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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151270/asct2-defined-by-enzyme-mediated-activation-of-radical-sources-enhances-malignancy-of-gd2-plus-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
Nobutoshi Esaki, Yuki Ohkawa, Noboru Hashimoto, Yuhsuke Tsuda, Yuhsuke Ohmi, Robiul H Bhuiyan, Norihiro Kotani, Koichi Honke, Atsushi Enomoto, Masahide Takahashi, Keiko Furukawa, Koichi Furukawa
Ganglioside GD2 is specifically expressed in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cells, leading to enhancement of malignant phenotypes, such as cell proliferation and migration. However, how GD2 promotes malignant phenotypes in SCLC cells is not well known. In this study, to reveal mechanisms by which GD2 increases malignant phenotypes in SCLC cells, we performed enzyme-mediated activation of radical sources combined with mass spectrometry in GD2 positive (+) SCLC cells. Consequently, we identified ASC amino-acid transporter 2 (ASCT2), a major glutamine transporter, which coordinately works with GD2...
November 19, 2017: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151204/afterglow-solid-state-nmr-spectroscopy
#2
Gili Abramov, Nathaniel J Traaseth
Biomolecular solid-state NMR experiments have traditionally been collected through detection of (13)C or (15)N nuclei. Since these nuclei have relatively low sensitivity stemming from their smaller gyromagnetic ratios relative to (1)H, the time required to collect multi-dimensional datasets serves as a limitation to resonance assignment and structure determination. One improvement in the field has been to employ simultaneous or parallel acquisition techniques with the goal of acquiring more than one dataset at a time and therefore speeding up the overall data collection process...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151184/analysis-of-an-optimal-public-transport-structure-under-a-carbon-emission-constraint-a-case-study-in-shanghai-china
#3
Linling Zhang, Ruyin Long, Hong Chen, Tong Yang
Along with the rapid development of the transportation industry, the problems of the energy crisis and transport emissions have become increasingly serious. The success of traffic emission reduction is related to the realization of global low-carbon goals. Placing priority on public transport is the internationally recognized traffic development model. This paper takes Shanghai, China, as an example to examine the optimal public transport structure. Five factors were selected from personal and public perspectives, including travel costs, crowding degree, occupied area, traffic emissions, and operating subsidies...
November 18, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151160/tolerance-improvement-of-corynebacterium-glutamicum-on-lignocellulose-derived-inhibitors-by-adaptive-evolution
#4
Xia Wang, Imrana Khushk, Yanqiu Xiao, Qiuqiang Gao, Jie Bao
Robustness of fermenting strains to lignocellulose derived inhibitors is critical for efficient biofuel and biochemical productions. In this study, the industrial fermenting strain Corynebacterium glutamicum S9114 was evolved for improved inhibitor tolerance using long-term adaptive evolution by continuously transferring into the inhibitors containing corn stover hydrolysate every 24 h, and finally a stably evolved C. glutamicum was obtained after 128 days of serial transfers. The evolved strain exhibited the highly increased conversion rate to the typical lignocellulose derived inhibitors including furfural, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, vanillin, syringaldehyde, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, and acetic acid...
November 18, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151137/blood-brain-barrier-transport-and-neuroprotective-potential-of-blackberry-digested-polyphenols-an-in-vitro-study
#5
Inês Figueira, Lucélia Tavares, Carolina Jardim, Inês Costa, Ana P Terrasso, Andreia F Almeida, Coen Govers, Jurriaan J Mes, Rui Gardner, Jörg D Becker, Gordon J McDougall, Derek Stewart, Augusto Filipe, Kwang S Kim, Dora Brites, Catarina Brito, M Alexandra Brito, Cláudia N Santos
PURPOSE: Epidemiological and intervention studies have attempted to link the health effects of a diet rich in fruits and vegetables with the consumption of polyphenols and their impact in neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have shown that polyphenols can cross the intestinal barrier and reach concentrations in the bloodstream able to exert effects in vivo. However, the effective uptake of polyphenols into the brain is still regarded with some reservations. Here we describe a combination of approaches to examine the putative transport of blackberry-digested polyphenols (BDP) across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and ultimate evaluation of their neuroprotective effects...
