting micro-dialysis recovery of paeonol, eugenol and piperine in Huoxue Zhitong patch, in order to provide the basis for further percutaneous pharmacokinetics studies. The concentrations of paeonol, eugenol and piperine in dialysates were determined by HPLC, and probe deliveries were calculated respectively. The effects of concentration and calibration approaches on the micro-dialysis probe deliveries of the three components were investigated, and their probe absorbability, in vitro and in vivo probe stability and repeatability were also studied...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931908/drug-release-from-core-shell-pva-silk-fibroin-nanoparticles-fabricated-by-one-step-electrospraying
#7
Yang Cao, Fengqiu Liu, Yuli Chen, Tao Yu, Deshuai Lou, Yuan Guo, Pan Li, Zhigang Wang, Haitao Ran
Silk fibroin (SF), a FDA-approved natural protein, is renowned for its great biocompatibility, biodegradability, and mechanical properties. SF-based nanoparticles provide new options for drug delivery with their tunable drug loading and release properties. To take advantage of the features of carrier polymers, we present a one-step electrospraying method that combines SF, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and therapeutic drugs without an emulsion process. A distinct core-shell structure was obtained with the PVA core and silk shell after the system was properly set up...
September 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931618/predicting-major-bleeding-in-ischemic-stroke-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#8
Nina A Hilkens, Ale Algra, Jacoba P Greving
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Performance of risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation and a previous transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke is not well established. We aimed to validate risk scores for major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with oral anticoagulants after cerebral ischemia and explore the net benefit of oral anticoagulants among bleeding risk categories. METHODS: We analyzed 3623 patients with a history of transient ischemic attack or stroke included in the RE-LY trial (Randomized Evaluation of Long-Term Anticoagulation Therapy)...
September 20, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931509/development-and-validation-of-qmortality-risk-prediction-algorithm-to-estimate-short-term-risk-of-death-and-assess-frailty-cohort-study
#9
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland
Objectives To derive and validate a risk prediction equation to estimate the short term risk of death, and to develop a classification method for frailty based on risk of death and risk of unplanned hospital admission.Design Prospective open cohort study.Participants Routinely collected data from 1436 general practices contributing data to QResearch in England between 2012 and 2016. 1079 practices were used to develop the scores and a separate set of 357 practices to validate the scores. 1.47 million patients aged 65-100 years were in the derivation cohort and 0...
September 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931433/role-of-gabaa-receptors-in-alcohol-use-disorders-suggested-by-chronic-intermittent-ethanol-cie-rodent-model
#10
REVIEW
Richard W Olsen, Jing Liang
GABAergic inhibitory transmission is involved in the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on the brain and behavior. One-dose ethanol exposure induces transient plastic changes in GABAA receptor subunit levels, composition, and regional and subcellular localization. Rapid down-regulation of early responder δ subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-sensitive tonic inhibitory currents in critical neuronal circuits corresponds to rapid tolerance to ethanol's behavioral responses. Slightly slower, α1 subunit-containing GABAA receptor subtypes mediating ethanol-insensitive synaptic inhibition are down-regulated, corresponding to tolerance to additional ethanol behaviors plus cross-tolerance to other GABAergic drugs including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and neurosteroids, especially sedative-hypnotic effects...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930067/prenatal-exposure-effects-on-early-adolescent-substance-use-preliminary-evidence-from-a-genetically-informed-bayesian-approach
#11
L Cinnamon Bidwell, Kristine Marceau, Leslie A Brick, Hollis C Karoly, Alexandre A Todorov, Rohan H Palmer, Andrew C Heath, Valerie S Knopik
OBJECTIVE: Given the controversy surrounding the question of whether there are direct or causal effects of exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy (SDP) on offspring outcomes such as substance use during the adolescent years, we sought to test, on a preliminary basis, within- and between-family associations of SDP and initiation of substance use early in adolescence (by age 15 years) using a discordant sibling design. METHOD: We used a sibling-comparison approach in a sample of 173 families drawn from the state of Missouri, wherein mothers were discordant for smoking behaviors between two different pregnancies, to test for associations of SDP and initiation of substance use in a younger adolescent cohort...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930065/trends-in-perceived-access-to-marijuana-among-adolescents-in-the-united-states-2002-2015
#12
Christopher P Salas-Wright, Sehun Oh, Trenette Clark Goings, Michael G Vaughn
OBJECTIVE: There is concern that changes in marijuana-related policy and public opinion may lead to increased access to marijuana among young people in the United States. However, little research has been conducted on changes in youth's perceptions of marijuana access, and studies have yet to systematically examine trends in perceived access across key sociodemographic and externalizing behavioral subgroups. METHOD: Using population-based data collected between 2002 and 2015 as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we examined trends in perceived marijuana access among non-Hispanic White, African American, and Hispanic adolescents (ages 12-17, n = 221,412)...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930051/addiction-and-the-role-of-circadian-genes
#13
Laura A Forde, Gursharan Kalsi
OBJECTIVE: In mammals, intimate interactions exist between the circadian system and other molecular systems, and mounting evidence is suggesting that these relationships may affect substance use disorders. Research in preclinical models supports the role of circadian genes as risk factors for addiction. Here, we explore the evidence and review human genetic studies testing the association between specific circadian genes and substance use disorders. METHOD: A literature search was conducted in PubMed for studies testing variants in eight circadian genes known to be central to the functioning of the master clock in the brain...
