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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936405/identification-of-lipopolysaccharide-interacting-plasma-membrane-type-proteins-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#1
Cornelius S Vilakazi, Ian A Dubery, Lizelle A Piater
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an amphiphatic bacterial glycoconjugate found on the external membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. This endotoxin is considered as a microbe-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) molecule and has been shown to elicit defense responses in plants. Here, LPS-interacting proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana plasma membrane (PM)-type fractions were captured and identified in order to investigate those involved in LPS perception and linked to triggering of innate immune responses. A novel proteomics-based affinity-capture strategy coupled to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed for the enrichment and identification of LPS-interacting proteins...
November 30, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936325/effect-of-heteroatom-substitution-on-transport-in-alkane-dithiol-based-molecular-tunnel-junctions-evidence-for-universal-behavior
#2
Zuoti Xie, Ioan Baldea, Stuart Oram, Christopher E Smith, C Daniel Frisbie
The transport properties of molecular junctions based on alkane dithiols with three different methylene chain lengths were compared with junctions based on similar chains wherein every third -CH2- was replaced with O or S, i.e., following the general formula: HS(CH2CH2X)nCH2CH2SH, where X = CH2, O or S, and n = 1, 2, or 3. Conducting probe atomic force microscopy (CP-AFM) revealed that the low bias resistance of the chains increased upon substitution in the order CH2 < O < S. This change in resistance is ascribed to the observed identical trend in contact resistance, R_c, whereas the exponential prefactor β (length sensitivity) was essentially the same for all chains...
December 9, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936306/hybrid-polymer-garnet-electrolyte-with-a-small-interfacial-resistance-for-lithium-ion-batteries
#3
Yutao Li, Biyi Xu, Henghui Xu, Huanan Duan, Xujie Lü, Sen Xin, Weidong Zhou, Leigang Xue, Gengtao Fu, Arumugam Manthiram, John B Goodenough
Li7 La3 Zr2 O12 -based Li-rich garnets react with water and carbon dioxide in air to form a Li-ion insulating Li2 CO3 layer on the surface of the garnet particles, which results in a large interfacial resistance for Li-ion transfer. Here, we introduce LiF to garnet Li6.5 La3 Zr1.5 Ta0.5 O12 (LLZT) to increase the stability of the garnet electrolyte against moist air; the garnet LLZT-2 wt % LiF (LLZT-2LiF) has less Li2 CO3 on the surface and shows a small interfacial resistance with Li metal, a solid polymer electrolyte, and organic-liquid electrolytes...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936305/confinement-alters-the-structure-and-function-of-calmodulin
#4
Guohua Xu, Kai Cheng, Qiong Wu, Maili Liu, Conggang Li
Many cellular reactions involving proteins, including their biosynthesis, misfolding, and transport, occur in confined compartments. Despite its importance, a structural basis of understanding of how confined environments alter protein function is still lacking. Herein, we explore structure-function correlations of calmodulin (CaM), a multidomain protein involved in many calcium-mediated signaling pathways, in reverse micelles. Confinement dramatically alters CaM structure and function. The protein forms an extended structure in bulk water, but becomes compacted in reverse micelles...
December 9, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936281/interindividual-and-interethnic-variability-in-drug-disposition-mt%C3%A2-%C3%A2-polymorphisms-in-organic-anion-transporting-polypeptide-1b1-oatp1b1-slco1b1
#5
REVIEW
Hannah H Lee, Richard H Ho
OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) is predominantly expressed at the basolateral membrane of hepatocytes and is critically important for the hepatic uptake and clearance of numerous drug substrates and endogenous compounds. In general, the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP; SLCO) represent a superfamily of uptake transporters that mediate the sodium-independent transport of a diverse range of amphipathic organic compounds including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, anionic peptides, numerous drugs and other xenobiotic substances...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936248/light-mediated-generation-of-silver-nanoparticles-by-spinach-thylakoids-chloroplasts
#6
Nisha Shabnam, P Sharmila, Hyunook Kim, P Pardha-Saradhi
The unique potential of chloroplasts/thylakoids to harness light energy to transport electrons from H2O to various entities was exploited for reduction of Ag+ to generate nanoparticles (NPs). Spinach thylakoids/chloroplasts turned AgNO3 solutions brown in light, but not in dark. Besides showing Ag-NPs specific surface plasmon resonance band, these brown solutions showed presence of 5-30 nm crystalline NPs composed of Ag. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis revealed that Ag-NPs were biphasic composed of face-centered cubic Ag0 and cubic Ag2O...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936244/gene-expression-and-silencing-studies-in-phytophthora-infestans-reveal-infection-specific-nutrient-transporters-and-a-role-for-the-nitrate-reductase-pathway-in-plant-pathogenesis
#7
Melania Abrahamian, Audrey M V Ah-Fong, Carol Davis, Kalina Andreeva, Howard S Judelson
To help learn how phytopathogens feed from their hosts, genes for nutrient transporters from the hemibiotrophic potato and tomato pest Phytophthora infestans were annotated. This identified 453 genes from 19 families. Comparisons with a necrotrophic oomycete, Pythium ultimum, and a hemibiotrophic fungus, Magnaporthe oryzae, revealed diversity in the size of some families although a similar fraction of genes encoded transporters. RNA-seq of infected potato tubers, tomato leaves, and several artificial media revealed that 56 and 207 transporters from P...
