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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214742/what-s-the-agreement-between-self-reported-and-biochemical-verification-of-drug-use-a-look-at-permanent-supportive-housing-residents
#1
Alexis Rendon, Melvin Livingston, Sumihiro Suzuki, Whitney Hill, Scott Walters
Self-reported substance use is commonly used as an outcome measure in treatment research. We evaluated the validity of self-reported drug use in a sample of 334 adults with mental health problems who were residing in supportive housing programs. The primary analysis was the calculation of the positive predictive values (PPVs) of self-report compared to an oral fluid test taken at the same time. A sensitivity analysis compared the positive predictive values of two self-reported drug use histories: biological testing window (ranging between the past 96h to 30days depending on drug type) or the full past 90-day comparison window (maximum length recorded during interview)...
February 10, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214667/effects-of-prior-testing-lasting-a-full-year-in-ncanda-adolescents-contributions-from-age-sex-socioeconomic-status-ethnicity-site-family-history-of-alcohol-or-drug-abuse-and-baseline-performance
#2
Edith V Sullivan, Ty Brumback, Susan F Tapert, Devin Prouty, Rosemary Fama, Wesley K Thompson, Sandra A Brown, Kevin Cummins, Ian M Colrain, Fiona C Baker, Duncan B Clark, Tammy Chung, Michael D De Bellis, Stephen R Hooper, Bonnie J Nagel, B Nolan Nichols, Weiwei Chu, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Longitudinal study provides a robust method for tracking developmental trajectories. Yet inherent problems of retesting pose challenges in distinguishing biological developmental change from prior testing experience. We examined factors potentially influencing change scores on 16 neuropsychological test composites over 1year in 568 adolescents in the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA) project. The twice-minus-once-tested method revealed that performance gain was mainly attributable to testing experience (practice) with little contribution from predicted developmental effects...
January 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214449/-they-treated-me-like-crap-and-i-know-it-was-because-i-was-native-the-healthcare-experiences-of-aboriginal-peoples-living-in-vancouver-s-inner-city
#3
Ashley Goodman, Kim Fleming, Nicole Markwick, Tracey Morrison, Louise Lagimodiere, Thomas Kerr
There is growing evidence that Aboriginal peoples often experience healthcare inequalities due to racism. However, research exploring the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit substances is limited, and research rarely accounts for how multiple accounts of stigma intersect and contribute to the experiences of marginalized populations. Our research aimed to explore the healthcare experiences of Aboriginal peoples who use illicit drugs and or illicit alcohol (APWUID/A) living in Vancouver's inner city...
January 26, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213631/destroying-god-s-temple-physical-inactivity-poor-diet-obesity-and-other-sin-behaviors
#4
Mark D Faries, Megan McClendon, Eric J Jones
On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213275/a-single-microfluidic-chip-with-dual-surface-properties-for-protein-drug-delivery
#5
Mehrdad Bokharaei, Katayoun Saatchi, Urs O Häfeli
Principles of double emulsion generation were incorporated in a glass microfluidic chip fabricated with two different surface properties in order to produce protein loaded polymer microspheres. The microspheres were produced by integrating two microfluidic flow focusing systems and a multi-step droplet splitting and mixing system into one chip. The chip consists a hydrophobic and a hydrophilic section with two different heights, 12μm and 45μm, respectively. As a result, the protein is homogenously distributed throughout the polymer microsphere matrix, not just in its center (which has been studied before)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212981/development-of-solid-sedds-vi-effect-of-precoating-of-neusilin%C3%A2-us2-with-pvp-on-drug-release-from-adsorbed-self-emulsifying-lipid-based-formulations
#6
Suhas G Gumaste, Beatryz O S Freire, Abu T M Serajuddin
Adsorption of lipid-based formulations, which are usually liquid, onto silicas has been extensively investigated in the past decade to convert them into solid dosage forms. There are conflicting reports on the ability of commercially available porous silicas, like Neusilin® US2, to release lipid formulations completely, especially after long-term storage. In this study, the release of a model drug, probucol, from different formulations of medium chain lipids and a surfactant, Kolliphor EL (Cremophor EL) or polysorbate 80, were studied after adsorbing them onto Neusilin® US2...
February 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212849/hydrogen-sulfide-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-alcohol-mediated-neurotoxicity
#7
REVIEW
Akash K George, Jyotirmaya Behera, Kimberly E Kelly, Yuankun Zhai, Neetu Tyagi
Alcohol is one of the most socially accepted addictive drugs in modern society. Its abuse affects virtually all organ systems with the central nervous system (CNS) being particularly vulnerable to excessive alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure also causes profound damage to both the adult and developing brain. Excessive alcohol consumption induces numerous pathophysiological stress responses, one of which is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Potential mechanisms that trigger the alcohol induced ER stress response are either directly or indirectly related to alcohol metabolism, which include toxic levels of acetaldehyde and homocysteine, oxidative stress and abnormal epigenetic modifications...