November 18, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151076/modulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-by-the-fatty-acid-amide-hydrolase-monoacylglycerol-and-diacylglycerol-lipase-inhibitors-as-an-attractive-target-for-secretory-diarrhoea-therapy
#6
A Wasilewski, A Misicka, M Sacharczuk, J Fichna
Secretory diarrhoea is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Our aim was to characterize the effect of inhibition of selected enzymes involved in the synthesis or degradation of endocannabinoids on electrolyte equilibrium in the mouse colonic tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PF-3845, JZL-184 and RHC-80267, as inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), monoacylglycerol (MAGL) and diacylglycerol lipase (DAGL), respectively on epithelial ion transport in isolated mouse colon stimulated by forskolin (FSK), veratridine (VER) and bethanechol (BET)...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151072/the-lactate-receptor-hcar1-gpr81-contributes-to-doxorubicin-chemoresistance-via-abcb1-transporter-up-regulation-in-human-cervical-cancer-hela-cells
#7
W Wagner, K D Kania, A Blauz, W M Ciszewski
The lactate receptor, also known as hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCAR1/GPR81), plays a vital role in cancer biology. Recently, HCAR1 was reported to enhance metastasis, cell growth, and survival of pancreatic, breast, and cervical cancer cells. This study showed, for the first time, the mechanism of HCAR1-mediated chemoresistance to doxorubicin through regulation of ABCB1 transporter. We observed the HCAR1 agonists L-lactate, D-lactate and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) induced up-regulation of ABCB1...
August 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150823/metabolic-dynamics-and-physiological-adaptation-of-panax-ginseng-during-development
#8
Yu-Jin Kim, Sung Chul Joo, Jianxin Shi, Chaoyang Hu, Sheng Quan, Jianping Hu, Johan Sukweenadhi, Padmanaban Mohanan, Deok-Chun Yang, Dabing Zhang
The dynamics of metabolites from leaves to roots of Panax ginseng during development has revealed the tissue-specific and year-specific metabolic networks. Being an essential Oriental medicinal plant, ginseng (Panax ginseng Meyer) is a slow-growing perennial herb-accumulating pharmaceutically active metabolites such as ginsenosides in roots during growth. However, little is known about how ginseng plants survive in the harsh environments such as winter cold and summer heat for a longer period and accumulates those active metabolites as the plant grows...
November 17, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150743/differential-response-of-neural-cells-to-trauma-induced-swelling-in-vitro
#9
A R Jayakumar, M Taherian, K S Panickar, N Shamaladevi, M E Rodriguez, B G Price, M D Norenberg
Brain edema and the associated increase in intracranial pressure are major consequences of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that accounts for most early deaths after TBI. We recently showed that acute severe trauma to cultured astrocytes results in cell swelling. We further examined whether trauma induces cell swelling in neurons and microglia. We found that severe trauma also caused cell swelling in cultured neurons, whereas no swelling was observed in microglia. While severe trauma caused cell swelling in both astrocytes and neurons, mild trauma to astrocytes, neurons, and microglia failed to cell swelling...
November 17, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150731/cellular-and-molecular-responses-of-adult-zebrafish-after-exposure-to-cuo-nanoparticles-or-ionic-copper
#10
Unai Vicario-Parés, Jose M Lacave, Paul Reip, Miren P Cajaraville, Amaia Orbea
Due to their antimicrobial, electrical and magnetic properties, copper nanoparticles (NPs) are suitable for a vast array of applications. Copper can be toxic to biota, making it necessary to assess the potential hazard of copper nanomaterials. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) were exposed to 10 µg Cu/L of CuO NPs of ≈100 nm (CuO-poly) or ionic copper to compare the effects provoked after 3 and 21 days of exposure and at 6 months post-exposure (mpe). At 21 days, significant copper accumulation was only detected in fish exposed to ionic copper...