December 9, 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936201/sterol-o-acyltransferase-2-contributes-to-the-yolk-cholesterol-trafficking-during-zebrafish-embryogenesis
#8
Nai-Yun Chang, Yen-Ju Chan, Shih-Torng Ding, Yen-Hua Lee, Wei-Chun HuangFu, I-Hsuan Liu
To elucidate whether Sterol O-acyltransferase (Soat) mediates the absorption and transportation of yolk lipids to the developing embryo, zebrafish soat1 and soat2 were cloned and studied. In the adult zebrafish, soat1 was detected ubiquitously while soat2 mRNA was detected specifically in the liver, intestine, brain and testis. Whole mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that both soat1 and soat2 expressed in the yolk syncytial layer, hatching gland and developing cardiovascular as well as digestive systems, suggesting that Soats may play important roles in the lipid trafficking and utilization during embryonic development...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936192/insecticidal-activity-of-melaleuca-alternifolia-essential-oil-and-rna-seq-analysis-of-sitophilus-zeamais-transcriptome-in-response-to-oil-fumigation
#9
Min Liao, Jin-Jing Xiao, Li-Jun Zhou, Yang Liu, Xiang-Wei Wu, Ri-Mao Hua, Gui-Rong Wang, Hai-Qun Cao
BACKGROUND: The cereal weevil, Sitophilus zeamais is one of the most destructive pests of stored cereals worldwide. Frequent use of fumigants for managing stored-product insects has led to the development of resistance in insects. Essential oils from aromatic plants including the tea oil plant, Melaleuca alternifolia may provide environmentally friendly alternatives to currently used pest control agents. However, little is known about molecular events involved in stored-product insects in response to plant essential oil fumigation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936152/variety-of-antimicrobial-resistances-and-virulence-factors-in-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-meat-products-legally-and-illegally-introduced-to-germany
#10
Anja Müller, Diana Seinige, Wiebke Jansen, Günter Klein, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan Monecke, Corinna Kehrenberg
Food products of animal origin can serve as a vehicle for Staphylococcus (S.) aureus, a facultative pathogen involved in a variety of diseases. As a result, international trade and illegal transportation of foodstuffs can facilitate the distribution of S. aureus over long distances. In this study, we investigated S. aureus isolates recovered from meat products confiscated from passengers returning from non-EU countries at two German airports and from samples of legally imported meats from non-EU countries. The aim was to characterize isolates in regard to their genetic relatedness as well as their antimicrobial resistance profiles and major virulence factors in order to assess potential risks associated with these products...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936151/osmoregulated-chloride-currents-in-hemocytes-from-mytilus-galloprovincialis
#11
Monica Bregante, Armando Carpaneto, Veronica Piazza, Francesca Sbrana, Massimo Vassalli, Marco Faimali, Franco Gambale
We investigated the biophysical properties of the transport mediated by ion channels in hemocytes from the hemolymph of the bivalve Mytilus galloprovincialis. Besides other transporters, mytilus hemocytes possess a specialized channel sensitive to the osmotic pressure with functional properties similar to those of other transport proteins present in vertebrates. As chloride fluxes may play an important role in the regulation of cell volume in case of modifications of the ionic composition of the external medium, we focused our attention on an inwardly-rectifying voltage-dependent, chloride-selective channel activated by negative membrane potentials and potentiated by the low osmolality of the external solution...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936138/diffusion-based-design-of-multi-layered-ophthalmic-lenses-for-controlled-drug-release
#12
Andreia F R Pimenta, Ana Paula Serro, Patrizia Paradiso, Benilde Saramago, Rogério Colaço
The study of ocular drug delivery systems has been one of the most covered topics in drug delivery research. One potential drug carrier solution is the use of materials that are already commercially available in ophthalmic lenses for the correction of refractive errors. In this study, we present a diffusion-based mathematical model in which the parameters can be adjusted based on experimental results obtained under controlled conditions. The model allows for the design of multi-layered therapeutic ophthalmic lenses for controlled drug delivery...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936133/polyglycine-acts-as-a-rejection-signal-for-protein-transport-at-the-chloroplast-envelope
#13
Joshua K Endow, Agostinho Gomes Rocha, Amy J Baldwin, Rebecca L Roston, Toshio Yamaguchi, Hironari Kamikubo, Kentaro Inoue
PolyGly is present in many proteins in various organisms. One example is found in a transmembrane β-barrel protein, translocon at the outer-envelope-membrane of chloroplasts 75 (Toc75). Toc75 requires its N-terminal extension (t75) for proper localization. t75 comprises signals for chloroplast import (n75) and envelope sorting (c75) in tandem. n75 and c75 are removed by stromal processing peptidase and plastidic type I signal peptidase 1, respectively. PolyGly is present within c75 and its deletion or substitution causes mistargeting of Toc75 to the stroma...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936087/detection-of-placental-proteomes-at-different-uterine-positions-in-large-white-and-meishan-gilts-on-gestational-day-90