February 14, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212679/histopathological-study-of-cardiac-lesions-in-methamphetamine-poisoning-related-deaths
#8
Maryam Akhgari, Homeira Mobaraki, Afshar Etemadi-Aleagha
BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine abuse is a worldwide health concern. Methamphetamine causes health hazards in many vital organs. It can cause damage to cardiac tissue via catecholamines release. Methamphetamine related deaths are becoming one of the most important problems in Iran. The purpose of the present study was to determine cardiac pathology in methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths. METHODS: The study included 100 cases of methamphetamine poisoning-related deaths and 100 cases as control group...
February 17, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212464/oxytocin-reduces-ethanol-self-administration-in-mice
#9
Courtney E King, William C Griffin, Lauryn N Luderman, Malcolm M Kates, Jacqueline F McGinty, Howard C Becker
BACKGROUND: Excessive ethanol consumption remains an important health concern and effective treatments are lacking. The central oxytocin system has emerged as a potentially important therapeutic target for alcohol and drug addiction. These studies tested the hypothesis that oxytocin reduces ethanol consumption. METHODS: Male C57BL/6J mice were given access to ethanol (20% v/v) using a model of binge-like drinking ("drinking-in-the-dark") that also included the use of lickometer circuits to evaluate the temporal pattern of intake as well as 2-bottle choice drinking in the home cage...
February 17, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211962/smoking-prevalence-among-lesbian-bisexual-and-queer-women-in-sydney-remains-high-analysis-of-trends-and-correlates
#10
Rachel M Deacon, Julie Mooney-Somers
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: To investigate smoking prevalence trends and correlates among lesbian, bisexual and queer-identifying (LBQ) women in Sydney, Australia. DESIGN AND METHODS: Data from 5007 respondents to a repeated cross-sectional community survey were used to examine smoking trends between 2004 and 2014. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine smoking correlates. RESULTS: Thirty percent of respondents were current smokers, including 48% of 16 to 24-year-olds...
February 17, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211594/substance-dependence-among-those-without-symptoms-of-substance-abuse-in-the-world-mental-health-survey
#11
Luise Lago, Meyer D Glantz, Ronald C Kessler, Nancy A Sampson, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Silvia Florescu, Jacek Moskalewicz, Sam Murphy, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Yolanda Torres de Galvis, Maria Carmen Viana, Miguel Xavier, Louisa Degenhardt
The World Health Organization (WHO) World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative uses the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). The first 13 surveys only assessed substance dependence among respondents with a history of substance abuse; later surveys also assessed substance dependence without symptoms of abuse. We compared results across the two sets of surveys to assess implications of the revised logic and develop an imputation model for missing values of lifetime dependence in the earlier surveys...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210861/the-effects-of-alcoholism-and-smoking-on-advanced-cancer-patients-admitted-to-an-acute-supportive-palliative-care-unit
#12
Sebastiano Mercadante, Claudio Adile, Patrizia Ferrera, Alessandra Casuccio
AIM: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the characteristics and symptom burden of advanced cancer patients with alcoholism problems and smoking, who were referred to an acute palliative/supportive care unit (ASPCU) of a comprehensive cancer center. METHODS: Patients' characteristics, indications for admission, kind of admission, awareness of prognosis, and anticancer treatments were recorded. The Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS) was used to assess physical and psychological symptoms, and the CAGE questionnaire for the diagnosis of alcoholism...
February 16, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210782/toll-like-receptor-signaling-and-stages-of-addiction
#13
REVIEW
Fulton T Crews, T Jordan Walter, Leon G Coleman, Ryan P Vetreno
BACKGROUND: Athina Markou and her colleagues discovered persistent changes in adult behavior following adolescent exposure to ethanol or nicotine consistent with increased risk for developing addiction. Building on Dr. Markou's important work and that of others in the field, researchers at the Bowles Center for Alcohol Studies have found that persistent changes in behavior following adolescent stress or alcohol exposure may be linked to induction of immune signaling in brain. AIM: This study aims to illuminate the critical interrelationship of the innate immune system (e...
