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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636669/exploring-factors-associated-with-art-adherence-and-retention-in-care-under-option-b-strategy-in-malawi-a-qualitative-study
#1
Salem Gugsa, Katy Potter, Hannock Tweya, Sam Phiri, Odala Sande, Pascal Sikwese, Janet Chikonda, Gabrielle O'Malley
Although several studies have documented challenges related to inadequate adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and high loss to follow-up (LTFU) among Option B+ women, there is limited understanding of why these challenges occur and how to address them. This qualitative study examines women's experiences with ART adherence and retention in care. Between July and October 2015, in-depth interviews were conducted with 39 pregnant and lactating women who initiated ART at Bwaila Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636311/insights-into-integrated-lead-generation-and-target-identification-in-malaria-and-tuberculosis-drug-discovery
#2
John Okombo, Kelly Chibale
New, safe and effective drugs are urgently needed to treat and control malaria and tuberculosis, which affect millions of people annually. However, financial return on investment in the poor settings where these diseases are mostly prevalent is very minimal to support market-driven drug discovery and development. Moreover, the imminent loss of therapeutic lifespan of existing therapies due to evolution and spread of drug resistance further compounds the urgency to identify novel effective drugs. However, the advent of new public-private partnerships focused on tropical diseases and the recent release of large data sets by pharmaceutical companies on antimalarial and antituberculosis compounds derived from phenotypic whole cell high throughput screening have spurred renewed interest and opened new frontiers in malaria and tuberculosis drug discovery...
June 21, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632475/generic-substitution-of-antiretrovirals-patients-and-health-care-providers-opinions
#3
Jennifer A Kieran, Eimear O'Reilly, Siobhan O'Dea, Colm Bergin, Aisling O'Leary
There is interest in introducing generic antiretroviral drugs (ARVs) into high-income countries in order to maximise efficiency in health care budgets. Studies examining patients' and providers' knowledge and attitudes to generic substitution in HIV are few. This was a cross-sectional, observational study with a convenience sample of adult HIV-infected patients and health care providers (HCPs). Data on demographics, knowledge of generic medicine and facilitators of generic substitution were collected. Descriptive and univariate analysis was performed using SPSS V...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629124/microbial-diseases-of-bivalve-mollusks-infections-immunology-and-antimicrobial-defense
#4
REVIEW
Carla Zannella, Francesco Mosca, Francesca Mariani, Gianluigi Franci, Veronica Folliero, Marilena Galdiero, Pietro Giorgio Tiscar, Massimiliano Galdiero
A variety of bivalve mollusks (phylum Mollusca, class Bivalvia) constitute a prominent commodity in fisheries and aquacultures, but are also crucial in order to preserve our ecosystem's complexity and function. Bivalve mollusks, such as clams, mussels, oysters and scallops, are relevant bred species, and their global farming maintains a high incremental annual growth rate, representing a considerable proportion of the overall fishery activities. Bivalve mollusks are filter feeders; therefore by filtering a great quantity of water, they may bioaccumulate in their tissues a high number of microorganisms that can be considered infectious for humans and higher vertebrates...
June 17, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627261/maternal-psychological-distress-and-perceived-impact-on-child-feeding-practices-in-south-kivu-dr-congo
#5
Jillian A Emerson, Wietse Tol, Laura E Caulfield, Shannon Doocy
BACKGROUND: Maternal mental health problems are associated with poor child growth and suboptimal child feeding practices, yet little qualitative research has been conducted to understand mothers' perceptions about how maternal mental ill health and child nutrition are related. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to understand maternal perceptions on sources of psychological distress, and how distress impacts functioning, especially related to childcare and feeding practices among mothers of young children in South Kivu, DR Congo...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626474/status-and-prospects-of-robotic-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer-our-experience-and-a-review-of-the-literature
#6
REVIEW
Sejin Lee, Taeil Son, Hyoung-Il Kim, Woo Jin Hyung
Since the first report of robotic gastrectomy, experienced laparoscopic surgeons have used surgical robots to treat gastric cancer and resolve problems associated with laparoscopic gastrectomy. However, compared with laparoscopic gastrectomy, the superiority of robotic procedures has not been clearly proven. There are several advantages to using robotic surgery for gastric cancer, such as reduced estimated blood loss during the operation, a shorter learning curve, and a larger number of examined lymph nodes than conventional laparoscopic gastrectomy...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625181/when-sterile-processing-goes-down-an-economic-analysis-of-alternative-strategies-for-supporting-the-service
#7
Susan E Mittenzwei, Jeannie L Topkoff, Mary T Bessesen, Clifford A Porter, Gurdev S Rai, Westyn Branch-Elliman
Given steam-quality challenges at our facility, the financial impact of options for reopening the sterile processing service unit were explored; duration of closure was the major driver of costs. Other potential negative effects of operating-room shutdowns include injury to facility reputation, loss of staff, loss of reimbursements, and harm to residency programs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-3.
