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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647919/role-of-sglt2-inhibitors-in-patients-with-diabetes-mellitus-and-heart-failure
#1
REVIEW
Frederik H Verbrugge
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review aims to summarize the evidence on cardiovascular risks and benefits of glucose-lowering drugs in diabetic patients, with a particular focus on the role of sodium-glucose transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitors and their promising potential as a heart failure treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: The SGLT-2 inhibitor empagliflozin has emerged as the first glucose-lowering drug to lower cardiovascular mortality in diabetes with an unprecedented 38% relative risk reduction...
June 24, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647877/volatile-organic-compounds-vocs-during-non-haze-and-haze-days-in-shanghai-characterization-and-secondary-organic-aerosol-soa-formation
#2
Deming Han, Zhen Wang, Jinping Cheng, Qian Wang, Xiaojia Chen, Heling Wang
To better understand the characterization and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during non-haze and haze days, ambient VOCs were continuously measured by a vehicle-mounted online thermal desorption system coupled with a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (TD-GC/MS) system in Shanghai, China. The average concentrations of VOCs in haze episodes (193.2 μg m(-3)) were almost 50% higher than in non-haze periods (130.8 μg m(-3)). VOC concentrations exhibited a bi-modal pattern in the morning and evening rush hour periods on both non-haze and haze days...
June 24, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647672/therapeutic-targeting-of-nuclear-export-inhibition-in-lung-cancer
#3
Arjun Gupta, Jessica M Saltarski, Michael A White, Pier P Scaglioni, David E Gerber
Intracellular compartmentalization and trafficking of molecules plays a critical role in complex and essential cellular processes. In lung cancer and other malignancies, aberrant nucleocytoplasmic transport of tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators results in tumorigenesis and inactivation of apoptosis. Pharmacologic targeting of this process, termed selective inhibition of nuclear export (SINE), has demonstrated anti-tumor efficacy in preclinical models and human clinical trials. Exportin-1 (XPO1)-which serves as the sole exporter of several tumor suppressor proteins and cell cycle regulators, including retinoblastoma (Rb), adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), p53, p73, p21, p27, FOXO, STAT3, IKB, topoisomerase II and PAR-4-is the principal focus of SINE drug development...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647533/transport-properties-and-regulatory-roles-of-nitrogen-in-arbuscular-mycorrhizal-symbiosis
#4
REVIEW
Aiqun Chen, Mian Gu, Shuangshuang Wang, Jiadong Chen, Guohua Xu
Many terrestrial plants can form root symbiosis with beneficial microorganisms for enhancing uptake of mineral nutrients or increasing fitness to adverse environmental challenges. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis that is formed by AM fungi and the roots of vascular flowering plants is the most widespread mutualistic associations in nature. As a typical endosymbiosis, AM interactions involves the differentiation of both symbionts to create novel symbiotic interfaces within the root cells, and requires a continuous nutrient exchange between the two partners...
June 21, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647496/a-comprehensive-complex-systems-approach-to-the-study-and-analysis-of-mammalian-cell-cycle-control-system-in-the-presence-of-dna-damage-stress
#5
Ali Abroudi, Sandhya Samarasinghe, Don Kulasiri
Not many models of mammalian cell cycle system exist due to its complexity. Some models are too complex and hard to understand, while some others are too simple and not comprehensive enough. Moreover, some essential aspects, such as the response of G1-S and G2-M checkpoints to DNA damage as well as the growth factor signalling, have not been investigated from a systems point of view in current mammalian cell cycle models. To address these issues, we bring a holistic perspective to cell cycle by mathematically modelling it as a complex system consisting of important sub-systems that interact with each other...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647486/geographically-weighted-negative-binomial-regression-applied-to-zonal-level-safety-performance-models
#6
Marcos José Timbó Lima Gomes, Flávio Cunto, Alan Ricardo Silva
Generalized Linear Models (GLM) with negative binomial distribution for errors, have been widely used to estimate safety at the level of transportation planning. The limited ability of this technique to take spatial effects into account can be overcome through the use of local models from spatial regression techniques, such as Geographically Weighted Poisson Regression (GWPR). Although GWPR is a system that deals with spatial dependency and heterogeneity and has already been used in some road safety studies at the planning level, it fails to account for the possible overdispersion that can be found in the observations on road-traffic crashes...
June 22, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647385/hunger-and-disinhibition-but-not-cognitive-restraint-are-associated-with-central-norepinephrine-transporter-availability
#7
A Bresch, M Rullmann, J Luthardt, G A Becker, M Patt, Y-S Ding, A Hilbert, O Sabri, S Hesse
The relationship between food-intake related behaviours measured by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and in vivo norepinephrine transporter (NET) availability has not been explored yet. We investigated ten obese individuals (body mass index (BMI) 42.4 ± 3.7 kg/m(2)) and ten normal-weight healthy controls (HC, BMI 23.9 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)) with (S,S)-[(11)C]-O-methylreboxetine ([(11)C]MRB) positron emission tomography (PET). All participants completed the TFEQ, which measures cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger...
