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Claudia Doi Antunes, Malson Neilson Lucena, Daniela Pereira Garçon, Francisco Assis Leone, John Campbell McNamara
Fresh caught Clibanarius vittatus [SW, 31‰ salinity (S)] were acclimated to a dilute medium (15‰ S) for 10 days, employing silver staining to locate gill ion transporting tissue, immunofluorescence to localize the Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit in the lamellae, and electron microscopy to portray ultrastructural changes in the gill epithelia. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was characterized kinetically in a gill microsomal fraction, including synergistic stimulation by NH4+ plus K+. Silver staining revealed that all 26 phyllobranchiate arthro- and pleurobranchiae participate in ion transport...
July 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological and Integrative Physiology
Jie Wang, Yunling Xu, Bing Ding, Zhi Chang, Xiaogang Zhang, Yusuke Yamauchi, Kevin Chia-Wen Wu
Although two-dimensional (2D) carbon materials are widely investigated, a well-defined 2D carbon nanosheet with an ordered mesostructure has rarely been realized. Herein monolayer ordered mesoporous carbon nanosheets (OMCNS) are prepared through confinement assembly of resol and F127 in the interlayer of montmorillonite (MONT). The nano-distances of the interlayer space of MONT only allow the assembly of resol and F127 in the same plane, leading to ordered mesopores perpendicular to carbon nanosheets, and favour the formation of sp2 carbon, resulting in highly graphitization degree...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Biao Xu, Tianli Feng, Matthias T Agne, Qing Tan, Zhe Li, Kazuki Imasato, Lin Zhou, Je-Hyeong Bahk, Xiulin Ruan, G Jefferey Snyder, Yue Wu
Dismantling and reconstructing canonical binary compounds by inserting a third agent can significantly modify their electronic and phonon structures. Therefore, it has inspired the semiconductor communities in various fields, such as electronic devices, radiation detectors and solar cells. Introducing this paradigm will potentially revolutionize thermoelectrics as well, which has been largely relying on simple binary compounds for decades. Here via a solution synthesis, we rebuild the eco-friendly and non-expensive Bi2S3 by adding disordered Bi and weakly bonded I...
January 22, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Marcel Pascal Beier, Mitsuhiro Obara, Akiko Taniai, Yuki Sawa, Jin Ishizawa, Haruki Yoshida, Narumi Tomita, Tsuyoshi Yamanaka, Yawara Ishizuka, Syuko Kudo, Akira Yoshinari, Shiho Takeuchi, Soichi Kojima, Tomoyuki Yamaya, Toshihiko Hayakawa
Ammonium influx into plant roots via the high-affinity transport system (HATS) is down-modulated under elevated external ammonium, preventing ammonium toxicity. In ammonium-fed Arabidopsis, ammonium transporter 1 (AMT1) trimers responsible for HATS activity are allosterically inactivated in a dose-dependent manner via phosphorylation of the conserved threonine at the carboxyl-tail by the calcineurin B-like protein 1-calcineurin B-like protein-interacting protein kinase 23 complex and other yet unidentified protein kinases...
January 21, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Tewarit Soongrung, Karntichar Mongkorntanyatipa, Termsri Peepim, Arun Buaklin, Maxime Le Mignon, Nat Malainual, Emmanuel Nony, Alain Jacquet
BACKGROUND: Although the house dust mite species Blomia tropicalis is a leading cause of allergic diseases in tropical and subtropical regions, the identification and characterization of the allergenic proteins remains incomplete. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to characterize a recombinant form of Blo t 7 (rBlo t 7) in terms of IgE reactivity, lipid binding activity and ability to stimulate innate immunity. METHODS: The mature Blo t 7 cDNA was cloned by PCR methods for the expression of a secreted form of the allergen in P...
January 22, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jeffrey L Blackburn, Andrew J Ferguson, Chungyeon Cho, Jaime C Grunlan
Conversion of waste heat to voltage has the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of a number of critical energy sectors, such as the transportation and electricity-generation sectors, and manufacturing processes. Thermal energy is also an abundant low-flux source that can be harnessed to power portable/wearable electronic devices and critical components in remote off-grid locations. As such, a number of different inorganic and organic materials are being explored for their potential in thermoelectric-energy-harvesting devices...
January 22, 2018: Advanced Materials
Hakam Alkhateeb, Mohammed Al-Duais, Esam Qnais
Oleuropein, the main constituents of leaves and fruits of the olive tree, has been demonstrated to exert various therapeutic and pharmacological properties including antidiabetic effect. However, the effectiveness of oleuropein on glucose homeostasis in intact rat skeletal muscle ex vivo has never been explored. Therefore, our current study was carried out to investigate and confirm the beneficial effect of oleuropein (1.5 mM) on glucose uptake and on parameters relevant to the normal homeostatic mechanisms of glucose regulation in rat skeletal muscle...