November 17, 2017: Ecotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150662/turbulent-mass-transfer-caused-by-vortex-induced-reconnection-in-collisionless-magnetospheric-plasmas
#11
T K M Nakamura, H Hasegawa, W Daughton, S Eriksson, W Y Li, R Nakamura
Magnetic reconnection is believed to be the main driver to transport solar wind into the Earth's magnetosphere when the magnetopause features a large magnetic shear. However, even when the magnetic shear is too small for spontaneous reconnection, the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability driven by a super-Alfvénic velocity shear is expected to facilitate the transport. Although previous kinetic simulations have demonstrated that the non-linear vortex flows from the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability gives rise to vortex-induced reconnection and resulting plasma transport, the system sizes of these simulations were too small to allow the reconnection to evolve much beyond the electron scale as recently observed by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft...
November 17, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150645/axonemal-lumen-dominates-cytosolic-protein-diffusion-inside-the-primary-cilium
#12
Wangxi Luo, Andrew Ruba, Daisuke Takao, Ludovit P Zweifel, Roderick Y H Lim, Kristen J Verhey, Weidong Yang
Transport of membrane and cytosolic proteins in primary cilia is thought to depend on intraflagellar transport (IFT) and diffusion. However, the relative contribution and spatial routes of each transport mechanism are largely unknown. Although challenging to decipher, the details of these routes are essential for our understanding of protein transport in primary cilia, a critically affected process in many genetic diseases. By using a high-speed virtual 3D super-resolution microscopy, we have mapped the 3D spatial locations of transport routes for various cytosolic proteins in the 250-nm-wide shaft of live primary cilia with a spatiotemporal resolution of 2 ms and <16 nm...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150632/mucoadhesive-functionality-of-cell-wall-structures-from-fruits-and-grains-electrostatic-and-polymer-network-interactions-mediated-by-soluble-dietary-polysaccharides
#13
Oliver W Meldrum, Gleb E Yakubov, Ghanendra Gartaula, Michael A McGuckin, Michael J Gidley
We demonstrate the enhancement of intestinal mucin (Muc2) binding to plant cell wall structures from fruit (parenchymal apple tissue) and grain (wheat endosperm) mediated by soluble dietary fibers embedded within cellulose networks. Mucin binding occurs through two distinct mechanisms; for pectin polysaccharides characteristic of fruits and vegetables, it is governed by molecular mucoadhesive interactions, while for neutral polysaccharides, arabinoxylan and β-glucan characteristic of cereal grains, the interaction stems from the properties of their polymer network...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150592/the-influence-of-genetic-stability-on-aspergillus-fumigatus-virulence-and-azole-resistance
#14
Thaila Fernanda Dos Reis, Lilian Pereira Silva, Patrícia Alves de Castro, Pollyne Borborema Almeida de Lima, Rafaela Andrade do Carmo, Marjorie Mendes Marini, José Franco da Silveira, Beatriz Henriques Ferreira, Fernando Rodrigues, Iran Malavazi, Gustavo H Goldman
Genetic stability is extremely important for the survival of every living organism and a very complex set of genes have evolved to cope with DNA repair upon DNA damage. Here, we investigated the Aspergillus fumigatus AtmA (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated) and AtrA kinases and how they impact virulence and the evolution of azole resistance. We demonstrated that A. fumigatus atmA and atrA null mutants are haploid and have a discrete chromosomal polymorphism. The ΔatmA and ΔatrA strains are sensitive to several DNA damaging agents but surprisingly both strains were more resistant than the wild-type strain to paraquat, menadione, and hydrogen peroxide...
November 17, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150559/a-program-for-iron-economy-during-deficiency-targets-specific-fe-proteins
#15
Laura J Hantzis, Gretchen E Kroh, Courtney E Jahn, Michael Cantrell, Graham Peers, Marinus Pilon, Karl Ravet
Iron (Fe) is an essential element for plants, utilized in nearly every cellular process. Because the adjustment of uptake under Fe limitation cannot satisfy all demands, plants need to acclimate their physiology and biochemistry, especially in their chloroplasts, which have a high demand for Fe. To investigate if a program exists for the utilization of Fe under deficiency, we analyzed how hydroponically grown Arabidopsis thaliana adjusts its physiology and Fe protein composition in vegetative photosynthetic tissue, during Fe deficiency...