June 19, 2017: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615809/role-of-customised-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-in-the-integration-of-split-thickness-skin-grafts-a-randomised-control-study
#8
Mir Mohsin, Haroon Rashid Zargar, Adil Hafeez Wani, Mohammad Inam Zaroo, Peerzada Umar Farooq Baba, Sheikh Adil Bashir, Altaf Rasool, Akram Hussain Bijli
BACKGROUND: Split-thickness skin grafting (STSG) is a time-tested technique in wound cover, but many factors lead to suboptimal graft take. Role of custom-made negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is compared with conventional dress in the integration of STSG and its cost is compared with widely used commercially available NPWT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a parallel group randomised control study. Block randomisation of 100 patients into one of the two groups (NPWT vs...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery: Official Publication of the Association of Plastic Surgeons of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615023/access-to-treatment-for-hepatitis-c-among-injection-drug-users-results-from-the-cross-sectional-hope-iv-study
#9
Kyriakos Souliotis, Eirini Agapidaki, Manto Papageorgiou, Niki Voudouri, Xenophon Contiades
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that Greece is among the European countries with increased trend in HCV prevalence among injecting drug users (IDUs) from 2008 to 2014. Nonetheless, the access of IDUs to treatment for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is very limited while the risk of co-infection and transmission remains high. In an effort to better understand the inhibitors to HCV treatment, the present study aimed to investigate the main barriers to access in a sample of IDUs. METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out between July and September 2015 using a 23-items questionnaire...
June 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611876/effectiveness-of-resident-physicians-as-triage-liaison-providers-in-an-academic-emergency-department
#10
Victoria Weston, Sushil K Jain, Michael Gottlieb, Amer Aldeen, Stephanie Gravenor, Michael J Schmidt, Sanjeev Malik
INTRODUCTION: Emergency department (ED) crowding is associated with detrimental effects on ED quality of care. Triage liaison providers (TLP) have been used to mitigate the effects of crowding. Prior studies have evaluated attending physicians and advanced practice providers as TLPs, with limited data evaluating resident physicians as TLPs. This study compares operational performance outcomes between resident and attending physicians as TLPs. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study compared aggregate operational performance at an urban, academic ED during pre- and post-TLP periods...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610646/operational-risk-assessment
#11
Vicky L McKim
In the world of risk management, which encompasses the business continuity disciplines, many types of risk require evaluation. Financial risk is most often the primary focus, followed by product and market risks. Another critical area, which typically lacks a thorough review or may be overlooked, is operational risk. This category encompasses many risk exposure types including those around building structures and systems, environmental issues, nature, neighbours, clients, regulatory compliance, network, data security and so on...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608151/quality-of-life-among-survivors-of-early-stage-cervical-cancer-in-taiwan-an-exploration-of-treatment-modality-differences
#12
Chia-Chun Li, Ting-Chang Chang, Yun-Fang Tsai, Lynn Chen
PURPOSE: Women with early-stage cervical cancer may experience changes in their quality of life (QoL) due to treatment or to the effects of the cancer. In this study, we examined differences in QoL by treatment modality between women who underwent surgery only and those treated with concurrent chemoradiation (CCRT). METHODS: The sample of 290 women had been diagnosed with stage I-II cervical cancer. Data were collected on these women's demographic and disease characteristics, general QoL, and cancer-specific QoL using an author-designed demographic-disease survey, the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QoL questionnaire, and the Taiwanese-version Cervical Cancer Module 24 questionnaire, respectively...
June 12, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606362/cost-of-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-at-individual-farm-level-an-economic-disease-model
#13
H Nathues, P Alarcon, J Rushton, R Jolie, K Fiebig, M Jimenez, V Geurts, C Nathues
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is reported to be among the diseases with the highest economic impact in modern pig production worldwide. Yet, the economic impact of the disease at farm level is not well understood as, especially in endemically infected pig herds, losses are often not obvious. It is therefore difficult for farmers and veterinarians to appraise whether control measures such as virus elimination or vaccination will be economically beneficial for their farm. Thus, aim of this study was to develop an epidemiological and economic model to determine the costs of PRRS for an individual pig farm...
July 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606203/importance-of-bovine-mastitis-in-africa
#14
Thabiso E Motaung, Kiro R Petrovski, Inge-Marie Petzer, Oriel Thekisoe, Toi J Tsilo
Bovine mastitis is an important animal production disease that affects the dairy industry globally. Studies have estimated the prevalence of this disease in approximately 30% of African countries, with the highest prevalence found in Ethiopia. This is despite the wide cattle distribution in Africa, and the largest number of dairy farms and herds in countries such as South Africa, Kenya and Uganda. Furthermore, the estimated financial losses due to direct and indirect impacts of bovine mastitis are lacking in this continent...