June 21, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647258/influence-of-haze-pollution-on-water-soluble-chemical-species-in-pm2-5-and-size-resolved-particles-at-an-urban-site-during-fall
#8
Geun-Hye Yu, Yan Zhang, Sung-Yong Cho, Seungshik Park
To investigate the influence of haze on the chemical composition and formation processes of ambient aerosol particles, PM2.5 and size-segregated aerosol particles were collected daily during fall at an urban site of Gwangju, Korea. During the study period, the total concentration of secondary ionic species (SIS) contributed an average of 43.9% to the PM2.5, whereas the contribution of SIS to the PM2.5 during the haze period was 62.3%. The NO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in PM2.5 during the haze period were highly elevated, being 13...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647247/spatial-variability-and-possible-sources-of-acetate-and-formate-in-the-surface-snow-of-east-antarctica
#9
Gautami Samui, Runa Antony, Kanthanathan Mahalinganathan, Meloth Thamban
Spatial trends of acetate (Ac(-)) and formate (Fo(-)) were determined in surface snow samples along a coastal-inland transect (180km) in the ice cap region at Princess Elizabeth Land and along a coastal transect in the Amery Ice Shelf (130km), East Antarctica. Variations in both Ac(-) and Fo(-) seem to be unrelated to the acidity of snow. Ionic balance determined for the snow samples indicate the availability of HNO3 that could undergo photolysis to produce hydroxyl radical (OH), one of the major reactants involved in oxidation reactions with organic matter...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647245/transport-and-humification-of-dissolved-organic-matter-within-a-semi-arid-floodplain
#10
Wenming Dong, Jiamin Wan, Tetsu K Tokunaga, Benjamin Gilbert, Kenneth H Williams
In order to understand the transport and humification processes of dissolved organic matter (DOM) within sediments of a semi-arid floodplain at Rifle, Colorado, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy, humification index (HIX) and specific UV absorbance (SUVA) at 254nm were applied for characterizing depth and seasonal variations of DOM composition. Results revealed that late spring snowmelt leached relatively fresh DOM from plant residue and soil organic matter down into the deeper vadose zone (VZ)...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647238/adsorption-desorption-behavior-of-atrazine-on-agricultural-soils-in-china
#11
Lin Yue, ChengJun Ge, Dan Feng, Huamei Yu, Hui Deng, Bomin Fu
Adsorption and desorption are important processes that affect atrazine transport, transformation, and bioavailability in soils. In this study, the adsorption-desorption characteristics of atrazine in three soils (laterite, paddy soil and alluvial soil) were evaluated using the batch equilibrium method. The results showed that the kinetics of atrazine in soils was completed in two steps: a "fast" adsorption and a "slow" adsorption and could be well described by pseudo-second-order model. In addition, the adsorption equilibrium isotherms were nonlinear and were well fitted by Freundlich and Langmuir models...
July 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647226/inhalation-of-nanoplatelets-theoretical-deposition-simulations
#12
Robert Sturm
Primary objective of the contribution was the theoretical prediction of nanoplatelet deposition in the human respiratory tract. Modeling was founded on the hypothetical inhalation of graphene nanoplatelets (GNP) measuring 0.01 and 0.1μm in thickness and adopting a projected area diameter of 1-30μm. Particle uptake was assumed to take place with inhalation flow rates of 250, 500, 750, and 1000cm(3)s(-1), respectively. For an appropriate description of pulmonary particle behavior, transport of GNP in a stochastic lung structure and deposition formulae based on analytical and numerical studies were presupposed...
June 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647125/isogenic-mutations-in-the-moraxella-catarrhalis-cyddc-system-display-pleiotropic-phenotypes-and-reveal-the-role-of-a-palindrome-sequence-in-its-transcriptional-regulation
#13
Yosra I Nagy, Manal M M Hussein, Yasser M Ragab, Ahmed S Attia
Moraxella catarrhalis is becoming an important human respiratory tract pathogen affecting significant proportions from the population. However, still little is known about its physiology and molecular regulation. To this end, the CydDC, which is a heterodimeric ATP binding cassette transporter that has been shown to contribute to the maintenance of the redox homeostasis across the periplasm in other Gram-negative bacteria, is studied here. Amino acids multiple sequence alignments indicated that M. catarrhalis CydC is different from the CydC proteins of the bacterial species in which this system has been previously studied...