September 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928256/melioidosis-mimicking-tubercular-cold-abscess
#14
Raghuraj Suresh Kundangar, Shyamasunder N Bhat, Simanchal P Mohanty
Burkholderia pseudomallei is a Gram-negative bacillus found in soil. The infection is thought to occur by inoculation or inhalation. It usually affects people with predisposing factors like diabetes mellitus and chronic alcoholism. A 36-year-old man, on the treatment of diabetes in the past 4 years, on oral hypoglycaemic drugs, presented to us with pain and insidious onset of swelling over left loin like a lumbar cold abscess. He underwent incision and drainage of the abscess. As per the culture report, we used ceftazidime for 2 weeks, followed by cotrimoxazole for 6 months...
September 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927583/differences-in-decision-making-as-a-function-of-drug-of-choice
#15
REVIEW
Joshua L Gowin, Matthew E Sloan, Vijay A Ramchandani, Martin P Paulus, Scott D Lane
Poor decision-making is a central feature of all substance use disorders (SUD), but substances vary in the legal and health consequences associated with their use. For example, while the negative health consequences associated with cigarette smoking are often years away, the consequences of heroin abuse can be fatal in mere hours. It remains unclear if users of these substances show decision-making patterns that differ with the relative riskiness of their drug of choice. To address this question, we reviewed studies that compared decision-making of individuals using different substances...
September 16, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926484/alcohol-and-drug-use-before-and-during-the-first-year-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Simon Beaulieu-Bonneau, Frédéric St-Onge, Marie-Claude Blackburn, Andrée Banville, Andrée-Anne Paradis-Giroux, Marie-Christine Ouellet
OBJECTIVES: To compare individuals with mild and moderate/severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) on alcohol and drug use and substance use disorders before and in the first year post-TBI; to explore sociodemographic and injury-related variables associated with substance use disorders. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 225 adults hospitalized in a level I trauma center after TBI. DESIGN: Observational cohort study with retrospective (pre-TBI) and prospective (4, 8, and 12 months post-TBI) assessments...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925161/-protective-effects-of-liuwei-wuling-tablet-on-acute-alcoholic-induced-liver-injury-in-mice
#17
Ping Yin, He-Rong Cui, Cong-En Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Ya-Kun Meng, Lan-Zhi He, Hui-Min Liu, Xiu-Xiu Sang, Jia-Bo Wang, Zhao-Fang Bai, Xiao-He Xiao
The protective action and the relevant mechanism of Liuwei Wuling tablet on acute alcoholic hepatic injury in mice were investigated. All the C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into 7 groups including blank, model, bifendate (150 mg•kg⁻¹, positive control) and experimental groups consisted of extremely low dose (0.1 g•kg⁻¹), low (0.5 g•kg⁻¹), upper (4 g•kg⁻¹) and high dose (8 g•kg⁻¹) of Liuwei Wuling tablet groups. The acute liver injury model was induced by modified method that the model, positive control and experimental groups were orally administrated 56% alcohol (6 g•kg⁻¹) twice at 12 hour intervals on the fifth day after drugs administration...
October 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924739/purification-of-drug-loaded-plga-nanoparticles-prepared-by-emulsification-solvent-evaporation-using-stirred-cell-ultrafiltration-technique
#18
Suresh K Paswan, T R Saini
PURPOSE: The emulsifiers in an exceedingly higher level are used in the preparation of drug loaded polymeric nanoparticles prepared by emulsification solvent evaporation method. This creates great problem to the formulator due to their serious toxicities when it is to be administered by parenteral route. The final product is therefore required to be freed from the used surfactants by the conventional purification techniques which is a cumbersome job. METHODS: The solvent resistant stirred cell ultrafiltration unit (Millipore) was used in this study using polyethersulfone ultrafiltration membrane (Biomax®) having pore size of NMWL 300 KDa as the membrane filter...
September 18, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924278/main-predictors-for-repetition-of-suicidal-behaviour-among-women-referred-to-a-single-public-sector-tertiary-care-hospital-in-iran
#19
Babak Mostafazadeh, Esmaeil Farzaneh
OBJECTIVE: To assess the main predictors for repetition of suicidal behaviour among women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, in 2014, and comprised women patients. The patients were divided into two groups, i.e. women repeating suicide and women without repeating suicide. Data was collected through a checklist and then analysed with SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 300 women, 121(40.3%) repeated suicide and 179(59...
September 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924123/the-improvement-of-the-hepatic-histological-findings-in-a-patient-with-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-with-type-2-diabetes-after-the-administration-of-the-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-inhibitor-ipragliflozin
#20
Akihiko Takeda, Aya Irahara, Atsuko Nakano, Emi Takata, Yuko Koketsu, Kunie Kimata, Eri Senda, Hajime Yamada, Kazuhito Ichikawa, Takahiro Fujimori, Yoshio Sumida
The patient was a 67-year-old woman with type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The administration of the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, ipragliflozin improved her liver dysfunction clinically and histologically. The serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and ferritin levels decreased to normal limits after treatment for four months. Type IV collagen and hyaluronic acid, both of which were serum fibrotic markers, decreased after treatment. Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a decrease in the fat deposits in her liver...
September 15, 2017: Internal Medicine
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