November 17, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150511/sulfolobus-acidocaldarius-uptakes-pentoses-via-a-cut2-type-abc-transporter-and-metabolizes-them-through-the-aldolase-independent-weimberg-pathway
#16
Michaela Wagner, Lu Shen, Andreas Albersmeier, Nienke van der Kolk, Sujin Kim, Jaeho Cha, Christopher Bräsen, Jörn Kalinowski, Bettina Siebers, Sonja-Verena Albers
Sulfolobus spp. possess a great metabolic versatility and grow heterotrophically on various carbon sources such as different sugars and peptides. Known sugar transporters in Archaea predominantly belong to ABC transport systems. Although several ABC transporters for sugar uptake have been characterized in the crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus, only one homologue of these transporters, the maltose/maltooligomer transporter, could be identified in the closely related Sulfolobus acidocaldarius Comparison of the transcriptome of S...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150499/understanding-functional-roles-of-native-pentose-specific-transporters-for-activating-dormant-pentose-metabolism-in-yarrowia-lipolytica
#17
Seunghyun Ryu, Cong T Trinh
Pentoses including xylose and arabinose are the second-most prevalent sugars of lignocellulosic biomass that can be harnessed for biological conversion. Although Yarrowia lipolytica has emerged as a promising industrial microorganism for production of high-value chemicals and biofuels, its native pentose metabolism is poorly understood. Our previous study demonstrated that Y. lipolytica (ATCC MYA-2613) has endogenous enzymes for D-xylose assimilation, but inefficient xylitol dehydrogenase causes Y. lipolytica to assimilate xylose poorly...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150487/dynamin-inhibitors-block-mtorc1-activation-by-amino-acids-independently-of-dynamin
#18
Persaud Avinash, Cormerais Yann, Pouyssegur Jacques, Rotin Daniela
mTORC1 plays a critical role in protein synthesis and cell proliferation and growth. It is activated by growth factors and amino acids, including essential amino acid (EAA), such as Leu; Leu enters cells via the Leu transporter LAT1-4F2hc and potentially via endocytosis. Here we investigated the contribution of the different routes of Leu entry into cells to mTORC1 activation using pharmacological inhibitors and cells that lack LAT1 or dynamin1/2/3. Our results show that LAT1 is the major route of Leu entry into cells and mTORC1 activation (∼70%), while dynamin-dependent endocytosis and macropinocytosis contribute minimally to both (5-15%)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150447/the-prototypical-proton-coupled-oligopeptide-transporter-ydgr-from-escherichia-coli-facilitates-chloramphenicol-uptake-into-bacterial-cells
#19
Bala K Prabhala, Nanda G Aduri, Neha Sharma, Aqsa Shaheen, Arpan Sharma, Mazhar Iqbal, Paul R Hansen, Christoffer Brasen, Michael Gajhede, Moazur Rahman, Osman Mirza
Chloramphenicol (Cam) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used to combat bacterial infections in humans and animals. Cam export from bacterial cells is one of the mechanisms by which pathogens resist Cam's antibacterial effects, and several different proteins are known to facilitate this process. However, to date no report exists on any specific transport protein that facilitates Cam uptake. The proton-coupled oligopeptide transporter (POT) YdgR from Escherichia coli is a prototypical member of the POT family, functioning in proton-coupled uptake of di- and tripeptides...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150412/clinical-benefits-of-using-inulin-clearance-and-cystatin-c-for-determining-glomerular-filtration-rate-in-hiv-1-infected-individuals-treated-with-dolutegravir
#20
Satomi Yukawa, Dai Watanabe, Tomoko Uehira, Takuma Shirasaka
INTRODUCTION: Dolutegravir may inhibit creatinine transporters in renal tubules and elevate serum creatinine levels. We investigated the usefulness of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured using inulin clearance (Cin), creatinine clearance (Ccr), and estimated GFR based on both serum creatinine (eGFRcre) and serum cystatin C (eGFRcys). PATIENTS & METHODS: HIV-1-infected Japanese patients with suppressed viremia and whose antiretroviral drug was switched to dolutegravir from other drugs were included (n = 108, Study 1)...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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