January 22, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Eltjona Rrapaj, Elena Trisolini, Luca Bertero, Michela Salvo, Rossella Indellicato, Silvano Andorno, Jose Manuel Garcia-Manteiga, Ottavio Rena, Renzo Luciano Boldorini
AIMS: High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a chromatin structural protein, ubiquitously expressed in the nuclei of mammalian cells. When transported extracellularly, it acts as tumor suppressor and oncogenic protein. In malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM), high serum levels of High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) have been related to a poor prognosis. Conversely the significance of HMGB1 expression in malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tissues is still unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: Biopsy samples from 170 patients with MPM were assessed by immunohistochemistry and Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) to evaluate HMGB1 protein and gene expression...
January 21, 2018: Histopathology
Yan He, Gang Ouyang
The theoretical analysis of the effect of interface confinement on the enhancement of carrier mobility in Si nanowires (SiNWs) is one of the critical aspects in the design and development of high efficiency Si-based optoelectronic devices. Herein, we propose an analytical method for SiNWs under different interface confinements in terms of the atomic-bond-relaxation correlation mechanism and continuum medium mechanics. Moreover, an analytical expression for the relationship between carrier mobility and bond identities is derived and the results are validated with the related experimental measurements...
January 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ye Yuan, Mao Wang, C Xu, René Hübner, Roman Boettger, Rafal Jakiela, Manfred Helm, Maciej Sawicki, Shengqiang Zhou
In the present work, low compensated insulating (Ga,Mn)As with 0.66% Mn is obtained by ion implantation combined with pulsed laser melting. The sample shows variable-range hopping transport behavior with a Coulomb gap in the vicinity of the Fermi energy, and the activation energy is reduced by an external magnetic field through suppression of scattering between holes and randomly orientated ferromagnetic grains. A blocking super-paramagnetism is observed rather than ferromagnetism. Below the blocking temperature, the sample exhibits a colossal negative magnetoresistance...
January 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Ewa Kulczykowska, Hanna Kalamarz-Kubiak, Magdalena Gozdowska, Ewa Sokołowska
The stress hormone cortisol, together with antioxidants, melatonin (Mel) and its biologically active metabolites, 5-methoxykynuramines, including AFMK, set up a local stress response system in mammalian skin. Our in vitro study of the European flounder (Platichthys flesus) was designed to examine whether Mel and AFMK would respond to cortisol while a glucocorticoid is added to the incubation medium. The concentrations of cortisol in the incubation medium mimic plasma cortisol levels seen in fish exposed to different types of stresses such as handling, confinement, high density, food-deprivation or air-exposure...
January 16, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Cristina G Azevedo, Isabel Correia, Margarida M C Dos Santos, Marino F A Santos, Teresa Santos-Silva, James Doutch, Luz Fernandes, Hugo M Santos, José L Capelo, João Costa Pessoa
Previous studies generally agree that in the blood serum vanadium is transported mainly by human serum transferrin (hTF). In this work through the combined use of electrochemical techniques, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data it is confirmed that both VIV and VV bind to apo-hTF and holo-hTF. The electrochemical behavior of solutions containing vanadate(V) solutions at pH=7.0, analyzed by using two different voltammetric techniques, with different time windows, at a mercury electrode, Differential Pulse Polarography (DPP) and Cyclic Voltammetry (CV), is consistent with a stepwise reduction of VV→VIV and VIV→VII...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Abir U Igamberdiev, Natalia V Bykova
Organic acids play a crucial role in numerous metabolic processes accompanied by transfer of electrons and protons and linked to the reduction/oxidation of major redox couples in plant cells, such as NAD, NADP, glutathione, and ascorbate. Fluxes though the pathways metabolizing organic acids modulate redox states in cell compartments, contribute to generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and mediate signal transduction processes. Organic acid metabolism not only functions to equilibrate the redox potential in plant cells but also functions to transfer redox equivalents between cell compartments supporting various metabolic processes...
January 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Jacob T Andring, Carrie L Lomelino, Chingkuang Tu, David N Silverman, Robert McKenna, Erik R Swenson
Carbonic anhydrase II (CA II) is a zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of water and CO2 to bicarbonate and a proton. CA II is abundant in most cells, and plays a role in numerous processes including gas exchange, epithelial ion transport, respiration, extra- and intracellular pH control, and vascular regulation. Beyond these CO2 and pH-linked roles, it has been postulated that CA II might also reduce nitrite (NO2-) to nitric oxide (NO), as bicarbonate and NO2- both exhibit sp2 molecular geometry and NO also plays an important role in vasodilation and regulation of blood pressure...