February 17, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210503/strongyloidiasis-current-status-with-emphasis-in-diagnosis-and-drug-research
#14
REVIEW
Tiago Mendes, Karen Minori, Marlene Ueta, Danilo Ciccone Miguel, Silmara Marques Allegretti
Strongyloidiasis is a parasitic neglected disease caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis affecting 30 to 100 million people worldwide. Complications, strongly associated with alcoholism, organ transplants, and HTLV-1 virus, often arise due to late diagnosis, frequently leading to patient death. Lack of preemptive diagnosis is not the only difficulty when dealing with this parasite, since there are no gold standard diagnostic techniques, and the ones used have problems associated with sensitivity, resulting in false negatives...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209193/up601-a-standardized-botanical-composition-composed-of-morus-alba-yerba-mate-and-magnolia-officinalis-for-weight-loss
#15
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is surging in an alarming rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical drugs are considered potential adjunctive therapy to lifestyle modification. However, for most, besides being too expensive, their long term usages are hindered by their severe adverse effects. Here we describe the effect of UP601, a standardized blend of extracts from Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis, in modulating a number of obesity-related phenotypic and biochemical markers in a high-fat high-fructose (HFF)-induced C57BL/6J mouse model of obesity...
February 16, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208724/assessing-the-knowledge-level-attitudes-risky-behaviors-and-preventive-practices-on-sexually-transmitted-diseases-among-university-students-as-future-healthcare-providers-in-the-central-zone-of-malaysia-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Adigun Temiloluwa Folasayo, Afolayan John Oluwasegun, Suhailah Samsudin, Siti Nor Sakinah Saudi, Malina Osman, Rukman Awang Hamat
This study was done to assess the knowledge, attitudes, risky behaviors and preventive practices related to sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) among health and non-health sciences university students as future healthcare providers in Malaysia. A total of 700 health and non-health sciences university students (255 male; 445 female) aged between 17 and 30 years were surveyed by using a self-administered questionnaire. The majority (86.6%) had heard of STDs, and 50.4% knew STDs could present without symptoms...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208210/heterogeneous-costs-of-alcohol-and-drug-problems-across-cities-and-counties-in-california
#17
Ted R Miller, Peter Nygaard, Andrew Gaidus, Joel W Grube, William R Ponicki, Bruce A Lawrence, Paul J Gruenewald
BACKGROUND: Estimates of economic and social costs related to alcohol and other drug (AOD) use and abuse are usually made at state and national levels. Ecological analyses demonstrate, however, that substantial variations exist in the incidence and prevalence of AOD use and problems including impaired driving, violence, and chronic disease between smaller geopolitical units like counties and cities. This study examines the ranges of these costs across counties and cities in California...
February 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207998/benzodiazepine-and-z-drug-dependence-data-from-a-tertiary-care-center
#18
Lekhansh Shukla, Spandana Bokka, Tulika Shukla, Arun Kandasamy, Prabhat Chand, Vivek Benegal, Pratima Murthy
Objective: To examine the clinical characteristics and course of benzodiazepine and �Z-drug� dependence in patients presenting to a tertiary deaddiction center in southern India. Methods: Case files of 950 inpatients admitted between January 2007 and January 2014 who reported benzodiazepine or Z-drug use were reviewed. Patients (n = 170) with an ICD-10 diagnosis of mental and behavioral disorders due to the use of sedatives or hypnotics-dependence syndrome currently using substance (F13...
February 16, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207892/triethylene-glycol-an-active-component-of-ashwagandha-withania-somnifera-leaves-is-responsible-for-sleep-induction
#19
Mahesh K Kaushik, Sunil C Kaul, Renu Wadhwa, Masashi Yanagisawa, Yoshihiro Urade
Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint which occurs due to difficulty in falling asleep or maintaining it. Most of currently available drugs for insomnia develop dependency and/or adverse effects. Hence natural therapies could be an alternative choice of treatment for insomnia. The root or whole plant extract of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) has been used to induce sleep in Indian system of traditional home medicine, Ayurveda. However, its active somnogenic components remain unidentified. We investigated the effect of various components of Ashwagandha leaf on sleep regulation by oral administration in mice...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207331/a-systematic-review-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-sexual-minorities
#20
Billy A Caceres, Abraham Brody, Rachel E Luscombe, Jillian E Primiano, Peter Marusca, Edward M Sitts, Deborah Chyun
BACKGROUND: Mental health and HIV disparities are well documented among sexual minorities, but there is a dearth of research on other chronic conditions. Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Although sexual minorities have high rates of several modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (including stress, tobacco use, and alcohol consumption), there is a paucity of research in this area. OBJECTIVES: In this systematic review, we synthesized and critiqued the existing evidence on cardiovascular disease among sexual minority adults...
February 16, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
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