September 2017: Microbiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647061/vesicle-fusion-mediated-by-solanesol-anchored-dna
#14
Kristina M Flavier, Steven G Boxer
Fusion between two lipid bilayers is one of the central processes in cell biology, playing a key role in endocytosis, exocytosis, and vesicle transport. We have previously developed a model system that uses the hybridization of complementary DNA strands to model the formation of the SNARE four-helix bundle that mediates synaptic vesicle fusion and used it to study vesicle fusion to a tethered lipid bilayer. Using single vesicle assays, 70% of observed fusion events in the DNA-lipid system are arrested at the hemifusion stage, whereas only 5% eventually go to full fusion...
June 21, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647012/striatal-activation-predicts-differential-therapeutic-responses-to-methylphenidate-and-atomoxetine
#15
Kurt P Schulz, Anne-Claude V Bédard, Jin Fan, Thomas B Hildebrandt, Mark A Stein, Iliyan Ivanov, Jeffrey M Halperin, Jeffrey H Newcorn
OBJECTIVE: Methylphenidate has prominent effects in the dopamine-rich striatum that are absent for the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor atomoxetine. This study tested whether baseline striatal activation would predict differential response to the two medications in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A total of 36 youth with ADHD performed a Go/No-Go test during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine using a randomized cross-over design...
July 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646879/discovery-of-a-single-male-aedes-aegypti-l-in-merseyside-england
#16
Thom Dallimore, Tony Hunter, Jolyon M Medlock, Alexander G C Vaux, Ralph E Harbach, Clare Strode
BACKGROUND: The mosquito Aedes aegypti (L.) is found in tropical and sub-tropical regions where it is the major vector of dengue fever, yellow fever, chikungunya and more recently Zika virus. Given its importance as a vector of arboviruses and its propensity to be transported to new regions, the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) has placed Ae. aegypti on a list of potentially invasive mosquito species. It was previously reported in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1865 and 1919 but did not establish on either occasion...
June 24, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646776/characterizing-the-pahs-in-surface-waters-and-snow-in-the-athabasca-region-implications-for-identifying-hydrological-pathways-of-atmospheric-deposition
#17
S J Birks, S Cho, E Taylor, Y Yi, J J Gibson
The composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons present in snow and surface waters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) was characterized in order to identify major contributors to the organics detected in rivers and lakes in the region. PAH concentrations, measured by three monitoring programs in 2011, were used to compare the PAH compositions of snow and surface waters across the AOSR. The 2011 dataset includes total (dissolved+particulate) concentrations of thirty-four parent and alkylated PAH compounds in 105 snow, 272 river, and 3 lake samples...
June 21, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646749/mutually-facilitated-co-transport-of-two-different-viruses-through-reactive-porous-media
#18
Shuang Xu, Ramesh Attinti, Elizabeth Adams, Jie Wei, Kalmia Kniel, Jie Zhuang, Yan Jin
In this study, we quantified transport and retention behaviors of a human pathogenic virus (Adenovirus 41, abbreviated as Ad-41) and a model bacteriophage (ϕX174) through metal oxide-removed and goethite-coated sand under saturated flow conditions. Two sets of bench scale column experiments were conducted: transport of each type of viruses alone and co-transport of both viruses. All experiments were conducted at pH 7.5 using 2 mM artificial ground water (AGW) buffer as background solution. Experimental results revealed that goethite-coated sand (i...
June 18, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646720/nanoporous-gold-based-microbial-biosensor-for-direct-determination-of-sulfide
#19
Zhuang Liu, Hanyue Ma, Huihui Sun, Rui Gao, Honglei Liu, Xia Wang, Ping Xu, Luying Xun
Environmental pollution caused by sulfide compounds has become a major problem for public health. Hence, there is an urgent need to explore a sensitive, selective, and simple sulfide detection method for environmental monitoring and protection. Here, a novel microbial biosensor was developed using recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 (E. coli BL21) expressing sulfide:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) for sulfide detection. As an important enzyme involved in the initial step of sulfide metabolism, SQR oxidizes sulfides to polysulfides and transfers electrons to the electron transport chain...
June 20, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646717/comprehending-the-multiple-values-of-green-infrastructure-valuing-nature-based-solutions-for-urban-water-management-from-multiple-perspectives
#20
T C Wild, J Henneberry, L Gill
The valuation of urban water management practices and associated nature-based solutions (NBS) is highly contested, and is becoming increasingly important to cities seeking to increase their resilience to climate change whilst at the same time facing budgetary pressures. Different conceptions of 'values' exist, each being accompanied by a set of potential measures ranging from calculative practices (closely linked to established market valuation techniques) - through to holistic assessments that seek to address wider concerns of sustainability...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Research
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