#14
Long Che, Mengmeng Xu, Zhenguo Yang, Shengyu Xu, Lianqiang Che, Yan Lin, Zhengfeng Fang, Bin Feng, Jian Li, Daiwen Chen, De Wu
Within-litter uniformity in pigs is a major factor affecting piglet survival and growth performance. We know that Meishan (MS) gilts have higher piglet survival rate than Large White (LW) gilts because their foetal weight is less varied. To understand the molecular basis for placental nutritional transport during the late stages of gestation in LW and MS, we employed the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) method to investigate alterations in the placental proteomes of LW and MS gilts on gestational day 90...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936073/socio-demographic-social-cognitive-health-related-and-physical-environmental-variables-associated-with-context-specific-sitting-time-in-belgian-adolescents-a-one-year-follow-up-study
#15
Cedric Busschaert, Nicola D Ridgers, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Greet Cardon, Jelle Van Cauwenberg, Katrien De Cocker
INTRODUCTION: More knowledge is warranted about multilevel ecological variables associated with context-specific sitting time among adolescents. The present study explored cross-sectional and longitudinal associations of ecological domains of sedentary behaviour, including socio-demographic, social-cognitive, health-related and physical-environmental variables with sitting during TV viewing, computer use, electronic gaming and motorized transport among adolescents. METHODS: For this longitudinal study, a sample of Belgian adolescents completed questionnaires at school on context-specific sitting time and associated ecological variables...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936023/a-single-pair-of-serotonergic-neurons-counteracts-serotonergic-inhibition-of-ethanol-attraction-in-drosophila
#16
Li Xu, Jianzheng He, Andrea Kaiser, Nikolas Gräber, Laura Schläger, Yvonne Ritze, Henrike Scholz
Attraction to ethanol is common in both flies and humans, but the neuromodulatory mechanisms underlying this innate attraction are not well understood. Here, we dissect the function of the key regulator of serotonin signaling-the serotonin transporter-in innate olfactory attraction to ethanol in Drosophila melanogaster. We generated a mutated version of the serotonin transporter that prolongs serotonin signaling in the synaptic cleft and is targeted via the Gal4 system to different sets of serotonergic neurons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935997/endoplasmic-reticulum-targeted-subunit-toxins-provide-a-new-approach-to-rescue-misfolded-mutant-proteins-and-revert-cell-models-of-genetic-diseases
#17
Humaira Adnan, Zhenbo Zhang, Hyun-Joo Park, Chetankumar Tailor, Clare Che, Mustafa Kamani, George Spitalny, Beth Binnington, Clifford Lingwood
Many germ line diseases stem from a relatively minor disturbance in mutant protein endoplasmic reticulum (ER) 3D assembly. Chaperones are recruited which, on failure to correct folding, sort the mutant for retrotranslocation and cytosolic proteasomal degradation (ER-associated degradation-ERAD), to initiate/exacerbate deficiency-disease symptoms. Several bacterial (and plant) subunit toxins, retrograde transport to the ER after initial cell surface receptor binding/internalization. The A subunit has evolved to mimic a misfolded protein and hijack the ERAD membrane translocon (dislocon), to effect cytosolic access and cytopathology...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935984/a-biodegradable-polyethylenimine-based-vector-modified-by-trifunctional-peptide-r18-for-enhancing-gene-transfection-efficiency-in-vivo
#18
Jing Hu, Manman Zhu, Kehai Liu, Hua Fan, Wenfang Zhao, Yuan Mao, Yaguang Zhang
Lack of capacity to cross the nucleus membrane seems to be one of the main reasons for the lower transfection efficiency of gene vectors observed in vivo study than in vitro. To solve this problem, a new non-viral gene vector was designed. First, a degradable polyethylenimine (PEI) derivate was synthesized by crosslinking low-molecular-weight (LMW) PEI with N-octyl-N-quaternary chitosan (OTMCS), and then adopting a designed trifunctional peptide (RGDC-TAT-NLS) with good tumor targeting, cell uptake and nucleus transport capabilities to modify OTMCS-PEI...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935978/genome-wide-identification-phylogeny-and-expression-of-aquaporin-genes-in-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#19
Chuanju Dong, Lin Chen, Jingyan Feng, Jian Xu, Shahid Mahboob, Khalid Al-Ghanim, Xuejun Li, Peng Xu
BACKGROUND: Aquaporins (Aqps) are integral membrane proteins that facilitate the transport of water and small solutes across cell membranes. Among vertebrate species, Aqps are highly conserved in both gene structure and amino acid sequence. These proteins are vital for maintaining water homeostasis in living organisms, especially for aquatic animals such as teleost fish. Studies on teleost Aqps are mainly limited to several model species with diploid genomes. Common carp, which has a tetraploidized genome, is one of the most common aquaculture species being adapted to a wide range of aquatic environments...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935963/modeling-and-simulating-passenger-behavior-for-a-station-closure-in-a-rail-transit-network
#20
Haodong Yin, Baoming Han, Dewei Li, Jianjun Wu, Huijun Sun
A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network...
2016: PloS One
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