June 13, 2017: Animal Health Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606020/neonatal-hearing-screening-in-remote-areas-of-china-a-comparison-between-rural-and-urban-populations
#15
Wu Wenjin, Tang Xiangrong, Li Yun, Lü Jingrong, Chen Jianyong, Wang Xueling, Huang Zhiwu, Wu Hao
Objectives Universal neonatal hearing screening (UNHS) started late in some underdeveloped areas in China, with relatively scarce screening resources and a wide regional distribution. This study aimed to compare the screening performance between rural and urban populations, and to examine the characteristics and problems of UNHS in underdeveloped regions in China. Methods A two-step hearing screening program was used in neonates born in Liuzhou Maternal and Child Health Hospital and in patients who were born in other hospitals, but admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit...
January 1, 2017: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604355/costs-and-performance-of-english-mental-health-providers
#16
Valerie Moran, Rowena Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Despite limited resources in mental health care, there is little research exploring variations in cost performance across mental health care providers. In England, a prospective payment system for mental health care based on patient needs has been introduced with the potential to incentivise providers to control costs. The units of payment under the new system are 21 care clusters. Patients are allocated to a cluster by clinicians, and each cluster has a maximum review period...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Mental Health Policy and Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28603901/blunted-insula-activation-reflects-increased-risk-and-reward-seeking-as-an-interaction-of-testosterone-administration-and-the-maoa-polymorphism
#17
Lisa Wagels, Mikhail Votinov, Sina Radke, Benjamin Clemens, Christian Montag, Sonja Jung, Ute Habel
Testosterone, a male sex hormone, has been suggested to partly explain mixed findings in males and females when investigating behavioral tendencies associated with the MAOA polymorphism. Prior studies indicated that the MAOA polymorphism represents a vulnerability factor for financial risk-taking and harm avoidance and that testosterone increases human risk-taking. We therefore assumed an interactive influence of the MAOA polymorphism and testosterone application on decision making and corresponding neural correlates in a risk and reward context...
June 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602837/a-review-on-epidemiology-global-prevalence-and-economical-losses-of-fasciolosis-in-ruminants
#18
REVIEW
Khalid Mehmood, Hui Zhang, Ahmad Jawad Sabir, Rao Zahid Abbas, Muhammad Ijaz, Aneela Zameer Durrani, Muhammad Hassan Saleem, Mujeeb Ur Rehman, Muhammad Kashif Iqbal, Yajing Wang, Hafiz Ishfaq Ahmad, Tariq Abbas, Riaz Hussain, Muhammad Taslim Ghori, Sadaqat Ali, Aman Ullah Khan, Jiakui Li
Fasciolosis is an important plant borne trematode zoonosis in ruminants caused by the Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigentica, It is classified as a neglected tropical disease and found in more than 50 countries especially where sheep and cattle are reared. Fasciolosis is a serious animal health problems in many rural and urban areas of world, causing significant financial losses due to decrease in production and viscera condemnation in animals. Accurate diagnosis of fasciolosis is always remained a challenging task for the field practitioners...
June 7, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587237/risk-perceptions-on-hurricanes-evidence-from-the-u-s-stock-market
#19
José Manuel Feria-Domínguez, Pilar Paneque, María Gil-Hurtado
This article examines the market reaction of the main Property and Casualty (P & C) insurance companies listed in the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) to seven most recent hurricanes that hit the East Coast of the United States from 2005 to 2012. For this purpose, we run a standard short horizon event study in order to test the existence of abnormal returns around the landfalls. P & C companies are one of the most affected sectors by such events because of the huge losses to rebuild, help and compensate the inhabitants of the affected areas...
June 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586588/outcome-analysis-of-two-different-injection-solutions-for-epidural-injection-in-radicular-lumbar-backache-syndromes
#20
Muhammad Saqib, Sajid Nazir Bhatti, Muhammad Ayaz Khan, Khalid Samad, Muhammad Mukhtar Khan, Ehtisham Mukhtar Khan Afridi, Rubaiqa Khan, Muhammad Imran Khan
OBJECTIVE: Backache is a significant source of disability and suffering in our society. The treatment modalities need continued enhancement in order to achieve the desired goals of lowering morbidity and financial losses while improving the response of the patient. METHODS: This prospective comparative study was conducted at the department of Orthopaedics and Spine Surgery, Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar from July 2013 to June 2015. Two interventional groups were designated; Group 1 was comprised of 54 patients who were injected with epidural bupivacaine plus methylprednisolone while Group 2 included 55 patients who were injected with bupivacaine only...
October 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
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