January 16, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
G M Chiocchetti, D Vélez, V Devesa
Inorganic arsenic (As), the most toxic form of As found in water and food, is considered a human carcinogen. Numerous studies show its systemic toxicity, describing pathologies associated with chronic exposure. The main pathway of exposure to inorganic As is oral, but many of the events that occur during its passage through the gastrointestinal tract are unknown. This study evaluates the effect of subchronic exposure to inorganic As [As(III): 0.025-0.1 mg/L; As(V): 0.25-1 mg/L, up to 21 days] on the intestinal epithelium, using Caco-2 cells as in vitro model...
January 17, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Zhengfu Yang, Yingxin Zhang, Lianping Sun, Peipei Zhang, Ling Liu, Ping Yu, Dandan Xuan, Xiaojiao Xiang, Weixun Wu, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng
Anther cuticle and pollen exine are two elaborated lipid-soluble barriers protecting pollen grains from environmental and biological stresses. However, less is known about the mechanisms underlying the synthesis of these lipidic polymers. Here, we identified a no-pollen male-sterility mutant cyp703a3-3 from indica restorer line Zhonghui 8015 (Zh8015) mutant library treated with 60Coγ-ray radiation. Histological analysis indicated that cyp703a3-3 underwent abnormal tapetal cells development, produced few orbicules and secreted less sporopollenin precursors to anther locule, as well as cutin monomers on anther...
January 17, 2018: Gene
Gisel S Miszczuk, Ismael R Barosso, María Cecilia Larocca, Julieta Marrone, Raúl A Marinelli, Andrea C Boaglio, Enrique J Sánchez Pozzi, Marcelo G Roma, Fernando A Crocenzi
Impaired canalicular secretion due to increased endocytosis and intracellular retention of canalicular transporters such as BSEP and MRP2 is a main, common pathomechanism of cholestasis. Nevertheless, the mechanisms governing this process are unknown. We characterized this process in estradiol 17 β-d-glucuronide (E17G)-induced cholestasis, an experimental model which partially mimics pregnancy-induced cholestasis. Inhibition of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) with monodansylcadaverine (MDC) or K+ depletion, but not the caveolin-mediated endocytosis inhibitors filipin and genistein, prevented E17G-induced endocytosis of BSEP and MRP2, and the associated impairment of activity of these transporters in isolated rat hepatocyte couplets (IRHC)...
January 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
K Sriram, P Uma Maheswari, K M Meera Sheriffa Begum, G Arthanareeswaran, M Gover Antoniraj, K Ruckmani
The aim of the present investigation is the development, optimization and characterization of curcumin-loaded hybrid nanoparticles of vanillin-chitosan coated with super paramagnetic calcium ferrite. The functionally modified vanillin-chitosan was prepared by the Schiff base reaction to enhance the hydrophobic drug encapsulation efficiency. Calcium ferrite (CFNP) nano particles were added to the vanillin modified chitosan to improve the biocompatibility. The vanillin-chitosan-CFNP, hybrid nanoparticle carrier was obtained by ionic gelation method...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Weiwei Wang, Ning Song, Fengju Jia, Tingting Tang, Weiqi Bao, Chuantao Zuo, Junxia Xie, Hong Jiang
Alpha-synuclein plays a key role in the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease (PD). A robust transgenic mouse model has been generated that overexpresses the mutant human A53T alpha-synuclein under the mouse prion protein gene promoter; these mice develop age-dependent motor deficits. Recently, compared to wild-type (WT) littermates, A53T alpha-synuclein mice were reported to display non-motor symptom deficits, e.g., anxiety-like and depressive-like behaviors, odor discrimination and detection impairments, and gastrointestinal dysfunction, at 6 months of age or older...
January 16, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Yan-Rong Ma, Yan Zhou, Jing Huang, Hong-Yan Qin, Pei Wang, Xin-An Wu
The renal excretion of creatinine and most drugs are the net result of glomerular filtration and tubular secretion, and their tubular secretions are mediated by individual transporters. Thus, we hypothesized that the increase of serum creatinine (SCr) levels attributing to inhibiting tubular transporters but not glomerular filtration rate (GFR) could be used to evaluate the tubular excretion of drugs mediated by identical or partial overlap transporter with creatinine. In this work, we firstly developed the creatinine excretion inhibition model with normal GFR by competitively inhibiting tubular transporters, and investigated the renal excretion of metformin, ceftizoxime and ofloxacin in vivo and in vitro...
January 17, 2018: Life Sciences
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